private garden the following may be
recommended: — G. corcineus ; G.
Youngii ; G. Manglesii; G. rubra; G.
Maxima ; G. speciosa ,- and G. Candida.
Mr. J. McI., of Hillsborough, gives
the following directions for the culture
of these flowers : —
— The gloxinia is rea-
dily increased by seeds and cuttings;
the seeds should be sown very thinly,
as soon as they are gathered, in pans
mixture of fine peat and sand ; the seeds
should not be covered ; they may after-
wards be placed in a frame where the
temperature is about 680. When they
have acquired one or two leaves, they
should be potted off into small pots
green-house evergreens ; chiefly twin-
ers. Seeds. Loam, peat, and sand.
GLYCIRUHIZA. Liquorice. Eight
species. Hardy herbaceous perennials.
Slips from the roots with eyes. Planted
in the spring. Light sandy soil. See
and not dried off until the second year, [ Liquorice.
as the small fibres are not sufficiently , GLYPHYTERYX. A genus of moths,
strong to cause them to grow vigor-' " G. Boese/Za, Spinach Moth, appears
ously in spring. This remark is also I in the spring and throughout the sum-
applicable to young plants raised from 1 mer. It is blackish-brown coloured,
cuttings. I Caterpillar yellowish green. Feeds
" Gloxinias are readily propagated j on spinach, strawberry blite, &c., and
even by a single leaf pressed firmly in- lives three or four together, under a
to the soil, which may be the same as 1 web on the leaves."
is used for seeds. | Mr. Curtis says, that "when fully fed
^'Culture. — The roots should be al- ^ the caterpillars leave the plants on
lowed to become quite dry during au- I which they have been subsisting, and
tumn, and continue so all the winter ; 1 seek some crack in a tree or wall,
they should not be allowed to become ^ where they spin a slight cocoon, and
dry, however, all at once, but by de- , change to pupa; in this state they re-
grces. While they are in this state the I main ten or twelve days, when the per-
pots may be laid on their sides, on a feet insect emerges. The moth, when
dry shelf in the green-house until Feb- [ its wings are expanded, is about five
ruary or March, but February is the lines long ; the head, body, and feet
best time for starting them. In potting are black, with a shining metallic ap-
them, the earth should be carefully : pearance. The antenna; are black with
shaken from the bulbs, which should be i white rings, and the upper wings are
repotted in a mixture of one-half de- [ yellow, with black edges, and about five
cayed vegetable mould, and one-half i silvery spots disposed in the shape of a
good rich loam, with the addition of a cross ; the under wings are blackish,
little sand or charcoal. land, as well as the upper, have long
" The pots should be well drained, j fringes. It is difficult to find means to
In planting, press the roots gently on destroy so minute an enemy as the pre-
the surface of the soil, and give them | sent; but where it attacks spinach it is
no water for some time, as the moisture ; much better to pull up the plants with
of the pot will be sufficient for them at | the caterpillars on them, and burn
first. them ; where they appear only in small
"After they are all potted, remove quantities, hand-picking may answer
them to a frame where the temperature > very well." — Gard. Chron.
is about 60^, and when they have com- 1 GMELINA. Five species. Stove or
menced growing, give them a little green-house evergreen trees. Cuttings,
water, increasing the quantity as they Rich loam and peat, and a very strong
advance in growth. A little air should heat,
be given them in fine weather. \ GNAPHALIUM. Six species. Chiefly
"By the middle of May they will hardy plants. G. albescens, an evergreen
have attained a good size, and some of shrub. G. purpuritim. The shrubby
them will be showing flowers, when and herbaceous increase by cuttings and
they may be removed to the green- division; the annuals and biennials by
house, when nothing except proper at- seeds. Rich light soil,
tention to watering them is required. GNIDIA. Seventeen species. Green-
When the plants have done flowering, house and evergreen shrubs. Young
water should be gradually withheld. shoots planted in sand. Peat soil.
" It often happens, however, that QOAT MOTH. See Bombyx.
some of the species continue in a grow-
ing state all the winter, for instance
G. caulescens, which is unlike any of
the others in habit and manner of
growth." — Gard. Chron.
GLYCINE. Eight species. Stove or
GOAT'S BEARD. Spiraa aruncus.
GOAT'S FOOT. Oxalis caprina.
GOAT'S ORIGANUM. Thymus Tra-
GOAT'S RUE. Galega.
