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Soon after this Dr. Waring went to reside at Shrewsbury, moving after a few
years to his own estate at Plealey, where he died on August I5th, 1798. He was
buried at Fitz, where there is a monument to his memory. Professor Waring was
a benefactor to the school library in 1760. (See Blakcway MSS. and COLLINS'S
History of the Public Schools.}



LEONARD HOTCHKIS 235

Sir Watkin Lewes, 1 who was born about 1736, was also at
Shrewsbury in Hotchkis's time. He became an alderman of
London and M.P. for the City, and at one time made rather
a noise in the world. But ultimately he fell into want and
died within the Rules of the Fleet.

Charles Newling and James Atcherley, who followed
Hotchkis as Head Masters of Shrewsbury, were both at
school under him, and so also were Rowland Wingfield,
Esq., 2 of Onslow Park and Preston Brockhurst, and Thomas
Powys, Esq., 3 of Great Berwick, both of whom filled the
office of High Sheriff of Shropshire.

Among the pupils of Hotchkis who obtained some
academical distinction were the Rev. Edward Edwards, 4
D.D., fellow of Jesus College, Oxford ; the Rev. Borlase
Wingfield, M.A., 5 fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge;
the Rev. John Wingfield, M.A., 6 fellow of All Souls' College,
Oxford ; the Rev. Jonathan Downes, M.A., 7 fellow of St.

1 Blakeway MSS.

2 Rowland Wingfield was son of Borlase Wingfield, Esq.. of Preston Brock-
hurst. He entered Shrewsbury in 1737 in the second school. On October i6th,
1746, he matriculated at Oriel College, Oxford, aged eighteen. He married
Margaret, daughter of Sir William Bagot, of Blithefield, Staffordshire, and
usually resided at the Council House in Shrewsbury. Sheriff of Shropshire 1753.
Died 1818. Benefactor to school library in 1761. (See BLAKEWAY'S Sheriffs.}

3 Thomas Powys > eldest son of Thomas Powys, Esq., of Great Berwick, was
placed in the second school in 1742. Benefactor to school library in 1760. Sheriff
of Shropshire in 1762.

4 Edward Edwards^ son of Lewis Edwards, Esq., of Talgarth, Merionethshire.
Placed in second school, 1738 ; matriculated at Jesus College, Oxford, May 9th,
I743> a ged seventeen; B.A., 1747; M.A., 1749; B.D., 1756; M.A., 1760;
fellow of his college. Benefactor to school library in 1757.

5 Borlase Wingfield, son of Borlase Wingfield, Esq., of Preston Brockhurst.
Placed in second school, 1737; B.A., 1752; M.A., 1755; Rector of Lopham,
Norfolk. Benefactor to school library in 1761.

6 John Tombes Wingfield^ son of John Wingfield, Esq. , M. D. , of Shrewsbury.
Placed in third school, 1734 ; matriculated at Trinity College, Oxford, March
19th, 1746, aged nineteen; B.A., 1749; M.A. (All Souls'), 1753; Vicar of St.
Julian's, Shrewsbury, 1756-1791.

''Jonathan Downes. Placed in first school in 1741 ; graduated at St. John's
College, Cambridge, B.A. in 1753, M.A. in 1756; Platt fellow, 1755.
Described in college register as " of America." His father had probably emigrated
from Shropshire. Benefactor to school library in 1759. Described in library
register as Rev. Mr. Downes, M.A., fellow of St. John's.



236 SHREWSBURY SCHOOL

John's College, Cambridge ; and the Rev. Edward Blake-
way, M.A., 1 fellow of Magdalene College, Cambridge.

