mixed with one-fourth its bulk of old the evening; but if there is the least
cow-dung, makes a soil very beneficial appearance of a wet night, they had
to this flower. Woollen rags mixed 1 better be covered before leaving them.
with the soil are also strongly recom- ; Should the season be dry, they will re-
I quire regular watering between the
Bed. — Raise the bed six inches above ' rows; rain or pond water, where pro-
the soil around, and formed like a curable, is always to be preferred. A
pitched roof, thus: The compost should little clay or stiflT loam placed in the
form of a margin round the edge of the
Fig. 128. bed would serve as a basin, and prevent
the water from escaping into the path
or alley." — Gard. Chron.
PIN-PILLAR. Opuntia curassavica.
PINUS. Kir Tree. Sixty-eight spe-
cies and many varieties. Seed, layers,
be at least a foot deep. Plant in rows, inarching or grafting. Sandy loam on
and twelve inches apart each way. a dry subsoil. See Conifera.
After Culture. — "The first thing to PIP, in floriculture, is a single corolla
be attended to will be to thin out the ; or flower, where several grow upon a
flower-stems, in order to throw more i common stem, as in the Polyanthus and
strength into those which are left. Auricula. The pips thus growing to-
When the plants are weak all the ! gether are described as a Ti'uss.
stems should be removed but one, and I PIPER. Pepper. Twenty-seven
on a plant of moderate size not more I species. Stove evergreen shrubs. Cut-
than three should be retained. These I tings and suckers; loam and peat. On
again should be looked over, and the the culture of the Black Pepper, (P.
lateral flower-buds removed from them
leaving only the terminal bud and the
Tiigrum.) Dr. Lindley observes, that
it grows luxuriantly in many stoves,
next but one below it; provided these i biit is shy in ripening its fruit. This is
are perfect in form, all the rest may be probably owing to the uniform moisture
pinched off". In tying up the stems of which is kept in these places. It should
pinks and other plants of this class
great judgment is required; in fact, de-
lay is better in this instance than too
much haste. If tied too high at first,
the stems, as they lengthen, are pre-
be planted in a large tub or box well
drained, all the strong flower-bearing
shoots should be supported with strong
stakes, and the small useless ones cut
away. When not growing much, keep
vented by the ligature from growing it rather dry, and give it a slight check,
erect, and become crooked, or perhaps and be careful not to give it too much
snap off" at the joints. They should, I water after flowering. Bottom heat,
therefore, be looked to every day particularly when growing, is indispen-
where practicable; and if there is the [sable." — Gard. Chron.
PIPERIDGE, the Barberry.
PIPES for heating horticultural struc-
least appearance of any flower-stem
having become cramped the tie should
immediately be cut loose. The safest } tures are preferably made of cast iron,
painted black. Earthenware has been
recommended for the purpose, but they
arc so much more liable to breakage
and leakage, as to outweigh any original
saving in the cost. For draining, earthen
way is to secure the bush to the flower
stick, to which, the stem should be
looselv tied so as to allow it perfect
liberty to slide through as it increases
in height. These ligatures, when the
plants have acquired their full growth, : pipes with a bore an inch in diameter
can be easily removedj and the plants are the best.
Table of the quantity of pipe, four inches diameter, which will heat one
thousand cubic feet of air per minute, any required number of degrees- the
temperature of the pipe being 200" Falirenheit.
emperature at which the room is required to 1
Freezing point 32
19 1 40
To ascertain by the above Table the quantity of pipe which will heat one
thousand cubic feet of air per minute: — find, in the first column, the tempera-
ture corresponding to that of the external air, and in one of the other columns
find the temperature of the room; then in this latter column, and on the line
which corresponds with the external temperature, the required number of feet
of pipe will be found. See Hot water and Steam.
P1PL\G. See Pink and Carnation
for this mode of propagation.
PIPTANTHU8 nepalensis. Hardy
deciduous shrub. Layers and cuttings.
