I winter, their blooming may be retarded
, until spring.
I " The temperature, during the grow-
j ing seasons, may correspond with that
I which is given to the peach when
" When the fruit is gathered, more air
should be admitted into the house. In
autumn the sashes might be entirely re-
moved, for a short time, so long as there
is no danger of frost.
" Though a separate house is highly
desirable to cultivate the loquat in, it
by no means follows that it will not
grow and fruit elsewhere. If it can be
accommodated with ^the back-wall of a
pine or plant-stove, with a border of
two or three I'eet in breadth to grow in,
it will succeed remarkably well. It is '
far from being a tender tree, or one
difficult to manage, being of a robust,
healthy habit, and requiring but little
" Some people eat the fruit before it is
quite ripe, at which period it has an
agreeable acid flavour; but to obtain a
luscious, melting, highly-flavoured fruit,
it should hang on the trees until some-
what shrivelled. It is probable that the
fruit would ripen on the back-wall of
some green-house, if it had plenty of
light and air ; at all events it is worth a
trial." â€” Gard. Ch}-on.
LORD ANSON'S PEA. Lathyrus]
LOTE. Zizyphus lotus. \
LOTUS. Forty species. Mostly ,
hardy and half-hardy annual and peren-
nial trailers. Perennials are increased
by cuttings ; and the annuals by seed,
in any light soil.
LOUREA. Two species. Stove bi-
ennials. Seed. Light rich loam. |
LOUSEWORT. Pedicular is. \
LOUSE. See Aphis. \
LOVE-APPLE. Lycopersicon escu-
lentuni. See Tomato. '
LOWEA berberrifolia. Half-hardy
deciduous shrub. Seed and layers;
sandy loam and peat. Common salt
applied occasionally is beneficial. j
LOZOTiENIA rosaria, is a small
moth, of which the caterpillar feeds
upon the leaves of the rose tree. Mr.
Curtis says, that â€” " The eggs are laid
in the summer or autumn, and hatch
with the opening leaves ; and the little
caterpillar begins at once to form a re-
sidence l)y drawing two or more leaflets
together, on which it feeds. This ope-
ration soon points out where the cater-
pillar is, and the best method wliich
we know of getting rid of it, is hand-
picking, which should be practised as
soon as the operation of the caterpillar
becomes visible." â€” Gard. Chron.
LVCV LI A gratissima. Green-house
evergreen shrub. i
Propagation by Cuttings. â€” " In pro-
pagating this take a piece of light peat
and break it quite hue, add about one-
third of fine silver sand, mix this well
together, and taking some small thumb
pots, place one crock at the bottom of
each pot, and fill them with the above
compost, about three parts full, press
this down in the centre of the pot, and
fill the remainder of the pot with silver
sand ; give them a good watering to
settle the cuttings, then take a large
pot and fill it half full of draining, and
the remainder with sand or gravel, and
then plunge four of the little pots in
this large one, and place a bell-glass
over them. Plunge in bottom-heat, and
in about a month the cuttings are rooted
and fit for potting off into small sixty-
pots ; keep them close for about a week
Grafting. â€” Mr. Beaton grafts the
Luculia upon stocks of Burchellia ca-
pensis. â€” Gard. Chron.
After-Culture. â€” "Drainage is abso-
lutely indispensable for JmcuHq. Dur-
ing the summer and early autumnal
months water should be freely supplied,
and the under surface of the leaves, as
well as the whole plant, repeatedly
washed with the fine rose of the syringe.
The general waterings must also be
gradually diminished in September, and
afterwards administered very sparingly,
for the fine fibrous roots are easily in-
jured by too much moisture. It requires
a much cooler treatment than it gene-
rally receives, and should never be
grown in a pot when it can be planted
out in a conservatory." â€” Gard. Chron.
" It is not inclined to grow naturally,
and therefore should not be stimulated
in the spring and early summer. During
that period it sliould be kept in a green-
house : towards the end of May and
the beginning of June, it should be
planted out in a warm place rather
sheltered t'rom the sun. In August or
September it should be taken up and
repotted, and placed in a vinery or cool
hot-house. It will then grow vigorous-
ly, and form its head of blossoms,
which are both beautiful and fragrant,
and expand during the greater part of
the winter. It may be kept in the
drawing room without injury till it has
done flowering, and should then be re-
turned to the green-house." â€” Gard.
LUCUMA. Four species. Stove
evergreen trees. Ripe cuttings. Rich
LUHEA paninilata. Stove ever-
green climber. Cuttings. Peat and
L U I S I A alpina. Stove epiphyte.
