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Shrewsbury, Astley, and Clive have also been abolished.
No provision was made under Ashton's ordinances that the
Head Master should be in holy orders. We know, indeed,
that two Head Masters appointed in the sixteenth century,
Thomas Lawrence and John Meighen, were laymen. But the
Act of 1798, in requiring that the Head Master should hold
the office of catechist and reader, practically made holy
orders a necessary qualification. No such limitation exists
in the present statutes. The only requirement for candidates
for the post is that they should be Masters of Arts, or of
some equal or superior degree in one or other of the
universities of Oxford and Cambridge. None of the school-
masters were allowed under Ashton's ordinances to "take
the charge or cure of preaching or ministry in the Church,"
or to " practise physic or any other art or profession, whereby
their service in the school should be hindered." But no



similar regulation is to be found in the Act of 1798 by which
Ashton's ordinances were repealed, and, as a matter of fact,
Dr. Butler held ecclesiastical preferment nearly the whole
time he was Head Master. The old restrictions have, how-
ever, now been practically restored so far as . the Head
Master is concerned, for one of the new statutes provides
that he shall not hold any ecclesiastical or other office to
which any emolument is attached without the consent of the
Governing Body. Provision is made in the regulations that
divine service shall be celebrated in the school chapel by
the Head Master, or by some person appointed by him, at
which all boys shall be required to attend subject to the
operation of a " conscience clause " which applies not only to
religious worship, but to all religious instruction. General
power is given by the regulations to the Head Master
to dismiss from the school any boy who has been guilty
of gross misconduct and to forbid the return of any boy who
has been persistently idle ; but he is required to report to the
Governing Body every term the number of cases in which he
may have exercised this power. All boys on the foundation
have a statutable right of appeal to the Governing Body
against any such sentence of dismissal by the Head Master.
Subject to such modifications as the changed conditions in
its new home and the educational requirements of the present
age have rendered necessary, the school may be said to
remain much the same as regards hours and methods of dis-
cipline as it was in Dr. Butler's and Dr. Kennedy's days.

The praepostorial system, for the introduction of which
at Shrewsbury Dr. Butler was responsible, and which was
described by Dr. Kennedy as " the very bone and sinew of
public school education," remains practically unchanged.
Theoretically the authority exercised by Shrewsbury prae-
postors over the other boys has always been of a strictly
limited character, and the only punishment which, up to the
end of Dr. Kennedy's time, they were recognized as having
the right to inflict, was that of setting small impositions.
But of this right very little use has ever been made, though
doubtless the praepostors have found other means from time


to time of enforcing their authority besides those of moral
suasion. The privileges of praepostors, as they were
described by Dr. Kennedy in I862, 1 were to wear a hat
instead of the regulation college cap, which was worn by
all the other boys until some years after the removal of the
school to Kingsland ; to carry a stick when out walking ; 2 to
be independent of the ordinary rules as to bounds, and to doul
the younger boys for the service of Head-room. For this
latter purpose four boys were put on the roll each week as
general fags for Head-room, the duties which they had
to discharge being chiefly those of fetching and carrying at
meal times. Dr. Kennedy, whose rooted objection to in-
dividual fagging as practised at most of our old public
schools has been already mentioned, seems to have seen
some distinction between the two customs. There is still
no recognized system of fagging, although there undoubtedly
exists at the present time, as there always has existed, a
certain amount of irregular fagging. The number of prae-
postors in 1821 was only eight. But this number was
increased a few years afterwards to twelve, and twelve
remained the normal number until the recent removal of the
school to Kingsland.

New boys are never made praepostors. But when a boy
gets promoted after examination into the upper sixth he
becomes a praepostor at once, however young he may be.
It sometimes happens that a praepostor is beaten in examina-
tion by a boy in the lower sixth. In such a case, though
losing position in the form, he retains his rank and privileges
as praepostor. Boys who occupy a distinguished position on
the modern side, or in science, or in the army class, are
generally made praepostors. The Public School Com-
missioners regarded the recognition by the Head Master of
the praepostors as a sort of senate representing the school
and entitled to negotiate with him on matters of common
school interest, and to give pledges and enter into conditions

1 See evidence in Report of Public School Commission.

2 The tall hat is no longer worn except on Sundays, but the prsepostors
continue to carry sticks as a mark of distinction.