One other boy who was at school in Hotchkis's time may be
mentioned, though he left a doubtful reputation behind him.
This is Richard Parrott, the son of a Shrewsbury distiller,
who was entered in the third school in 1738, and graduated
at Queen's College, Cambridge, in 1/43. He has been de-
scribed as a swindler, a strolling player, and a profligate
polygamist. But he managed to ingratiate himself with
Edward Augustus, Duke of York, and by his influence was
made a baronet on January 3rd, 1767, with patent of pre-
cedency dating from July 1st, I7i6. 2

1 Edward Blakcway, eldest son of Mr. Peter Blakeway, of Shrewsbury, sur-
geon, by Dorothy, daughter of Mr. Joshua Johnson, who was fourth master at
Shrewsbury School, 1706-1713. Born February 5th, 173*, and educated at
Shrewsbury and Magdalene College, Cambridge; B.A. (Wrangler) in 1756;
M.A., 1759; curate of St. Mary's, Shrewsbury, 1763-1794; Rector of Long
Staunton, Cambridge, 1764-1779. In 1777 he was presented to the Rectory of
Fitton, Gloucestershire, by his brother-in-law, Matthew Brickdale, Esq. ; and in
1786 Lord Chancellor Thurlow gave him the Vicarage of Neen Savage, Salop.
On September 3rd, 1764, he married Mary, daughter of John Brickdale, Esq., of
Knowle, Somersetshire. Died February I7th, 1795. Benefactor to school library
in 1760. (NlCHOL's Literary Illustrations; OWEN and BLAKEWAY.)

3 See Blakeway MSS.




6 1

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O H

2 S



CHAPTER XII.

Charles Newling, M.A., Head Master, 1754-1770.

THE gentleman selected by St. John's College to succeed
Leonard Hotchkis as Head Master was the Rev. Charles
Newling, M.A., eldest son of the Rev. Adam Newling, M.A.,
Vicar of Preston Montford, and Rector of the two
parishes of Shrawardine and Fitz. Charles Newling was
born at Preston Montford in 1728, and was admitted at
Shrewsbury School in 1739, being placed in the second
school. From Shrewsbury he went to St. John's, Cambridge,
where he graduated B.A. in 1747 and M.A. in 1751. On
March i6th, 1752, he was elected fellow of his college, and on
July 6th, 1754, he was nominated to the head-mastership of
Shrewsbury. The second master, Mr. Parry, had resigned
about the same time as Hotchkis. 1

Early in June, 1754, Hotchkis intimated to the Mayor 2 his
intention of resigning, and the Mayor seems to have written
to the master of St. John's at once on the subject. In the
answer, which the master wrote on June 2ist, 1754, he thanks
the Mayor for his courtesy, and expresses a hope that he may
see his way to promote the third master, the Rev. John
Brooke, to the room about to be vacated. 3 The promotion
was probably made before Hotchkis resigned on July 2nd,
and on July 25th the college nominated the accidence master,
the Rev. Alexander Hatton, M.A., to the mastership of the
third school.

1 Mr, Humphrey Parry succeeded his father as Vicar of Guilsfield, Mont-
gomeryshire.

2 Richard Jones, Esq., was Mayor at the time.

3 The letter written by the master and the college nomination of Mr. Newling
are both among the town records.

237



238 SHREWSBURY SCHOOL

Mr. Newling, though nominated in July, does not appear
to have been able to take up his residence at Shrewsbury at
once, for he was not formally admitted by the Mayor till
October 3rd. One of his first acts as Head Master must have
been to appoint, in conjunction with the Mayor, Mr. Samuel
Johnson, who had previously had a private school of his own
in the town, to be fourth master.

Blakeway says that Mr. Newling brought Shrewsbury
School to "a high state of reputation," and that during his
head-mastership he had as a rule " more than sixty boarders
in his house, many of whom were (at the time Blakeway
was writing) among the most respectable characters in the
neighbourhood, and highly venerated their worthy preceptor."
He also describes the Head Master as " a perfect gentleman
in manner and very handsome in countenance."

Dr. Adams, the master of Pembroke College, Oxford,
thought very highly of Mr. Newling, and before he was chosen
by the college or Mr. Hotchkis resigned he had already
expressed his conviction to Dr. John Taylor that he was
" the likeliest, if not the only person, to retrieve the credit of
the school." 1

In 1764 Mr. Newling accepted the rectory of the second
portion of Pontesbury, which he held in commendam for Mr.
Edward Leigh ton till 1769. In August of the following year
he was preset ted by Archbishop Cornwallis 2 to the Rectory
of St. Philip's, Birmingham, with a prebendal stall at Lichfield
and the treasurership of the Cathedral.