Lateral shoots, six inches long; attached either in patches in the different corn-
to blocks of charred wood. ; partments as already observed, for the
LUMNITZERA moschata, a green- plants to remain where sowed ; or may
house annual ; and L. <enu(^ora, a stove ; be sowed in beds in drills for trans-
herbaceous perennial. The first by plantation ; but as the plants generally
seed, the second by division. Common | send their roots deep into the ground,
LUNARIA. Honesty. Two species.
Hardy biennial and perennial. Seed.
Common shaded soil.
LUPINUS. Lupine. Fifty-seven
species. Chiefly hardy annual and herb-
aceous plants. Of these the propagation
is effected by seed in the open ground
in March, April, and May, observing
that as too copious moisture is apt to
rot the seed, they should not be sowed
they generally succeed best when per-
mitted to remain where raised. â€” Aber-
LUXEMBURGIA ciliosa. Stove
evergreen shrub. Cuttings. Light rich
LYCASTE. Four species. Stove
epiphyte. Off"sets. Peat and pot-
LYCHNIS. Twenty species. Hardy
herbaceous, except L. ccelirosa and L.
fcithago, which are annuals. Seed or
earlier than the middle or latter end of divisions, the latter to be annually re-
March, except on very dry, warm soils.
The annual sorts should be sowed at I
peated. Light rich loam.
LYCIUM. Sixteen species. Hardy
once in the places where the plants are 1 and half-hardy deciduous and ever-
to flower, for they d6 not succeed by green shrubs and climbers. Cuttings.
transplantation, and to have a succes-
sion of bloom, about three or four dif-
ferent sowings may be necessary from i
about the middle or latter end of March
until June, especially the yellow sort,
whose bloom is rather of short dura-
tion; observinsj to sow all the sorts in
LYCOPERSICON. Nine spe-
cies. Hardy annuals, except L. peru-
vianum, which is a stove herbaceous
perennial. See Love-Apple.
LYON, John. Mr. Lyon was born
in Scotland, and emigrated to this coun-
patches, four, five, or six seeds in each, try about the commencement oftlie pre-
near an inch deep, and when the plants sent century. He shortly thereafter
come up, leave only three of the best [entered into the employ of the late
of them, though of the large kind one \Vm. Hamilton, and, for several years,
or two may be sufficient in each place, superintended his choice collection of
When large quantities are required for, exotic plants at the "Woodlands." Mr.
nosegays to supply the markets, &c., as Lyon subsequently became a regular
practised about London with the yellow! collector of American plants and seeds
sweet scented sort, they may be sowed I for exportation, and in the prosecution
in rows in beds, drilling them in an inch ' of his object made frequent excursions
deep, allowing a foot between the rows, i to the south and west. His collections
Keep them clean from weeds, which is i were usually congregated at the Nur-
all the culture they require: the first i sery grounds of his friends at Phila-
sown plants will furnish plenty of ripe | delphia, and, when properly prepared,
seed. If some seeds are sowed in au- ] were by him taken to Europe. He
tumn, in September, in a warm dry situ- made a number of trips to England,
ation, the plants will come up, and i each tmie carrying with him large lots
often stand the winter tolerably well, of our native plants, which met with
and flower early the following year
or, if some are sowed in pots, especial-
ly the giant sort, comprising the Large
Blue, and the Rose Lupine, which in
wet autumns ripen seed but indifferent-
ly, so that by placing the pots in a gar-
den frame, to haveoccasional protection
from hard frost, they will flower early
in the following summer, so as to per-
fect seeds before they are attacked by
the autumnal rains.
ready sale at liberal prices. Thirty or
forty years ago the communication with
Europe was not so trifling a matter as
at present, and a journey of some thou-
sand miles in search of floral treasures,
and their transportation across the At-
lantic, was quite an event in the horti-
cultural world. ]Mr. Lyon was a man
of cultivated mind, and, to a good plain
education, such as most of his country-
men receive, he had added the results
The perennial sort may be sowed of extensive reading and observation.
He died about the year 1S16, whilst on \ the art, of which it treated, was in the
a collecting journey in Tennessee, from ' "
fever contracted by exposure whilst
travelling on horseback,
LYON I A. Six species. Hardy
evergreen shrubs. Layers and seed.
LYONSIA straminea. Stove ever-
green twiner. Cuttings. Loam and peat.
L Y S I M A C 11 1 A . Twenty spe-
cies. Hardy herbaceous perennials and
annuals, except L.atropurpurea and L.
maculata, which require a green-house.
L. thyrsijlora is an aquatic. Annuals
by seed ; others by division. Common
LYSINEMA. Five species. Green-
house evergreen shrubs. Cuttings.