GOAT'S THORN. Astragalus Tra^ I GOOSEBERRY. Ribes grossularia
gacantha. The European succeed but indifferently
GOBBO. See Artichoke. [in this country, unless it be in the dry
GODETIA. Three species. Hardy I atmosphere of a city. Mildew, the
annuals. Seeds. Common soil. j especial enemy of this fruit, seizes on
GODOYA geminijiora. Stove ever- i it, and speedily arrests the circulation
green tree. Ripe cuttings. Peat and of the juices — the consequence is inevi-
loam. table disease. It has been said that a
GOLDBACHIA lavigata. Hardy an
nual. Seeds. Common soil
GOLDEN HAIR. Chrysocoma co-
GOLDEN ROD. Bosea.
GOLDEN THISTLE. Scolymus.
GOLDEN THISTLE. Protea Scoly-
GOLDFUSSIA anisophylla. Stove
evergreen shrub. G. glomerata, stove
herbaceous perennial. Cuttings. Loam
GOLD OF PLEASURE. Camelina.
GOLDY LOCKS. Chrysocoma.
GOMPHIA. Six species. Stove ever-
green shrubs. Cuttings. Sandy loam.
GOMPHOCARPUS. Three species.
Green-house evergreen shrubs. Cut-
tings. Loam and peat.
GOMPHOLOBIUM. Twenty-five spe-
cies. Chiefly green-house evergreen
shrubs. Cuttings. Sandy loam and peat.
GOMPHRENA. Seven species.
Stove or green-house annuals and bien-
nials, herbaceous perennials, or ever-
green shrubs. Seeds; and the shrubby
kinds, cuttings. Rich mould.
GONGORA. Four species. Stove
orchids. Division. Wood.
GONOLOBYS. Twenty-one species.
Stove evergreen and hardy and green-
house deciduous twiners. The hardy
require a dry situation, and increase by
division or seeds. Peat or any light
soil. For the stove and green-house
kinds, cuttings. Loam and peat.
GONOSTEMON. Three species.
Stove evergreen shrubs. Cuttings. San-
'GOODENIA. Seven species. Green-!
house evergreen shrubs, and herbaceous fj^een Prin
solution of whale-oil soap will destroy
the parasite, and preserve the fruit
healthful and perfect.
Varieties. — If quality be the chief
consideration, as most assuredly it ought
to be, the following are the best: —
Keen's seedling, Warrington.
Taylor's Bright Venus.
If size be the primary object, the
following may be cultivated : —
Briton. I Lion's Provider.
Companion. | London.
Conquering Hero. | Roaring Lion.
perennials. Seeds or cuttings. Peat
GOODIA. Three species. Green-
house evergreen shrubs. Cuttings or
seed. Loam and Peat.
GOOD NIGHT. Argyreia bona nox.
GOODYERA. Six species. Stove or
hardy orchids. The former do best in
sandy peat and leaf mould : the latter
require sandy peat, and are increased
Philip the First.
The size to which some of these have
been grown are as follows : —
Roaring Lion .... 29 dwts.
Young Wonderful . . . 27i "
Companion 28 "
London 35 "
To raise Varieties. — The seed must bush, B B is the soil taken out about
be taken from perfectly ripe berries, eighteen inches all round the plant,
and sown immediately in pots of light i and about six inches deep at C, that if
loam, to remain in the green-house ' there are any buds or suckers, they are
during winter, or be preserved in sand ; sure to be seen and destroyed. Thisdo
until February, and then sown. The j every year in December, and as soon
soil must be kept moderately moist un- as the soil is taken out, spread cowdung
til they are large enough to prick out over the roots as shown at B, after
in beds. ' which replace the earth that has been
Cu^img-s are the best mode of propa- ' taken out: when you have any new
gating approved kinds. Take a bearing seedlings to propagate, do not take out
shoot not less than nine inches long; the soil, but lay the manure round them,
remove all the buds but the top three, , and cover it with a layer of earth,
and bury them to within an inch of the which encourages the plant to produce
lowest bud left. Plant them in rows suckers.
eighteen inches apart each way.
'■ By these means good bushes are
Culture. — At the end of the first year, sooner obtained than by cuttings, and
the shoots must be cut down to a few generally speaking, well-rooted suckers
eyes, and the plants kept clear from may be taken off in October, which
any summer shoots that may be on the , produce fruit the following year. The
stem or that spring from the root; they cuttings should be deprived of all their
must have plenty of water the first sum- under-ground eyes or buds ; before they
They will be fit to plant out in two
or three years into borders or quarters,
at eight feet between the rows, and six
feet apart. At the time of planting out,
some rich compost may be added with
great etfect towards the flavour, size,
and abundance of the crop. — Doyle.