PIPTOCLAINA supina. Hardy an-
nual. Seed. Common soil.
PIQUERIA trinervia. Hardy herb-
aceous. Division. Light rich loam.
PISCIDIA. Jamaica Dogwood.
Two species. Stove evergreen trees.
Cuttings. Light loam.
PISCINARY is another name for a
fish pond, which in landscape garden-
ing comes under the general terms
Water and Pond, which see. ■
PI ST A CHI A. Four species and
more varieties. Hardy and half-hardy
evergreen and deciduous trees. Lay-
ers and ripe cuttings ; light rich loam.
Even the hardy species of this genus
do best against a wall.
P I S T O R I N I A hispanica. Hardy
biennial. Seed. Light well-drained soil.
PISUM. Pea. Seven species and
many varieties. Hardy annual climbers,
except the herbaceous perennials, P.
americanum and P. maritimum. Seed.
Rich dry soil. See Pea.
PIT, in the Conservatory, is the body
of soil in which the shrubs, &c., are
planted ; in the Stove, it is the excava-
tion in which is the tan, or other mate-
rial for plunging the pots; and for
Forcing, it is a structure having a glass
roof, and dift'ering from a forcing frame
only in being larger, and with sides
fixed to the soil. Pits for this purpose
were usually sunk in the ground; but
it has been justly observed, that " sunk- | door in the back wall, and the passage
en pits are inconvenient to ^et at ; there j along the middle, a person can go in at
is no pulling their sashes off and on j any time without pushing down the
with ease, and ventilation is trouble- sashes, and reaching from the back to
some. Then, again, in spite of all that the front, he can water or do anything
can be done, they will always be damp ;
and although this is advantageous for
else the plants may require.
' This pit is extremely useful for
some purposes, it is destructive to raising seeds, or for growing small
green-house plants in long winters.
Upon tlie whole, the inconveniences,
are at least as considerable as the ad-
green-house plants, and keeping such
things as verbeneas, petunias, and scar-
let pelargoniums, for turning out into
vantages. We doubt whether sunken j the flower garden during the summer
pits can often be recommended in gar- I months ; or by dividing it into two parts
by a partition, having a door in it, one
Under the various titles Melon, Cii- [ half may be used for striking cuttings,
cumber. Pine Jipple, ^-c, descripUons of raising seeds, or keeping plants, which
pits suitable for their cultivation will J have been newly potted off, and the
be found. The following outline is of other filled with well established plants,
one for various purposes, strongly re- : requiring more light and air; so that,
commended by Mr. R. Fortune, gar-! with a little contrivance, it is astonish-
dener at the Chiswick Gardens :
a, stages and back and front shelf;
h, passage along the middle; c, pro-
posed tank ; d, proposed ventilators.
The width of tlie pit is nine feet ;
and, as the sketch is drawn from mea-
surement, any one may easily ascertain
the different proportions.
The two stages are made of wood,
having cross bars, as seen atffl, and up-
right bearers on each side of b. The
small shelf in front is supported by a
bracket, which also supports the hot
water pipes ; and the back shelf might! dria.
be supported in the same manner, al-
though in this instance it is formed out
of the thickness of the back wall. The
only improvement in its construction,
is to have a large tank in some conve-
nient place in front, as at c, to receive
the rain which falls on the roof; and also
some wooden ventilators in the back and
front wall at d, which could be opened
at those times when it is not prudent to
draw down the sashes. By having the
ing how many things the amateur may
do in a small place like this." — Gard.
PITCAIRNIA. Seventeen species.
Stove herbaceous. Seed and suckers.
Moss potsherds. They are really epi-
PITCHER-LEAF. Nepenthes phyl-
PITCHER-PLANT. Nepenthes dis-
PITTOSPORUM. Eighteen species.
Green-house evergreen shrubs, except
P. tobira, which, matted, will sustain
the winter south of Virginia. Ripe cut-
tings. Peat and loam.