LYTHRUM. Eleven species. Hardy
herbaceous and annuals. Division or
seed. Common soil.
MABA buxifolia, a stove evergreen
shrub, .Tud M. laurina, a green-house
evergreen trailer. Ripe cuttings. Loam
MACLEANIA longiflora. Green-
house evergreen shrub. Cuttings. Light
M.'i.CLEAYA cordata. Hardy herb-
aceous perennial. Division, and seeds.
MACLURA. Three species. M.
aurantiaca is a hardy deciduous tree ;
the two others, stove evergreen trees.
Ripe cuttings. Turfy loam and peat.
M. aurantiaca, the Osage Orange, is
admirably adapted for hedges : it is ot
rapid growth, perfectly hardy as far
north as Pennsylvania, is not subject to
disease, is armed with sharp spines
which pain on puncture, and, abound-
ing in acrid juice, is not browsed by cat
United States much needed. He was
said to have been a man of liberal edu-
cation, and an ardent admirer of horti-
culture. It is probable his love for it
led to his emt)arking in the sale of
plants and seeds as a profession. In
connection with his seed-store, Mr. M.
established a Nursery near the city, and
concentrated many interesting speci-
mens on his trrouiuls. They were, at a
later day, under the management of his
son, but are now, we believe, no longer
cultivated as a Nursery.
MACRADENIA. Three species.
Stove orchids. Division. Wood.
MACROCNEMUM. Two species.
Stove evergreen trees. Cuttings. Loam
M A C R P O D I U M laciniatum.
A hardy annual, increased by seeds; and
M. nivale, a hardy herbaceous peren-
nial, increased by cuttings. A light
rich soil suits them both.
M A C R O T Y S racemosa. Hardy
herbaceous perennial. Division. Rich
MADAGASCAR NUTMEG. Aga-
MAD.\GASCAR POTATO. Solamim
MAD-APPLE. Solanum insanum.
MADIA. Two species. Hardy an-
nuals. Seeds. Common soil.
M.ESA. Five species. Stove ever-
green shrubs or trees. Cuttings. Peat
MAGNOLIA. Fourteen species.
They are chiefly hardy deciduous trees,
but M. grandiflora, and its varieties,
require protection in Pennsylvania, in
tie. With these qualities it is, we think,} severe winters, especially if the soil be
destined to be extensively used as a
M'MAHON, Bernard, was a native
not thoroughly drained. The next most
worthy of cultivation are M. acuminata,
M. macrophylla, M. glauca, and M. pur-
of Ireland. Implicated in thedisastrous purea.
rebellion of "98, he fled to this country,
and was for some years connected with
a political newspaper of Philadelphia.
Our purpose is, however, to refer to Mr.
Planting. â€” The best season for plant-
ing all the species is early in spring,
though as those sorts which are in pots
may be turned out with the ball of
M'Mahon as associated with the subject earth about their roots, they may be
of this work. Mr. M. ultimately esta- 1 occasionally transplanted in October or
blished himself as a Nursery and Seeds- beginning of November. Observe, as
man in that city, and published an ex- they are rather of a tender nature in
cellent book on gardening, the " Ame- their younger growth, it is proper to
rican Gardener's Calendar," which was allot them a sheltered sunny situation,
favourably received, and opportunely and dry soil ; and all of them should he
issued, for at that time information on I stationed in the most conspicuous point
of view, and not too closely crowded | grow well in any rich soil. The hardy
with shrubs of inferior merit
MAGPIE MOTH. See Abraxas.
MAHERNIA. Thirteen species.
Green-house evergreen shrubs. Young
cuttings taken off at a joint. Loam and
MAHONIA. Four species. Hardy
or half-hardy evergreen shrubs. M.
nervosa is deciduous. Layers or ripe
cuttings. Sand, peat, and loam.
MAIDEN HAIR. Passifiora adian-
tum, and Adiantum capillus veneris,
MAIDEN-HAIR TREE. Salishuria
MAIDEN TREE is a seedling tree
which has not been grafted.
The time which elapses before seed-
lings attain a bearing age is very vari-
ous. The pear requires from twelve to
eighteen years ; the apple five to thir-
teen ; plum and cherry four to five;
vine three to four ; raspberry two ; and
the strawberry one.
MAJORANA. Four species. Half-
hardy evergreen shrubs. M. hortensis
a hardy annual. Slips or cuttings.
They succeed well in a sandy soil and
a dry situation.
MALABAR LEAF. Cinnamomum
MALABAR NIGHTSHADE. Ba-
MALABAR NUT. Justicia adha-
MALABAR ROSE. Hibiscus Rosa
Hardy deciduous tree. Layers or ripe
cuttings. Peat and loam.