" There is a continual tendency on
are put into the ground to take cuttings
from twelve to fifteen inches long, cut
the upper end to a bud, leaving three or
four other buds below it, then pare
away all the other buds, and pick out
the lowest of all, finishing just below it
by a horizontal clean cut." — Card.
Pruning in the summer is confined
the part of the under ground buds to to pinching off superfluous and mis
become branches, and these are the placed shoots, it always being kept in
suckers that we find so troublesome in ' " ' "
many kinds of soils. By continually
stopping and wounding them, however,
they will in general perish; and to do
this is what we recommend.
" The Lancashire gooseberry grow-
ers adopt the following as the best
means of preventing gooseberries from
mind that the centre of the tree
standards must be kept open so as to
admit the light. " At the time of prun-
ing," says Mr. Doyle, " some fine young
shoots should be left in the most con-
venient place as bearing wood for the
ensuing year, and room must be made
for them by cutting out some of the old
throwing up suckers, and also an excel- wood. Each of the old branches should
lent plan of insuring an abundance of have a leader left of new wood, which
may be shortened according to its
" In the sketch, (Fig. 60,) A is tlie ' strength so as to leave five or six inches
above the old wood. Very strong shoots
need not be so much shortened unless
in a part of the bush which is naked,
and requires to be furnished.
" Avoid shortening the shoots unless
when the tree is naked, or the wood
will be crowded, tufted, and productive
of very small and indifferent fruit. The
leading shoot at the end of each branch
should, where it is possible, terminate
naturally, if it be not inconsistent with
the equable extent of the tree ; and in
most cases it may still be so contrived
by having recourse to the next lateral
branch of the desired extent, and by
taking away that which straggled be- I low temperature, about 60° afterwards,
yond it. Let it be recollected that at and not higher than 40° at night.
the time when the young trees are i GORDONIA. — Four species. Hardy
growing in the nursery, and at all times! deciduous shrubs. G. hamatoxylon is
after, the attention of the gardener
'must be directed to what is called
" stemming the trees," which is pro-
ducing and continuing a clear stem to a
given height, (accordmg to the growth
of the different kinds,) by taking off all
lateral shoots at their first appearance.
Espaliers. — No fruit is more benefited
than that of the gooseberry, by having
the tree trained as an espalier. It is
best done to stakes arranged lozenge- : seeds
wise, (see Espalier,) or the bush may , heat
be trained round hoops in this form.
a stove evergreen tree. G. pubescens,
(the Franklinea) is a highly attractive
shrub or minor tree, indigenous to
Georgia, &c. Layers or cuttings. Peat
GOSSYPIUM. The Cotton Tree.
Eleven species. Stove annuals, bien-
nials, perennials, or evergreen shrubs.
For the shrubby kinds, cuttings and
seeds. The annuals and biennials,
A light rich soil and a moist
GOUANIA. Six species. Stove ever-
green climbers. Cuttings. Peat and
GOURD, Sagenaria vulgaris, and
PUMPKIN, Cucurbita pepo, are chiefly
employed in the making of pies, &c.
There are numerous varieties, varying
in the shape and colour of their fruit:
as the globular, oval, pear-shaped,
green, striped, marbled, yellow, &c.,
&c. One variety, of a pale buff or
salmon colour and globular form grows
to the weight of one hundred and ten
pounds and upwards : it is known in
France as the Potiron Jaune, and used
in soups, but in particular from being
Fruit. — This should be thinned, the ! mashed and eaten as potatoes or turn-
smaller berries be cut away with a pair ips, being of a very pleasant and pecu-
of scissors for tarts, &c., as required, j liar flavour. The bottle-shaped is of
and the fine berries left for dessert. If j little use for culinary purposes, but is
some of reds, as the Warrington, and i remarkable as being of the form of a
of the thick-skinned yellows, as the Florence or oil-flask.
