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Grammar School, 1833-1866. Died 1873.

5 7^homas Rowley, son of the Rev. Richard Rowley, Rector of Middleton
Scriven, near Bridgnorth. Born 1797. At Shrewsbury, 1810-1815; Careswell
Exhibitioner at Christ Church, Oxford; B.A., 1819; M.A., 1822; B.D. and
D.D., 1839; Head Master of Bridgnorth Grammar School, 1821-1851. During
much of this time he was Rector of Middleton Scriven, where he succeeded his
father. Rector of Willey, near Broseley, 1851. Died in church on Sunday,
November i8th, 1877, at Willey.

6 Richard William Gleadowe, son of the Rev. Thomas Gleadowe, Rector of
Frodesley, Salop. Born 1812. At Shrewsbury School, 1827-1830; scholar of
Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge ; B.A., 1834 ; M.A., 1837 ; Head Master
of Chester Grammar School; Vicar of Neston, Cheshire, 1853-1892; Hon. Canon
of Chester, 1881. Died at Stevenage, April 3rd, 1897, aged eighty-five. (Salopian.)



SAMUEL BUTLER 287

Head Master of Chester ; William Fletcher, 1 Head Master
of Derby, and afterwards of Queen Elizabeth's School,
Wimborne ; and G. F. Harris, 2 second master of Harrow
from 1836 to 1868, were all pupils of Dr. Butler.

Among the Shrewsbury men of Butler's time who did not
go to Oxford or Cambridge the most prominent are General
Sir Thomas Noel Hill, K.C.B., who fought in the Peninsular
War, and was Assistant Adjutant - General during the
Waterloo Campaign ; General Sir Daniel Lysons, 3 G. C. B.,
Constable of the Tower ; General Sir Robert Phayre, 4

1 William Fletcher, second son of William Fletcher, Esq., of Handsworth,
Birmingham. Born 1810. At Shrewsbury School, 1826-1829; matriculated at
Trinity College, Oxford, in July, 1829; B.A. (ist class lit. hum.), 1833 ; fellow
of Brasenose, 1833-1835 ; M.A., 1836; B.D., 1845; D.D., 1847 ; Head Master
of Derby Grammar School, 1834-1843 ; Head Master of Southwell Grammar
School, 1843-1859; Head Master of Queen Elizabeth's Grammar School, Wim-
borne, 1859-1872 ; Rector of Minterne Magna, 1872-1876 ; Vicar of Ulceby,
Lincolnshire, 1876.

2 George Frederick Harris, son of George Harris, Esq., of Liverpool. Born
1813. At Shrewsbury, 1827-1831; head boy, August, 1830; third Classic,
1835; fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge; second master of Harrow, 1836-
1868 ; J.P. for Middlesex. Died May 9th, 1869.

3 Sir Daniel Lysons, son of the Rev. Daniel Lysons. Born at Rodmarton,
Gloucestershire, on August ist, 1816. At Shrewsbury School, 1829-1832. He
did not appreciate his classical studies while at school, but was more successful
with mathematics and geography. He was known as a skilful swimmer and
diver, and on two occasions his courage and presence of mind enabled him to
save a school-fellow's life. One of his contemporaries remembers young Lysons
showing some military proclivities in his partiality for drilling small boys. After
leaving Shrewsbury Lysons spent some time in France for linguistic purposes. In
1834 he was gazetted to an ensigncy in the ist Royals ; served during the Cana-
dian Rebellion, 1838-1839, and was mentioned in despatches. From 1838 to
1841 he was D.A.Q.M.G. Took part in the Crimean War, and from October,
1855, commanded the 2nd Brigade of the Light Division (medal with three clasps
and Legion of Honour). Several times mentioned in despatches. C.B. in 1856 ;
D.Q.M.G. in Canada, 1862-1867 ; Q.M.G. to forces, 1874-1880; K.C.B., 1877 ;
Colonel of the Sherwood Foresters (Derbyshire Regiment), 1878; General, 1879;
in command of the Aldershot Division, 1880-1883; G.C.B , 1886; Constable of
the Tower, 1890. Author of The Crimean War from First to Last, and Early
Reminiscences. Died January 29th, 1898.