on behalf of the school, as peculiar to Shrewsbury. The
praepostors still discharge their old duties of calling the
names at " callings over " and reading the lessons in chapel.
They also retain their representative character, though
perhaps their collective influence is less powerful now that
they are distributed among the various boarding-houses than
it used to be when they were all, or nearly all, massed
together in " Doctor's hall." This defect might in great
measure be rectified were a common room provided in which
all the praepostors could meet together and consult on school
matters. For purposes of instruction the whole school is
now divided into two sides, the classical and the modern, and
all boys belong nominally to one or other of these two sides.
Latin and mathematics are taught throughout the school.
Subject to that proviso it is open to any boy to take up the
study of natural science or of mathematics almost exclusively.
There is also an army class in which boys are prepared for
Woolwich, Sandhurst, and Cooper's Hill, and which is
provided with a larger staff of masters in proportion to the
number of boys taught than either of the two main school
divisions. The classical side still boasts, as might be
expected, the larger number of boys. All boys on this side
get some hours' instruction in mathematics during the week,
five hours as a rule in the lower school and four in the upper.
For the mathematical lessons two forms are put together
and divided into three divisions of about twenty boys each.
French is also taught in every form on the classical side
except, for some inscrutable reason, in the upper sixth.
In all forms below the sixth the order changes every term,
but in the sixth a change takes place only once a year.
These changes are the result of a joint examination in
classics, French, and mathematics. 1 The leaving scholarships
and exhibitions for boys going up to Oxford and Cambridge
have hitherto been awarded almost exclusively for classical
merit, but report says that in future one leaving scholarship
is to be given for mathematics and one for natural science

1 There appears to be one exception to this rule. Promotion from VI. 3 to
VI. 2 takes place on the ground of classical merit only.


every year. At the present time the study of natural
science is pursued with considerable success at Shrewsbury,
and more scholarships appear to be obtained at the univer-
sities for natural science, in proportion to the number of boys
who devote themselves to that study at school, than for
classics. Shrewsbury holds aloof from the Oxford and
Cambridge certificate examination.

Since March, 1877, the school has boasted its own magazine,
which is published under the title of The Salopian. On two
previous occasions a similar magazine had been started at
Shrewsbury, but its existence proved ephemeral. Two boys
in Jee's hall, one of whom was Henry William Hemans, 1
a son of the well-known poetess, were responsible for the
first venture, which was made about 1834. The magazine in
question was published by Eddowes, of Shrewsbury; but
only a few numbers were printed. In the absence of any
known copies of the first Shrewsbury magazine the following
fragment of an opening poem by Hemans may be acceptable
to readers of the modern Salopian :

"Although no Byron's vivid pen will trace
The scenes that in our magazine find place,
Do not on that account otir writings shun,
Nor spurn our effort ere 'tis well begun.
If in these pages haply you may trace
One spark of wit, or one untutored grace,
Forget, dear friends, to blame : our faults confessed,
Where we have erred, forgive ; applaud the rest." 2

The next appearance of The Salopian took place in 1860,
and seven numbers were published in that year. But after
this no further attempt was made to carry on a school
magazine until 1877.

Although the general history of games and amusements
will be dealt with in a subsequent chapter, it may perhaps be
convenient to mention here the arrangements made at the

1 H. W. Hemans became in after years British Consul at Buffalo, U.S.A., and
was a contributor to the North American Review. He died in 1871 in Brazil,
(Diet, of Nat. Biog.)

2 The words in italics are conjectural emendations of an imperfect text drawn
from the memory of an old Salopian contemporary of Hemans.


present time to enable as many boys as possible to take their
part in cricket, football, and boating, and to encourage a
wholesome competition between the different houses in
athletic matters.