Soon after he had received this preferment Mr. Newling
resigned the head-mastership of Shrewsbury. 3 In 1772 he

1 The date of the letter from which these extracts are taken is June I9th, 1754.
They do not occur among the transcripts from the Blakeway MSS. made by the
author many years ago, and he is indebted for them to ADNITT and NAUNTON'S
History of Shrewsbury School.

2 The Hon. F. Cornwallis had been Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry before
he became Primate in 1768, and had promised Mr. Thomas Townshend, after-
wards Lord Sidney, to offer some preferment to Mr. Newling, who had acted as
tutor to him and his brother Henry at Cambridge. No opportunity seems to have
occurred till 1770, when the Rectory of St. Philip's fell vacant. Some arrangement
seems to have been made between the Archbishop and his successor at Lichfield
as to that living, which, properly speaking, was in the gift of the latter.

3 The date of Mr, Newling's resignation was December 25th, 1770.



CHARLES NEWLING 239

was made Rector of Westbury in dextrd parte, and between
Birmingham and Westbury he passed the remainder of his
life. He died at Westbury on March i/th, 1787, in the
sixtieth year of his age, and was buried at Shrawardine,
where there is a monument to his memory. 1

Unfortunately there are but few boys educated at
Shrewsbury in Newling's time whose names can now be
traced.

Thomas Jones, fellow and tutor of Trinity College,
Cambridge, Senior Wrangler in 1778, is the most distin-
guished among these. He was born at Berriew, in Mont-
gomeryshire, on June 23rd, 1756, and was educated in
schools at Berriew and Kerry till he was eleven years old,
when he was removed to Shrewsbury. There he remained
for seven years. On May 28th, 1774, he was admitted at
St. John's College, Cambridge; but, after he had been two
years at Cambridge, he migrated to Trinity on June 27th,
1776. During his undergraduate career he had acquired
so great a reputation that no one ventured to contend with
him for the Senior Wrangler's place. Herbert Marsh, after-
wards Bishop of Peterborough, the second Wrangler of the
same year, had practically been his pupil while both were
still undergraduates. Marsh and Jones retained through
life an intimate friendship. Jones was elected fellow of
Trinity on October 1st, 1781, and appointed tutor in
October, 1782. He died in London on July i8th, 1807,
and was buried in Dulwich College. A tablet with bust
was erected to his memory in the ante-chapel of Trinity
College. Bishop Marsh wrote his Memoirs, which were
published in 1808. Mr. Jones was held in high repute at
Cambridge as a lecturer, and filled the office of moderator,
1786-87. He appears to have published nothing but a
sermon on duelling, and an address to the Volunteers of
Montgomeryshire. 2

Another notable personage in the latter part of the eigh-

1 See Blakeway MSS.

2 See WILLIAMS'S Dictionary of Eminent Welshmen and the Diet, of Nat.
Biog.



2 4 o SHREWSBURY SCHOOL

teenth century, the Rev. Rowland Hill, 1 known as "The
Preacher," was also at Shrewsbury in Newling's time, though
he was removed to Eton College before entering at St. John's
College, Cambridge, in 1764. Rowland Hill graduated B.A.
in 1769 and M.A. in 1772. While resident at Cambridge
he was in the habit of visiting the sick and prisoners. He
also took to street preaching, and was often interrupted and
molested by mobs. After taking his degree Rowland Hill
sought holy orders ; but his reputation for irregular preaching
created a prejudice against him, and it was not till after
he had been rejected by six bishops that Dr. Wills, the
Bishop of Bath and Wells, ordained him in 1777. A similar
difficulty met him a year or two later when he was refused
priest's orders by the Bishop of Carlisle at the instigation
of the Archbishop of York. After this second repulse
Rowland Hill became a nonconformist, and a chapel was
built for him at Wootton, Gloucestershire, where he never
failed to officiate sometime during the year for the rest
of his life. Surrey Chapel, in London, which was built
for him in 1783, became from that time the chief scene
of his labours. He died on April nth, 1833. A few of
his sermons and hymns and a tract written by him on
vaccination have been published. 2