4 Sir Robert Phayre, son of Robert Phayre, Esq., of Shrewsbury. Born 1820.
At Shrewsbury School, 1829-1830 Passed most of his life in civil and military
employment in India. In 1874 he became Political Resident in Baroda, and in
that capacity he brought charges of maladministration against the Gaekwar,
Mulhar Rao. A Commission of Inquiry found the charges proved, and the
Gaekwar was ordered to introduce certain reforms within the term of seventeen



288 SHREWSBURY SCHOOL

K.C.B. ; General Sir Arthur Phayre, 1 G.C.M.G , K.C.S.I., C.B. ;
Sir Cecil Beadon, 2 K. C.S.I., Lieut-Governor of Bengal;
Sir William Yardley, 3 Chief Justice of Bombay ; Sir Charles
Sladen, 4 K.C.M.G., member of the Legislative Council of
Victoria ; T. M. Weguelin, Esq., 5 Governor of the Bank of
England from 1855 to l %59> M.P. for Southampton from
1857 to 1859, and M.P. for Wolverhampton from 1861 to
1880; and Charles Liddell, 6 civil engineer and railway
surveyor, who did useful work for the country in the
Crimea and elsewhere.

months. Before that time had expired an attempt was made to poison the
Resident, in which the Gaekwar was supposed to be implicated. He was tried by
a Judicial Commission of which three members were Europeans and three were
natives. The court was equally divided ; but the Gaekwar was deposed by the
Government on the ground of previous abuses. Sir Robert Phayre died in
February, 1897.

1 Sir Arthur Phayre was an elder brother of Sir Robert. Born May 7th, 1812.
At Shrewsbury School, 1823-1826. Obtained a cadetship in the Bengal Army in
1828 and saw some military service ; but most of his life in India was spent in
civil employment, especially in connection with Burma. Appointed Commissioner
of Burma in 1862 ; resigned, 1867 ; Major-General, 1870; Lieut. -General, 1877 ;
Governor of Mauritius, 1874- 1878. Published a history of Burma in 1883. Died
at Bray, 1885. (Diet, of Nat. Biog.)

2 Sir Cecil Beadon^ son of Richard Beadon, Esq., Chancellor of the Diocese of
Bath and Wells. Born 1817. Admitted at Shrewsbury School August ist, 1826,
but after about sixteen months was removed to Eton. In 1835 his uncle, Lord
Heytesbury, who had been nominated Governor-General of India, gave him an
appointment in the E.I.C.S. In 1843 ne was made Under-Secretary to the
Bengal Government, and subsequently he held in succession other important posts
in the same presidency. He was made Lieut. -Governor on the recommendation
of Lord Canning. Retired in 1866, and died July i8th, 1880. (Diet, of Nat. Biog.)

3 Sir William Yardley, son of Mr. Edward Yardley, of Plealey, near Shrews-
bury. Born 1810. At Shrewsbury School, 1818-1824; called to the Bar, 1827 ;
Puisne Judge of Bombay, 1847-1852; Chief Justice of Bombay, 1852-1857.
After his return to England Sir William Yardley was a J.P. for Bucks and D.L.
for Pembrokeshire.

4 Sir Charles Sladen, son of J. B. Sladen, Esq., of Ripplecourt, Kent. Born

1816. At Shrewsbury School, 1831-1834 ; LL.B. of Trinity Hall, Cambridge,
1840 ; LL.D., 1868. Settled in Victoria, New South Wales, and became a
member of the Legislative Council there.

5 Thomas Matthias Weguelin, son of Colonel Weguelin, of London. Born

1817. At Shrewsbury School, 1829-1830. Went into business in London, and
became a partner in the firm of Thomson, Bonar Co. One of her Majesty's
Lieutenants for the City of London. Died April 5th, 1885.