First, as regards cricket During the whole of the cricket
season, unless there be a school match or play be made
impossible by the weather, some six or seven different games
are arranged for all half-holidays and short lesson days, and
in these games there will often be as many as 150 boys
playing. The games are known as: (i) Senior Game; (2)
Middle Game; (3) Junior Game; (4) Junior House Games.
The teams which contend in the Senior Game are selected
by the Captain of the school eleven, and are mostly made
up of boys in the first and second elevens. Other members
of the school eleven undertake the responsibility of getting
up the Middle and Junior Games. The Junior House Games
are played between elevens from different houses composed
of boys who are not selected to play in the other games, and,
from their representative character, have always been very
popular. Practising at the nets goes on every day between
second lesson and dinner time, three of them being always
reserved for the use of the first and second elevens and other
boys selected by the Captain of the Cricket Club. At these
nets each boy gets fifteen minutes' batting, and takes his
share of the bowling. The coaching is done by some of the
masters who are interested in cricket and the school profes-
sionals. Nets are provided for house practice as weTPas for
school practice; but on Tuesdays, Wednesdays, and Thurs-
days each house has the privilege of sending its young
cricketers to the school nets between 12 o'clock and 2 p.m.,
for one period of two hours. The house matches always
excite the keenest interest. They "are played" DTI the semi-
league system, the nine 1 houses being arranged in two divi-
sions by lot, and each house playing all the other houses in
its own division. Thus in division A, containing five houses, \
each house has to play four matches; while in division B,

1 The sixth form boys in the Head Master's house are reckoned as "a house"
in school competitions.
2 C


which contains but four houses, each house plays three
matches. The house winning most matches in its own
division is said to be head of that division, and plays the
head of the other division in the final. Should there be any
ties in either division they are of course previously played
off to decide which house is head of its division. The winning
house holds a challenge bat, and each member of the winning
eleven a silver bat, 1 for the year. The second elevens also
play in heats for a similar trophy.

At football the first and second elevens of the different
houses compete with one another on the league system, and
the trophies are silver bowls. Ordinary games at football are
classified, as in cricket, as Senior, Middle, Junior, and Junior
House Games. Various arrangements have at different times
been made to prevent the " juniors " being swamped by
older and bigger boys, who, not being very good, prefer
these games to the other school games. The latest plan
has been to make out a list of those qualified to play in
"Junior House Games," and to forbid other boys to take
part in them.

Boating goes on more or less the whole year, and there are
races of one sort or another in each term, the most important
of which, the bumping races for first and second house
fours, are rowed in the summer term. These races are con-
ducted on precisely the same lines as those at Oxford and
Cambridge. Great pains are taken by some of the masters
interested in rowing in coaching the house fours, and a
supply of oarsmen is thus provided from which the trial
eights and ultimately the school eight are selected. The
thoroughness with which the system of instruction is carried
out, combined with the proximity of the river and the pros-
perity of the Boat Club, have made Shrewsbury of late
years a good nursery for rowing, and large numbers of
Old Salopians are to be found year by year pulling in their
college crews at Oxford and Cambridge.

There are also annual house competitions in athletics

1 The silver bats were presented to the school by the Nawab Vikar al Ulma of


and paper chases. The trophy for athletics, which is a
challenge cup, goes to the house which scores most points
in the annual contest. The paper cliases take place in the
Lent term, and the length of the run is from four to
five miles. No officers of the R.S.S.H. or gentlemen are
allowed to run. Only two houses compete at a time, and
the house that wins the greatest number of heats holds
a challenge cup for the year. In running off a heat
the first twenty-five runners score points for their respec-
tive houses, the leader getting twenty-five points and the
others scoring in proportion. The house that gets the
largest number of points in any paper chase wins the

The number of Salopians who may be classed as Mr.
Moss's pupils and have obtained a distinguished position
in the world is somewhat inconsiderable at present. But
there are several among them whom the school is proud
to reckon as her alumni.

The Very Rev. Francis Paget, 1 D.D., who was for a time
Regius Professor of Pastoral Theology at Oxford, and is now
Dean of Christ Church, was at Shrewsbury School from 1864
to 1869.

William Emerton Heitland, 2 M.A., fellow of St. John's
College, who was Craven university scholar in 1869 and
Senior Classic in 1871, and Richard Dacre Archer Hind, 3
M.A., fellow of Trinity College, Craven university scholar in
1871, and third Classic and Senior Chancellor's Medallist in

1 Dr. Paget gained the Hertford university scholarship and the Chancellor's
Prize for Latin verse in 1871 ; 1st class in Classical Moderations, 1871 ; 1st class
in lit. hum., 1873; M.A. in 1876; D.D. in 1885; ordained, 1875; Chaplain to
the Bishop of Oxford, 1889 ; Examining Chaplain to the Bishop of Ely, 1878-
1892; Oxford Preacher at the Chapel Royal, Whitehall, 1881-1883; Senior
Student of Christ Church, 1873-83 ; tutor, 1876-83 ; Vicar of Bromsgrove,
1882-85 ; Regius Professor of Pastoral Theology and Canon of Christ Church,
1885-92 ; author of various theological works.