Thomas Johnes, F.R.S., M.P., the translator of Froissart, was
also a pupil of Newling's ; but, like Rowland Hill, he re-
moved to Eton before going to college. He was born at
Ludlow in 1748, but belonged to an old Carmarthenshire
and Cardiganshire family. His father, Thomas Johnes, Esq.,
was seated at Llanvairclydogan, and was elected M.P. for
Radnorshire in 1777. His mother, Elizabeth, was daughter
of Richard Knight, Esq., of Croft Castle, Herefordshire.
Thomas Johnes, the younger, became Lord Lieutenant of
Cardiganshire, Colonel of the County Militia, and Auditor

1 Rowland Hill, sixth son of Sir Rowland Hill, Bart. , was born at Hawkestone
Park, Salop, on August 23rd, 1744. He seems to have been from his boyhood
much under the influence of his eldest brother, Richard, a somewhat prominent
politician who represented Shropshire in the House of Commons, and who was a
strenuous champion of George Whitfield and the Calvinistic Methodists.

* See Diet, of Nat. Biog.



CHARLES NEWLING 241

for life of the Land Revenue. He took much interest in
agriculture, and was a great planter of trees on the moun-
tains and waste lands of his estate of Hafod, in Cardigan-
shire. His library, which was of great value, especially
after he had acquired by purchase the Pesaro collection,
was destroyed by fire on March 1 3th, 1807. He died at
Dawlish on April 23rd, 1816, aged sixty-seven, and was
buried at Hafod in a church which he had built in 1803
from a design by Wyatt. 1

Before Newling resigned on December 25th, 1770, two or
three further changes had taken place in the staff of masters
in addition to those already mentioned. On August loth,
1755, Mr. Hatton, the third master, died. Some delay
occurred before the master and seniors of St. John's College
chose the Rev. James Atcherley, B.A., of Magdalene College,
Cambridge, to succeed him. The date of Mr. Atcherley's
nomination was November 3rd, and he was formally admitted
to his mastership on November 25th. Sometime in 1758
Mr. Samuel Johnson, who had been accidence master for
four years, resigned, and was succeeded by his son, who
was also named Samuel. Hotchkis says that the latter went
out of his mind in May, 1768 ; but it is probable that his
mental affection was not of long duration, as his name never
disappears from the school accounts, and he was admitted
to the third-mastership on April 8th, 1771. From the year
1768-69 he is described in the school account-book as a
clergyman. He appears to have graduated B.A. at St. John's
College, Cambridge, in 1771, and to have taken his M.A.
degree in 1774. It is not easy to see how he managed to
reside at Cambridge for the requisite terms. He may
possibly have done so before taking his father's place as
accidence master, leaving his B.A. degree till 1771, when

1 Thomas Johncs, jun. , was M.P. for Cardigan Borough in 1774, for Radnor-
shire from 1780 to 1790, and for Cardiganshire from 1796 to 1812. He is
described in the Parliamentary Lists as of Stannage, in Radnorshire, and of
Croft Castle, in Herefordshire. He was twice married ; first to Maria Burgh,
of Monmouthshire, and second to his cousin Jane, daughter of John Johnes, Esq. ,
of Dolaucothy. His only daughter died in his lifetime unmarried. (See WILLIAMS'S
Dictionary of Eminent Welshmen and the Diet, of Nat. Biog. )
R



242 SHREWSBURY SCHOOL

he was obliged to take it in order to make himself eligible
for nomination by the college as third master. But this
nomination was not made till after Mr. Newling's resignation.
On November 29th, 1763, the Rev. John Brooke, M.A., who
had been second master for nine years, and at work in the
school for twenty-three, died. The vacancy thus caused was
filled by the promotion of Mr. Atcherley, and on December
8th the college nominated the Rev. Thomas Humphreys, B.A.,
one of its own graduates, as third master.