6 Charles Liddell, son of the Rev. Henry G. Liddell, of Gateshead, Durham.
Born 1813. At Shrewsbury School, 1828-1830. Was a pupil of George
Stephenson.



SAMUEL BUTLER 289

A few more landmarks still remain to be noticed in
Butler's field of work at Shrewsbury. In 1825 a committee
was formed, of which Dr. Butler acted as chairman, for
improving the entrance into the town by Castle Gates, and
mainly by his exertions the thoroughfare through School
Lane, immediately in front of the school buildings, was now
permanently stopped. The fact that Dr. Butler had by this
time acquired by purchase all the houses in the lane made
it possible for this and other improvements to be carried out.
It is easy to appreciate the manifold inconveniences which
must have arisen from the constant passage of the towns-
people through School Gardens. 1

Dr. Butler had long wished to get rid of this troublesome
thoroughfare. But the trustees had hitherto declared them-
selves unable to give any pecuniary assistance from school
funds towards effecting this object. A lawsuit between the
trustees and the tithepayers of Albrighton was mainly
responsible for this impoverished condition. The suit,
originally commenced in the reign of James I. and revived
in 1779, had been going on ever since, except for the ten
years from 1796 to 1806, during which time the Albrighton
estate had escheated to the Crown; and between 1806 and
1823 the trustees had paid over .3000 in legal expenses.
The result was that in January, 1823, they not only refused

1 An amusing story, which came originally from the Rev. W. G. Rowland,
curate of St. Mary's Church, Shrewsbury, and School Bailiff, illustrates one of
the disadvantages arising from the right of way through School Lane. It is
related in the Life and Letters of Dr. Butler ; vol. i. p. 279. A Shrewsbury
exciseman, who was very neat and trim in his attire, but had a bottle nose of
unusual size, complained to Dr. Butler that the boys used to call after him
"Nosey" as he went down School Lane. Strict injunctions were, of course,
given by the Head Master that this should not occur again. Nor did it ; but
when the exciseman again appeared the boys ranged themselves in two lines,
through which he must pass, each fixing his eyes intently on the man's nose.
Again the exciseman complained, and again Dr. Butler summoned the head boy.
This time he spoke more sharply. ' ' You have no business to annoy a man who
is passing through the school on his lawful occasions ; don't look at him." Once
more the exciseman returned to Dr. Butler with the angry complaint that now,
whenever he passed, the boys covered their eyes with their hands until he had
gone by. " What would you have me say to these fellows ? " said Dr. Butler.
*'Can you not see that they will obey, and yet evade, every order that I give
them? You had better keep out of their way."
U



2 9 o SHREWSBURY SCHOOL

to make any grant for the purpose of doing away with the
thoroughfare, but passed a resolution to reduce the salaries
of the masters by 50 per cent. Up to this time Dr. Butler
seems to have known little or nothing about the lawsuit.
But, as soon as he learned how serious the matter had
become, with his customary vigour he set to work to make
himself master of all its details. His labours resulted in an
able report, for which he received the warm thanks of the
trustees on April ipth, 1824. They asked at the same time
for his assistance in drawing up a memorial to the Court of
Exchequer, praying for judgment in the case. The memorial
was presented through the Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry,
the Visitor of the school, and the case came on for hearing
in June, 1824. Judgment was ultimately given in favour of
the trustees on November 22nd, 1825, by the Lord Chief
Baron, Sir William Alexander. The defendants appealed,
but on December I5th, 1825, the Lord Chief Baron, after a
three hours' argument, confirmed the previous decision of
the Court. 1 The settlement of the Albrighton case and the
closing of the thoroughfare through School Lane were two
benefits to Shrewsbury School on which, at the close of his
career, Dr. Butler justly prided himself.