MALAY APPLE. Jambosa malac-
MALASIS paludosa. Hardy orchid.
Division. Sandy peat.
MALESHERBIA. Two species,
(ireen-house annuals. Seeds. Sandy
MALFORMATION. See Deformity.
MALOPE. Two species. Hardy
annuals. Seeds. Common soil.
MALPIGHIA. Fourteen species.
Stove evergreen shrubs or trees. Ripe
cuttings. Light soil.
MALT DUST. See Vegetable Ma-
MALVA. Mallow. Forty-eight spe-
cies. The stove and green-house ever-
green shrubs increase by cuttings, and
and half-hardy herbaceous kinds
crease by division or by seeds. The
hardy annuals by seeds, and common
MALVAVISCUS. Three siSecies.
Stove evergreen shrubs. Cuttings.
, Loam and peat.
MAMMEA americana. Stove ever-
j green fruit tree. Ripe cuttings. Sandy
I MAMESTRA. M. brassica, M. ole-
racea. The whole cabbage tribe are
subject to the attacks of the caterpillars
of these moths, known as the Cabbage
and White -line Brown- eyed Mollis.
These appear in June or May. The
Cabbage Moth is light brown, with wavy
marked wings; its caterpillar is green
stained with grey, with a dark line
down the back. The White-line Moth is
rusty brown, and its upper wings wliite
margined, with an orange coloured spot
near it; caterpillar brownish. Hand-
picking or lime dust are the only reme-
dies. â€” Curtis.
MAMMILLARIA. Seventy- eight
species. Stove evergreen shrubs. Off-
sets. Sandy peat.
MANDARIN ORANGE. Citrus no-
MANETTIA. Four species. Stove
evergreen climbers. Young cuttings.
Loam and peat.
MANGIFERA. Mango Tree. Two
species. Stove evergreen tropical fruit
trees. Ripe cuttings, or fresh seeds
imported from the places of their natural
growth. Turfy sandy loam, or loam
and peat. The mango thrives best in a
temperature of 60^. It does not require
bottom heat. Leaf-mould is a good
manure. It must not be pruned, for
excessive bleeding always follows.
MANGO GINGER. Curcuma amada.
MANGO TREE. See Mangifera.
MANICARIA saccifera. A tine palm
tree. Seeds. Rich loam.
MANNA ASH. Ornus rotundijolia.
MANULEA. Eleven species
Chiefly green-house annuals and ever-
green shrubs, or stove herbaceous per-
ennials. Cuttings or seeds. Peat and
sand, or vegetable mould.
MANURES. Manures are animal,
vegetable and mineral ; they directly
assist the growth of plants, first, by
entering into their composition ; second-
ly, by absorbing and retaining moisture
from the atmosphere ; thirdly, by ab-
sorbing the gases of the atmosphere;
fourthly, by stimulating the vascular
system of the plants. Manures approxi-
mately assist vegetation, first, by kill-
ing predatory vermin and weeds ; se-
condly, by promoting the decomposition
of stubborn organic remains in the soil ;
thirdly, by protecting incumbent plants
from violent changes of temperature.
All these properties seldom if ever
occur in one species of manure, but
each is usually particularized by pos-
sessing one or more in a superior de-
gree. That is the most generally appli-
cable manure, which is composed of
matters essential to the growth of plants:
the chief of these are carbon, hydrogen,
and oxygen; therefore all animal and
vegetable substances are excellent ma-
nures. It would evidently be of great
benefit, if every plant could be manured
with the decaying parts of its own spe-
cies; tiie ancients made this a particular
object. We read that those vines were
the most fruitful, which were manured
with their own leaves and prunings, and
the skins of expressed grapes. This
rule might be so far followed, as that
the stems of potatoes, peas, &c., could
be dug respectively into the compart-
ments where those crops are intended
to be grown in the following year.
Of the less general manures which
benefit plants by entering into their
composition, a few words will suftice.
Sulphate of lime (gypsum) is a compo-
nent of clover, lucerne, turnips, &c.;
hence it has been applied with benefit
to these crops on such soils as did not
already contain it. Bones broken small
have lately become a very general ma-
nure; their utility is easily accounted
for. The bones of oxen contain about
fifty per cent, of gelatine, which is
soluble in water, and rapidly becomes
putrescent. The remainder is chiefly
phosphate and carbonate of lime, salts
which are components of wheat, rve,
barley, oats, peas, beans, vines, cucum-
bers, potatoes, garlic, onions, truffles,
Common salt also is employed as a
manure, and is beneficial, partly in con-
sequence of entering into the constitu-
tion of plants.