Mogul, are matted over when the fruit j Cucurbita melopepo, the Squash. Cu-
is ripe, it will remain good until Christ- I curbita succada, the Vegetable Marrow.
mas. This is easiest done when the
tree is grown as an espalier. To in-
crease the size of the berries, abund-
ance of water and liquid manure are
given to the roots, and the berries are
stickled by keeping their tips in saucers
Both these are cultivated for the fruit,
which being gathered when of the size
of a goose's egg, is boiled vrhole in
salt and water, laid upon toast, and
eaten as asparagus. Of the squash,
there are almost as many varieties as of
of water; this is sacrificing the flavour the pompion, and similarly character-
to increase the circumference of the
ized. The young fruit is much used in
pickles. They may be sown in a hot-
Vermin. — The caterpillar and the I bed of moderate strength, under a frame
black-fly are both destroyed by syring- ; or hand-glasses at the end of March or
ing the bushes with water, and then
dusting the leaves above and beneath
with white hellebore powder, or with
lime and soot mixed in equal propor- \
early in April. In May they may be
sown in the open ground, beneath a
south fence, to remain, or in a hot-bed,
if at its commencement, to forward the
plants for transplanting at its close, or
Forcing. — Neither the gooseberry early in June. The plants are fit for
nor currant can be forced without great transplanting when they have got four
care. No heat must be applied when j rough leaves, or when of about a
they are first put under glass. A very [ month's growth. They must be plant-
G R A
ed without any shelter on dunghills, or I part of a branch of one plant upon the
Grafting is a ditllcult mode of multi-
plying an individual, because it is re-
quisite so to fit the scion to tlie stock,
that some portion of their alburnums
and inner barks must coincide, other-
wise the requisite circulation of the
sap is prevented. No graft will suc-
ceed if not immediately grafted upon a
nearly kindred stock. I say immedi-
ately, because it is possible that by
grafting on the most dissimilar species
on which it will take, and then moving
it with some of the stock attached, to
another stock still more remotely allied,
that a graft may be made to succeed
though supplied with sap from roots of
a very dissimilar species. Thus some
pear scions can hardly be made to unite
with a quince stock ; but if they be
grafted upon a young shoot and after-
wards inserted in a quince stock, they
g:row as freely as if inserted in a seed-
ling pear stock.
The reason for this unusual difficulty
in the way of uniting kindred species,
arises from one or more of these causes.
First, the sap flowing at discordant
periods. Secondly, the proper juices
being dissimilar. Or thirdly, the sap
vessels being of inappropriate calibre.
Grafting is employed, first, to multiply
any desired variety or species; second-
ly, to accelerate its fruitfulncss, as
when the shoot of a two year old apple
seedling js grafted upon a stock of six
years' growth, it will arrive at fruitful-
ncss much sooner than one left on the
parent stem ; thirdly, to improve the
([uality of the fruit by having a more
abundant supply of sap : and fourthly,
to renew the productiveness of stocks
from which previous kinds had fuled.
The best modes of grafting are thus
described by Dr. Lindley in his admir-
able Theory of Horticulture : — "■Whip
grnfting is the commonest kind ; it is
performed by heading down a stock,
then paring one side of it bare for the
space of an inch or so, and cutting
down obliquely at the upper end of the
pared part, towards the pith ; the scion
is levelled oblitjuely to a length corre-
sponding with the pared surfice of the
stock, and an incision is made into it
near the upper end of the wound ob-
liquely upwards so as to form a ' tongue,'
which is forced into the corresponding
wound in the stock ; care is then taken
in holes prepared as directed for the
open ground crop of cucumbers. Some
may be inserted beneath pales, walls
or hedges, to be trained regularly over
them on account of their ornamental
appearance. They may be treated in
every respect like the cucumber, only
they do not want so much care. They
require abundance of water in dry
weather. When the runners have e.x-
tended three feet, they may be pegged
down and covered with earth at a joint ;
this will cause the production of roots,
and the longer continuance of the plant
The fruit for seed should be selected
and treated as directed for the cucum-
ber. It is ripe in the course of Sep-
tember or October.
We have retained this article in its
original form as a matter of curiosity,
not only as regards the artificial means
necessary in Great Britain, for the pro-
duction of the pumpkin and the squash,
but also with reference to the manner
in which the latter vegetable is serv-
ed at table. Fn the United States no
person who cultivates a garden, how-
ever small, can be presumed ignorant
as to the culture of these vines, and it
is therefore unnecessary to add a word
of instruction. The pumpkin described
as the Fotiron Jaune is the one known
with us as the mammoth, of which spe-
cimens have been exhibited before the
Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, over
eight feet in circumference.