The year 1829 is notable in the history of the school as
the year of " The Beef Row," 2 the second outbreak of in-
subordination with which Dr. Butler had to deal while he
was Head Master. From time immemorial schoolboys have
been accustomed to grumble about their food, and Shrews-
bury boys were no exception to the rule. On this occasion
their protests were directed against the boiled beef which,
one day in the week, was the piece de resistance at dinner.
The chief cause of offence was its redness, which was probably
due to the saltpetre with which the beef was cured. Having
tried remonstrance in vain, the boys in each of Dr. Butler's
halls, on a day fixed by concerted arrangement, quietly got
up from table and left the room as soon as the boiled beef

1 See Butlers Life and Letters, vol. i. pp. 245, 246, 263, 264, 292.
8 See COLLINS'S Public Schools; Butlers Life and Letters, vol. i. p. 353 ; and
Add. MSS. Brit. Mus., 34,587.



SAMUEL BUTLER 291

made its appearance. The offence does not seem one of a
very serious character. But Dr. Butler was very angry ; he
regarded the conduct of the praepostors, who took the lead
in the matter, as showing ingratitude towards him, as well
as an attempt on their part at dictation. Consequently,
after locking up that evening, he demanded a public apology
from the praepostors under penalty of immediate dismissal.
Among their number were James Hildyard, who was head
boy at the time, Robert Scott, Thomas Brancker, Edward
Warter, and W. H. Bateson.

The apology was refused, and all the praepostors were
sent home next morning. The result was a general revolt,
the rest of the boys refusing to go into school. But they
gave in after a time on the persuasion of a popular resident
in the town, who was himself an old Salopian. The praepos-
tors, with one exception, 1 returned to school a few days later,
home influence having been exerted to extract from them a
sufficient profession of penitence to satisfy the Head Master's
requirements.

In 1831 the Rectory of Langar in Nottinghamshire was
offered to Dr. Butler by the Lord Chancellor, through Lord
Palmerston, and accepted by him. But the validity of the
presentation depended on the results of a suit for simony,
which was not decided till 1834. A few months previously
Dr. Butler had obtained the Lord Chancellor's consent to the
transfer of the presentation to his son, the Rev. Thomas
Butler, who eventually became Rector of Langar in 1 834. 2

In the year 1832 Shrewsbury School had the honour of
a visit from the Duchess of Kent and the Princess Victoria.
It is probable that the idea of this visit came originally from

1 This boy did not, like the other prsepostors, send a proper apology by the
earliest post. Dr. Butler also regarded him as principally concerned in setting
the others against provisions of which, as he expressed it, he and his family
partook six days out of seven, and accused him of using "horrible execrations"
in speaking of these provisions. For once Dr. Butler seems to have lost both
his temper and his sense of justice. The boy in question had been on a visit,
and, returning only just in time for dinner, knew nothing of the plans which had
been made until he entered the hall. (Add. MSS. Brit. Mus., 34,587.)

3 See Ibid., 34,588.



292 SHREWSBURY SCHOOL

the Duke of Sussex, who for some years had corresponded
not unfrequently with Dr. Butler, and had himself been to
Shrewsbury not long before. The Duchess and the young
Princess were staying at the time with Lord Liverpool at
Pitchford Hall in Shropshire, one of the finest specimens of
black and white half-timbered houses to be seen either in
Shropshire or Cheshire.

Shortly after their arrival in Shropshire it was arranged
that the projected visit should take place on Thursday,
November 1st. Their Royal Highnesses reached the school
soon after noon on the appointed day, and their arrival was
signalised by the hoisting of the Royal Standard, hastily
borrowed for the purpose from Liverpool, on the school
tower, a salute of twenty-one guns from the river, and the
ringing of St. Mary's bells. They were at once conducted
by Dr. and Mrs. Butler to the upper school-room, where the
boys were already assembled, and as soon as they had taken
their seats an address was delivered by the head boy, W. G.
Humphry, in the name of the masters and scholars. Subse-
quently the Duchess and her party inspected the library, the
chapel, and the sixth form room, took luncheon at Dr. Butler's,
and set off on their return to Pitchford about 2 p.m. 1

Shortly after this time Dr. Butler became somewhat
seriously ill, and never afterwards completely recovered his
health. But it is probable that he would not have made up
his mind to resign, so soon as he did, had not Mrs. Butler's
health also given way. Sometime in the autumn of 1835
she had a severe paralytic seizure, and this attack practically
made Dr. Butler's resignation inevitable. From the first Mrs.
Butler had exercised a constant supervision of the domestic
arrangements of the Head Master's houses, and of these
during the last ten years there had been three, containing on
the average nearly fifty boys apiece.