Some manures ameliorate a soil by
absorbing moisture from theatmosphere.
This property is at least as beneficial to
ground that is aluminous as to that
which is siliceous; for it is equally use-
less to either during such periods of the
year as are characterized by a plentiful
deposition of rain; but in the drought
of summer, when moisture is much
wanting to plants, it is beneficial to
both; in very dry seasons it is even
of greater importance to clayey than
to light soils ; for vegetation on the
former suffers more from long continued
drought than on the latter, inasmuch as
that moisture being equally exhaled
from each, the surface of the clayey
soil becomes caked and impervious to
air, the only grand source of compensa-
tory moisture that is available to the
languishing plants, and which is more
open to those which grow on light, and,
consequently, more pervious soils.
The following table of the compara-
tive absorbent powers of many manures,
is extracted chiefly from An Essay on
the Use of Salt in Agriculture, by Mr.
Horse-dung evaporated pre-^
viously to dryness, at a |
temperature of 100^, ab- 1
sorbed during an exposure f"
of three hours to air satu- \
rated with moisture at 62'^ J
Putrefied tanners' bark,~
under similar circum-
stances (66') ....
Unputrefied tanners' bark
Pig dung 120
Sheep dung 81
Pigeon dung oO
Refuse marine salt (GC^) . . 49i
. Soot (68Â°) 36
Burnt clay 29
The richest soil (in one hour) 23
Coal ashes 14
Lime (part carbonate) . . 11
Crushed rock salt .... 10
The absorbing power of a manure is
much influenced by the state in which
it is presented to the atmosphere, lii
a finely divided state mere capillary at-
traction assists it; hence, the import-
ance of keeping the soil frequently
stirred by hoeing, &c. But a mere
mass of cotton, by means of capillary
attraction, will absorb moisture from the
air, yet it parts with it at a very slight
elevation of temperature : it is of im-
portance therefore to ascertain whiuli
are the manures that not only absorb
but retain moisture powerfully. The
following results of my experiments
throw some light on this point : â€”
Pig dung evaporated to dry-~
ness at a temperature of
106Â°, and then moistened
with six parts of water, ^ 135'
required for being reduced
to dryness again, at the
above temperature i
Horse-dung under similar )
Common sail 75
Rich soil 32
Poor soil (siliceous) .... 23
These experiments point out a cri-
terion by which we easily ascertain the
comparative richness of any two given
soils or manures ; the most fertile will
be most absorbent and retentive.
Some manures increase the growth
and vigour of plants by stimulating their
absorbent and assimilating organs.
which by a few hours' exposure to the
air subsides into a gray or black hue.
The first colour appears to arise from
the oxyde of iron which all soils con-
tain, being in the state of the red or
protoxide; by absorbing more oxygen
during the exposure, it is converted
into the black or peroxide. Hence one
of the benefits of frequently stirring
soils ; the roots of incumbent plants
abstract the extra dose of oxygen, and
reconvert it to the protoxide. Coal
ashes, in common with all carbona-
ceous matters, have the power of
strongly attracting oxygen. Every gar-
dener may have observed how rapidly
a bright spade of iron left foul with
coal ashes, becomes covered with rust,
or red oxide.
All animal and vegetable manures
absorb oxygen from the air during pu-
trefaction ? If it be required of what
benefit this property is to plants, since
the gases are freely presented to them
in the atmosphere, it admits the ready
answer, that they enjoy the additional
quantity which is thus collected to the
The stimulating powers of excremen- , vicinity of their roots, without the lat-
titious manures arise from the salts of ter source being diminished; and that
ammonia they contain.
i plants are benefited by such additional
Sir H. Davy found vegetation assisted , application to their radiculae has been
by solutions of muriate of ammonia (sal- , proved by the experiments of Mr. Hill.
ammoniac), carbonate of ammonia (vol
atile salt), and acetate of ammonia.
Night soil, one of the most beneficial
of manures, surpasses all others in the
abundance of its ammoniacal consti-
tuents in the proportion of three to one,
The question may also be asked,
whether the roots have the power to
extract the oxygen from its combina-
tion ? That they have this power ad-
mits of little doubt, since Saussure
found that they were able to extract
It may be observed, that the nearer j various saline bodies from their combi-
any animal approaches to man in the ' nations ; not only extracting but select-
nature of its food, the more fertilizing ing in those cases where several salts
is the manure it affords.
I have no doubt that a languishing I
were in the same solution.
Dr. Daubeny, the Oxford professor of
plant, one, for example, that has been I agriculture, has also shown that stron-
kept very long with its roots out of the ' tian is rejected by barley, pelargoniums,