Shortly before Mr. Newling's resignation Dr. John Taylor,
the great Greek scholar, had died. 1 He left his large and
valuable library to Shrewsbury School, with the exception
of his manuscripts and such of his printed books as con-
tained his marginal annotations, which he reserved for his
friend, Dr. Askew. This noble gift, added to the accumu-
lations of 170 years, partly obtained by purchase, but chiefly
by the benefactions of former scholars and other friends
of the school, made the school library practically what it
was in 1819 when Dr. Samuel Parr, in speaking of it, said
that with the exception of Eton College library he had seen
in no public school its equal. 2 And before we enter on the
twenty-eight years of Mr. Atcherley's head-mastership,
during which Shrewsbury School sank into a condition of
almost hopeless decay, book-lovers may be glad to have a
short account of some of the many valuable and interesting
treasures which are still preserved in Shrewsbury School
library, and which are receiving, it is pleasant to add, at
the present time, much care and attention from the Governing
Body.

1 Dr. Taylor died on April 4th, 1766.

2 See NICHOLS'S Memoir of Dr. Taylor and Dr. Long, with their music
speeches at Cambridge in 1714 and 1730. A copy of the book, which was
published in 1819, was presented to the school library on January 7th, 1820,
by Mr. J. Nichols, with an inscription recording his respect for the memory
of Dr. Taylor and his veneration for the literary talents of Dr. Samuel Parr and
Dr. Samuel Butler.



CHAPTER XIII.

The School Library.

T^vIRECTIONS were given in Ashton's school ordinances
jL-J that after sufficient lodgings had been provided for the
schoolmasters a library and gallery should be built and
" furnished with all manner of books, mappes, spheres,
instruments of astronomye and all other things apperteyninge
to learninge." As early as September 4th, 1587, we find the
Bailiffs asking permission from the master and seniors of
St. John's College to take money from the school-chest for
this purpose ; but, though permission was immediately given,
these buildings do not seem to have been taken in hand
till the year I594-95, 1 and they certainly were not completed
before the latter part of 1596.2 No mention is made of the
library being put to any use before 1612. On June 24th of
that year the Bailiffs informed the college that all the
buildings to be erected before the country school-house was
taken in hand were finished, and asked permission to expend
;ioo in furnishing the library with books. We read also in
the school register that on October 1st, 1612, the Bailiffs and
schoolmasters had wine and cakes in the library. The
college authorities appear to have objected to money being
spent upon books unless the Bailiffs would be explicit as to
their intention of founding exhibitions at St. John's for
Shrewsbury scholars, and it was not till May, 1616, that
they gave their consent to the proposed expenditure. 3 The

1 See school account-book.

* The cost of the building is given in the account-book in Meighen's hand-
writing, and it appears from his note that the library was finished by the end
of 1596.

8 See school account-book.

243



244 SHREWSBURY SCHOOL

selection of the books was entrusted to Meighen, and it is
recorded in the school accounts that he expended in this way
during the year 1616-17 the sum of jg i6s. ^\d. But by
this time many books and other presents had already been
given for the furnishing of the library by old Shrewsbury
boys and other friends of the school, and the names of the
donors are faithfully recorded in the register of benefactors
to the school library, which was commenced by Meighen and
continued by subsequent masters. 1 The first of these gifts,
of which any mention is made, was " Mullinax his terrestriall
globe in a frame with a standing base covered with greenish
buckrome." The globe was presented in 1596 by the Rev.
Thomas Laughton, B.D., curate of St. Mary's Church and
Public Preacher in the town of Shrewsbury. At the present
time the library contains nearly 6000 volumes, and among
them are to be found many rare books which are for the
most part in their original bindings, and, but for the effects
of time, in much the same condition as when given to the
school. The manuscript volumes are forty-three in number,
theological treatises and portions of the vulgate forming a
considerable portion of their contents. To the historian of
Shrewsbury School the two volumes 2 containing the names
of scholars admitted from 1562 to 1635 and from 1636 to
1663, which have happily been preserved, are naturally of
primary importance.