Her nephew, Mr. F. A. Paley, 2 describes her as "fat and

1 Butler's Life and Letters, vol. ii. pp. 27-31.

2 Frederick Apthorp Paley > son of the Rev. Edmund Paley, Rector of Easing-
wold, Yorkshire, and grandson of Archdeacon Paley. Born January I4th, 1815.
At Shrewsbury School from 1826 to 1833 ; scholar of St. John's College, Cam-
bridge. B.A., 1838 ; M.A., 1842; resided at Cambridge till 1846 ; an original



SAMUEL BUTLER 293

good-natured" and "very kind and clever," and adds that the
school never would have prospered as it did without her.
He tells us that she went round the houses every morning,
accompanied by "John Bandy," the Doctor's butler, and
sometimes by the medical man, to see if there were any boys
ailing, to administer physic when necessary, and to give leave
to go "out of school." 1

Of the motherly interest which Mrs. Butler took in the
boys her letters, as well as those of her daughters, are
ample evidence, and however much Old Salopians may have
differed when comparing their recollections of the discomfort
of their bedrooms and the roughness of their life, they have
always been at one in their affectionate gratitude for the
many kindnesses she showed them in their school - days.
Some few weeks before the time of which we have been
speaking Mr. Jeudwine, who had been second master for
twenty-nine years, died. The unfriendly relations, which,
except between the years 1817 and 1830 when their inter-
course seems to have taken a pleasanter turn, 2 had existed

member of the Cambridge Camden Society, and took much interest in the
restoration of the Round Church ; deprived of his rooms in college in conse-
quence of a charge made against him of inducing a pupil to become a Roman
Catholic. Mr. Paley himself joined the Roman Church shortly after. For the
next few years he was chiefly engaged in private tuition in the families of Roman
Catholic noblemen and gentlemen. In 1860 he returned again to Cambridge, and
was actively engaged in private tuition there up to 1874. Examiner for Classical
Tripos in 1873 and 1874 ; professor of Classical Literature in Roman Catholic
University at Kensington, 1874 ; examiner in Classics to the University of London
and the Civil Service Commissioners ; wrote and published a considerable number
of books and pamphlets on classical and architectural subjects. Died at Bourne-
mouth, December gth, 1888. (Diet, of Nat. Biog.}

1 See Dolman's Magazine, vols. vi. and vii., "Adventures of a Schoolboy, by
a Convert."

2 This change of tone began in 1817. It was at the beginning of this year that
Dr. Butler delegated to the second master the right of inflicting punishments
throughout the lower school without reference to him. (Add. MSS. British
Museum, 34,584.) Dr. Kennedy appears to have been under the impression that
this right of punishment in the lower school was inherent in the office of second
master. (See his evidence before the Public School Commission, vol. iv. p. 335.)
But he was evidently mistaken in this matter. The practice, which, as we have
seen, commenced in Mr. Jeudwine's time, was continued while Dr. Welldon was
second master. But when Mr. Gifford succeeded to the post in 1843 Dr. Kennedy,
at his request, undertook to administer all flogging throughout the school.



294 SHREWSBURY SCHOOL

between the two masters since they were first brought into
contact, must have been very detrimental to the interests of
the school.

At a comparatively early period of Dr. Butler's head-
mastership his own house was frequently full, while there
were only three or four boys in Mr. Jeudwine's, and although
Dr. Butler recommended parents to send their sons to the
second master's house, they often preferred waiting till the
Head Master should have room. Under these circumstances
it was perhaps natural, though not altogether reasonable,
that Mr. Jeudwine should feel himself aggrieved when Dr.
Butler informed him in 1814 that he proposed to open a
second boarding-house. 1 But this particular cause of trouble
soon disappeared as the school numbers went on increasing,
and there were boys enough to fill, not only Mr. Jeudwine's
house, but a third house which Mr. Butler built in 1825, and
another house also which Mr. Ilifif, the senior assistant
master, was allowed to open in School Lane early in 1826.