2 Mr. W. E. Heitland was at Shrewsbury School 1862-67, and was head boy
in 1866.

3 Mr. R. D. Archer Hind (formerly Hodgson) was at Shrewsbury School
1862-1868. He gained the Person Prize in 1869 and a Browne Medal for Greek
elegiacs in 1869.


1872, have both done good work at Cambridge as tutors
and lecturers of their respective colleges. 1 The latter has
examined for the Classical Tripos no less than twelve times.
John Henry Onions, 2 M.A., of Christ Church, Oxford, after
gaining the Ireland and Craven scholarships, and a ist class
in Classical Moderations, became Senior Student in 1876 and
tutor of Christ Church in 1878, but his useful educational
work at Oxford was brought to a premature end by his death
in 1889.

The Rev. R. F. Horton, D.D., minister of Lyndhurst Road
Chapel, Hampstead, late fellow of New College, Oxford, who
gained a 1st class in Classical Moderations as well as in the
Final Classical School, acted as lecturer in history for his
college from 1879 to i883. 3

William Joseph Myles Starkie, who was head boy at
Shrewsbury 1879-80, had a distinguished career both at
Trinity College, Cambridge, and also at Trinity College,
Dublin. Of the latter college he was elected a fellow in
1890, and seven years later he was appointed a member of
the Academic Council of Dublin University. Mr. Starkie
was made a Commissioner of Education for Ireland in 1890.
He is now President of Queen's College, Galway. 4

Among the modern Salopians who, after distinguished
careers at Oxford or Cambridge, are now doing valuable

1 In accordance with Dr. Kennedy's method of classification Mr. Heitland
and Mr. Archer Hind are included among Mr. Moss's pupils as having been
under his tuition for at least one year before going to college. But it is right to
mention that both of them were for three years in the sixth form under Dr.

2 Mr. J. H. Onions took a ist class in Classical Moderations in 1873 > Ireland
scholar, 1875; Craven scholar, 1876. He was at Shrewsbury School, 1867-1871.
B.A., 1876; M.A., 1878.

3 Mr. JR. F. Horton was born in 1855, and was at Shrewsbury School 1874
to 1879; B.A., 1878; M.A., 1881 ; fellow of New College, 1879; Chairman of
the London Congregational Union, 1898. Dr. Horton has published several
books, chiefly theological.

4 Mr. W. J. M. Starkie was born at Sligo in 1860. First class in the Classical
Tripos at Cambridge in 1883. At Dublin he gained the Berkeley Gold Medal for
Greek and many other prizes and distinctions. While still an undergraduate at
Trinity College, Dublin, from 1883 to 1886, Mr. Starkie was acting as Professor
of Classical Literature in the Roman Catholic University of Ireland.


work at one or other of the public schools, the most pro-
minent are :

Arthur Herman Gilkes, 1 M.A., of Christ Church, Oxford,
Head Master of Dulwich College, who took a 1st class in
Classical Moderations and also in the Final Classical School,
and was subsequently an assistant master at Shrewsbury
from 1873 to 1875 ;

Thomas Ethelbert Page, 1 M.A., late fellow of St. John's
College, Cambridge, assistant master at the Charterhouse,
who gained the Person and Davies university scholarships,
three Browne Medals, the Person Prize, and the Chancellor's
Medal for an English poem while an undergraduate, and
was bracketed equal for the second place in the Classical
Tripos and for the Chancellor's Medal in 1873 ;

John Cottam Moss, M.A., late fellow of St. John's College,
Cambridge, assistant master at Harrow, who carried off the
Porson and Craven university scholarships, the Powis Medal,
and no less than eight Browne Medals, as an undergraduate,
and was placed third in the ist class of the Classical Tripos
in 1882 ; and John Lewis Alexander Paton, M.A., late fellow
of St. John's College, Cambridge, assistant master at Rugby,
who was placed in the first division of the 1st class in Part I.
of the Classical Tripos in 1886, and also gained a ist class
in Part II. of the Classical Tripos and the Junior Chancellor's
Medal in 1887.