Many interesting details again of Shrewsbury school life
are to be found in a folio volume of 460 closely written
pages, commonly known as the Taylor MS. This manuscript
contains a chronicle of events in England and elsewhere
between 1372 and 1603, an d was evidently written by some-
one residing either in Shrewsbury or in the immediate
neighbourhood who was thoroughly conversant with local

1 Three catalogues or registers of these gifts are preserved in the library. There
is also a list of the names of benefactors from 1596 to 1654, with the titles of the
books given by them and an alphabetical index of the donors' names, among the
town records.

2 The first of these two volumes, containing the admissions from 1562 to 1635,
has been published by Dr. Calvert under the title Shrewsbury School Regestum
Scholarium.



THE SCHOOL LIBRARY 245

matters. It is stated in Owen and Blakeway's History of
Shrewsbury that this chronicle was given to Dr. John Taylor
by Richard Lyster, Esq., M.P., of Rowton Castle, Shropshire,
who was commonly known in the county as " Senator
Lyster," and it has been consequently surmised that its
compilation was the work of some member or members of
the Lyster family. Internal evidence shows that in 1580 the
author had got no further with his chronicle than the year
1464^ and that it took him two years more to carry it on up
to IS46. 2 But, after July 7th, IS84, 3 the events recorded
were evidently written down year by year. The first edition
of Holinshed's Chronicle was published in 1577, and it is easy
for anyone who will take the trouble to make the necessary
comparison to see that the compiler of the Taylor MS. was

1 Under the year 1464 we read in the Taylor MS., "This yeare was a lycens
grauntyd for serte^ cotsall sheepe to passe into Spayne that it is well knowe^
in these days to say 1580"

3 Under the year 1546 we find :

" In this yeare one forley potmacker for the mynt in the toure of London fell
a sleepe uppon a wensday and slept xiiii dayes and xiiii nyghtes togeather and
never awackyd nor could not be awackyd w th pynchinge, crampinge, or other
meanes vntyll the full xiiii dayes & nyghtes were expyryd and when he awackyd
he had thought he had sleapte but one nyght and hys body was in no other
temper then yf he had slept no more .... w c he p r tie ys yeat lyvinge to thys
presennt yeare 1582." Taylor MS.

3 The events recorded in the chronicle up to July 7th, 1584, are comprised in
the first 152 folios, and references to each of them are given in a table of contents
at the beginning of the volume. But references to all events subsequently
recorded are written in different ink, and are for the most part squeezed in with
difficulty. It is evident that the compiler, having completed his work down
to July, 1584, made a table of contents up to that date. From 1584 to 1603 the
chronicle has all the authority due to a contemporary writer, recording the events
narrated at the time they happened, and entering references to these events in
the blank spaces of his old table of contents in the best way he could. After
1580 passages are continually occurring which point clearly to a contemporary
writer.

Under the year 1581 we find mention of an arrangement made in Shrewsbury
for morning service in the churches of St. Chad, St. Julian, and St. Mary, at the
hours of 8 a.m., 9 a.m., and 10 a.m., respectively, which the writer describes as
" a good and godly beginning the Lord be praysyd for it."

Under 1385 we read : " This yeare the Earle of Oxford wennt ou9 to Slanders
w l h a goodly company and by the way lost most p r t of his tresure and hath
valiantly made a vowe that he will neu^ com horn agayne before he have his
purpose, god be hys force and forman, and sennd hym good success Amen."
Similar examples might be multiplied indefinitely.



246 SHREWSBURY SCHOOL

mainly indebted to Holinshed for the contents of his
chronicle down to the year 1577, the events recorded by both
chroniclers being for the most part arranged in the same
order and expressed in the same words. For local history



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