GOVENIA. Four species. Stove
orchids. G. gardneri an herbaceous
perennial. Division. Sandy peat and
light loam. G.lagfinophora,a.sA swamp
plant in very sandy peat. " Having
filled a twenty- four with about two
inches of crocks, place over them a
layer of spungy peat for two or three
inches more, and then fill it up with
nearly equal quantities of sharp sand
and heath mould, so that the surface is
nearly all sand. Place it near the light
in a cool part of the stove about GO^,
and keep it very wet as long as it con-
tinues growing. It generally flowers in
April or May. Remove to the green-
house after flowering, and keep quite
dry in the stove from October to Feb-
ruary." — Gard. Chron.
GRAFF or GR.\FT. See Scion.
uniting a scion or
that the bark of the scion is exactly ad- [ Cactaces; the parts of which, ow-
iusted to that of the stock, ing to their succulence, rea-
Fig 62. and the two are bound dily form a union with each Fig. 64.
" A far better method than
whip grafting, but more te-
i.,^ „ap... B «K id'ous, is saddle grafting, in
through the stock to sus- j which the stock is pared ob-
tain the life of the scion ! liquely on both sides till it
■ • ' becomes an inverted wedge.
" Here the mere con-
tact of the two enables
the sap flowing upwards
until the latter can de
velop its buds, which then
send downwards their
wood ; at the same time
the cellular system of the
parts in contact unites by
granulations, and when
the wood descends it
passes through the cel-
lular deposit, and holds
the whole together.
" The use of ' tongue-
ing' is merely to steady
the scion and to prevent
and the scion is slit up the
centre, when its sides are
pared down till they fit the
sides of the stock. In this
method the greatest possible
quantity of surface is brought
into contact, and the parts are
mutually so adjusted, that the
ascending sap is freely received
from the stock by the scion,
while at the same time, the
descending sap can flow freely
from the scion into the stock.
its slipping. The"advantage of this mode I Knight, in describing this mode of
of graftinl is the quickness with which operating, has the following observa-
it may be performed ; the disadvantage tions :
is, that the surfaces applied to each <.c The graft first begins its efforts to
other are much smaller than can be unite itself to the stock just at the period
' 1 L_. -.1 «n.,c ...Unr. fho frirmntinn nf a npw interna!
secured by other means.
when the formation of a new interna!
CUreu oy oilier lucaiio. wncu viic n^iiuuii'^i. ^. ..
" It is however, a great improvement | layer of bark commences in the spring,
•i_ _ _ij «^ni,i»> rrf nfH'ntr atill pm- I r,^A «V.ofliiir) vvKifVi apnprafps this laver
upon the old crown grafting, still em-
ployed in the rude unskilful practice of
some continental gardeners, but expel-
led from Great Britain ; which consists
of nothing more than heading down a
stock with an exactly horizontal cut,
and the fluid which generates this layer
of bark, and which also feeds the in-
serted graft, radiates in every direction
from the vicinity of the medulla to the
external surface of the alburnum.
" The graft is of course most advan-
stock wMtn an exacu^ jiuniumui y.^„, a j^jj^ grait is or course mosi auviiii-
and splitting it through the middle, into t^ggously placed when it presents the
which is forced the end of a scion cut' jgrgest surface to receive such fluid, and
into the form of a wedge, when the .-.i„°_ »i.„ a..;^ ;»ooif ;= marlD t<^i rlfviatp
whole are bound together.
— - —' j when the fluid itself is made to deviate
In this jgj^gj j-j-om its natural course. Thi
whole are Douna lugemei. m """least from its natural course. -iiiis
method the split in the stock can hardly j ^^^^^^ place most efficiently when, (as
be made to heal without great care ; | j^^ jj^jg saddle grafting) a graft of nearly
*Vio nninn hptween the I I ~:„., ...:.U iU^ c^t*-!..!.- io /^ivirlorl nfr
the union between the
edges of the scion and '
those of the stock is very
imperfect, because the
bark of the former neces-
sarily lies upon the wood
of the latter, except just
at the sides: and from
the impossibility of bring-
ing the two barks in con-
tact, neither the ascend-
ing nor descending cur-
rents of sap are able freely
to intermingle. This plan
is much improved by cutting out the
stock into the form of a wedge, instead
of splitting ; it may, however, be advan-
tageously employed for such plants as
„ g) a graf
equal size with the stock is divided at
its base and made to stand astride the
stock, and when the two divisions of
the graft are pared extremely thin, at
and near their lower extremities, so
that they may be brought into close
contact with the stock (from which but
little bark or wood should be pared off^