William Wallis English, M.A., late fellow of St. John's
College, Cambridge, who gained a Browne Medal in 1876,
and was third Classic in 1878, worked for several years as an
assistant master at Rugby, until he was compelled by ill-
health to give up his post.

Stanley John Weyman, 2 who has earned for himself a
considerable reputation in the literary world by The House
of the Wolf, The New Rector, A Gentleman of France, My
Lady Rotha, and other novels and historical romances, was

1 It should be noted that Mr. Gilkes and Mr. Page were both for two years in
the sixth form under Dr. Kennedy.

2 Mr. Stanley John Weyman was born at Ludlow August 7th, 1855. He
graduated B.A. at Christ Church. Oxford, in 1877, taking a 2nd class in the
Modern History School, and was called to the Bar in i88r.


educated at Shrewsbury School. So also was Henry W.
Nevinson, the author of Herder and His Times, and, like
Mr. Weyman, a novel writer. Mr. Nevinson acted as war
correspondent for a prominent London newspaper during
the recent war between Greece and Turkey. He was at
Christ Church, Oxford, and took a 2nd class both in
Moderations and the Final Classical School.

Another Salopian of literary distinction, though of a
different kind, Owen Seaman, 1 has been described as "a
literary parodist of superlative excellence." He distin-
guished himself at Cambridge by gaining the Person Prize
and a ist class in the Classical Tripos. After a few years
spent in scholastic work at Rossall and Newcastle-on-Tyne
Mr. Seaman settled in London and was called to the Bar.
But his work for some time has been almost entirely of a
literary kind. He has been for the last few years on the staff
of Punch. Among his chief publications are CEdipus the
Wreck (1888), Horace at Cambridge (1894), The Tillers of the
Sand (1895), and The Battle of the Bays (1896).

George M. Chesney, who left Shrewsbury School about
1874, is well known in India as the editor of the Pioneer.

Graham Wallas, M.A., 2 author of a Life of Francis Place, a
University Extension Lecturer, and a prominent member of
the London School Board, should also be commemorated as
the first editor of the modern series of The Salopian.

Major H. D. Laffan, R.E., Deputy Assistant Adjutant-
General in the Intelligence Department of the War Office,
was the first Shrewsbury man to pass the examination for
admission into the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich.
This was in 1876, when his name stood first in the list.
Many other young officers of promise have also entered the
army from Shrewsbury during the last twenty -five years,
and the army class has been for some years an important
centre of school work.

1 Mr. Owen Seaman gained the Person Prize in 1882; B.A., 1883. He was
a scholar of Clare College.

2 Mr. Graham Wallas was a scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. He took
a 2nd class in Classical Mods, in 1879, and in the Final Classical School in 1881.


Two other Shrewsbury men have distinguished themselves
of late years as adventurous travellers and daring sportsmen
Charles St. George Littledale, to whom the Royal Geo-
graphical Society has recently awarded its gold medal ; and
F. J. Jackson, now Acting-Commissioner and British Vice-
Consul in the Protectorate of Uganda, who led the first
caravan of the British East Africa Company. Mr. Jackson
wrote the account of " Big Game Shooting in Africa " in
the Badminton Library, and was the donor of a valu-
able collection of African birds to the South Kensington



Games and Amusements at Shrewsbury School.

THE old Shrewsbury chronicler, whose interesting and
valuable volume is commonly known as the Taylor
MS., has preserved some few details of the dramatic per-
formances and military displays which were prominent
among the amusements of Shrewsbury boys during the
latter part of the sixteenth century, and he makes one
allusion at least to the practice of "shooting in the long
bow," which was one of the recognized games of the school.
But we do not find in his chronicle any mention made of
running, leaping, wrestling, or chess -play, the only other
games which were allowed under the school ordinances ; and
after 1603, when the chronicle comes to an end, the history
of Shrewsbury is a blank, so far as the sports and amuse-
ments of the boys are concerned, till the days of Dr. Butler,

Online LibraryGeorge William FisherAnnals of Shrewsbury School → online text (page 38 of 56)