Another grievance, which arose out of the control exer-
cised by the Head Master over all the promotions which
from time to time took place from one form to another,
was first definitely stated by Mr. Jeudwine in 1830. When
the school was reorganized in 1798 it was arranged by the
trustees that the second master should receive half the
tuition fees paid by boys in the lower school, the rest of
the fees throughout the school going to the Head Master,
who, it must be remembered, had to provide for the stipends
of all the assistant masters. Now it was Dr. Butler's practice
to examine each form in the school twice a year, and to
send subsequently to the form master a list of the names
of those boys whom he considered fit for promotion. Mr.
Jeudwine, doubtless in perfect sincerity, thought that boys
in the lower part of the school were often promoted too
rapidly, and wrote, on August i6th, 1830, to remonstrate
with Dr. Butler on the matter. But, unfortunately, he went
on to mention that, in consequence of the rapid promotions,

1 See Add. MSS. British Musuem. 34,583. Dr. Butler had at this time
forty-eight boys in his house, while Mr. Jeudwine had only four.



SAMUEL BUTLER 295

although the school numbers had so largely increased, his
stipend was no better, since all fees of the boys in the
upper school went to the Head Master. This letter Dr.
Butler resented keenly, as he considered it to imply that
he was influenced in making these promotions by "sordid
motives," and from this time till Mr. Jeudwine's fatal illness
in 1835, all friendly intercourse between the two masters
was at an end. 1 Happily they were reconciled while Mr.
Jeudwine lay on his death-bed. 2

There is no doubt that Dr. Butler's irritation at Mr.
Jeudwine's letter was much intensified by the fact that, a few
months before, Mr. Wynne, a brother-in-law of Mr. Jeudwine,
had not only brought charges against him before the Town
Council, based on the same grievances as those alleged by
Mr. Jeudwine himself, but had threatened to produce a
number of letters written by Dr. Butler, some years earlier,
to Mr. Littlehales, an old and valued friend with whom
he had been on terms of confidential intimacy, letters in
which he seems to have discussed Shrewsbury affairs with
some freedom. 3 From the account given in the Butler
papers of an interview between Dr. Butler and Mr. Wynne,
which took place on March I4th, 1830, in the presence
of Mr. John Bather, it appears that one of Mr. Jeudwine's
grievances was that some of the assistant masters had more
advanced forms to teach than his own. About the same
time that Mr. Wynne brought these school troubles before
the Town Council he appears also to have filed a bill in
Chancery against the trustees for alleged illegal employment
of certain school funds in the increase of Dr. Butler's
stipend. 4

Mr. Jeudwine is described by the Rev. F. E. Gretton,
who was at Shrewsbury School from 1814 to 1822,

1 Add. MSS. Brit. Mus., 34,587.

2 Butler's Life and Letters, vol. i. p. 41.

3 See Add. MSS. Brit. Mus., 34,587. Mr. Richard Littlehales was elected
a Shropshire fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge, in 1781. Dr. Butler seems
to have been in complete ignorance as to the way in which these letters had come
into Mr. Wynne's hands.

4 Ibid.



296 SHREWSBURY SCHOOL

as "crusty and ungenial," and the boys are said to have
placed nettles and brickbats on his desk, on May 29th,
instead of the flowers with which they decked the Head
Master's. 1 But Old Salopians are still living who speak
of Mr. Jeudwine as possessing "amiable characteristics,"
and one of them roundly declares that the boys liked him
better than they did Dr. Butler. The familiar sobriquet
too of "Jackey Jeudwine," by which the second master
was universally known, implies a liking on the part of
the boys, though not necessarily of a very respectful kind.
Certainly he was no disciplinarian. Stories are still told



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