PLADERA. Two species. Green-
house biennials. Seed, and cultivated
like the Balsam.
PLAGIOLOBIUM. Two species.
Green-house evergreen shrubs. Young
cuttings. Sandy loam and peat.
PLASTER OF PARIS. See Gypsum.
PLANERA. Two species. Hardy
deciduous trees. Layers on grafts of
the elm. Light loam, near water.
PLANE TREE. Platanus.
PLANK PLANT. Bossiaa scoloppn-
PLANTAIN TREE. Musa.
PLANTATION. The ornamental
distribution of trees is considered under
the titles Clump, Wood, ^-c. ; and here
will be considered only a few practical
details relative to the planting and ma-
nagement of trees.
Selection. — Our guide in this must be
the nature of the soil. If chalk is a
principal constituent of this, the beech,
birch, and ash must be the trees chiefly
P L A
ailopted ; if clay, the oak ; if rich loam, plant for merely ornamental purposes;
the elm. In moist situations, the akler, and It is because all timber trees con-
sallow, and willow; and in mountain, tain phospliate of lime in very con-
and dry soiled districts, all the hardy siderabic proportions, that crushed
conifera;, the bircli and the ash. Peat, bones are found to be so excellent a
if well drained, wdi bear the Scotch fir; fertilizer for them ; and hence one rea-
and the Spanish chestnut will flourisli son, why it has long been a well-known
on light sheltereil loam. On the poor- fact, that by burying dead animals un-
est and lightest soils, if well drained, ! der trees nearly exhausted for want of
the larch will establish itself. Similar nourishment, those trees will almost
attention must be paid to the soil in : invariably be considerably revived, and
locating the shrubs. Rhododendrons \ send out their shoots with unusual vi-
delight in shade and leaf-mould; and [ gour ; and how essential the presence
others have their particular soils, of i of phosphate of lime is to their growth,
which information will be found in other may be judged of from the fact, that
pages, under their appropriate titles. ' this salt constitutes 45 per cent, of the
Manures. — Trees, like all other ashes of the oak; 35 in those of the
plants, are benefited by being appro- hazel; 16.75 of the poplar; 23 in the
priately manured; their growth is thus hornbeam; 12 per cent, in those of the
accelerated, and contrary to old opin- fir.
ions, it is found that the wood of These chemical examinations natu-
quickly-growing trees is more durable, rally support the conclusion to which I
and more tough than that of trees of have long come in my own experiments,
the same species which have vegetated that in all plantations of timber trees,
more tardily. Calcareous matter is al- both on the score of profit and of orna-
ways required by trees; and my brother, ' ment, it is in almost all situations de-
Mr. Cuthbert Johnson, has truly stated sirable to assist the growth of the young
that on the poor hungry heath lands, trees by a sinall addition of manure,
such as those of Norfolk, Surrey, and 1 On a large scale this must be chiefly
the north, which contain hardly a trace confined to the use of the earths, either
of carbonate of lime, they find that, by
dressing with chalk or marl, land in-
tended for planting, the growth of the
lime, chalk, or marl, according to their
respective local value ; and for this
purpose a smaller proportion per acre
trees is very materially increased; and j of any kind of manure is of much great-
more recently, as in the forest of Dama- 1 er value than is commonly supposed,
way in Scotland, the planters have I I have usually, under every plant, mere-
found the greatest advantage from plac- | ly applied a small shovelful of tolerably-
ing only a handful of lime (about four rotted stable dung, stirring it up with
bushels per acre is sufficient) in the soil the mould ; and, as these experiments
under the plants. By this means the were principally made on a poor hungry
young trees, they say, are forced for- gravelly soil, nearly destitute of carbon-
ward ; that is, they are supplied with ate of lime, I have usually added to the
the carbonate of lime at the very period ' beach plants, instead of the farm-yard
of their growth, when their roots, from manure, a small quantity of chalk,
want of extent and vigour, are least j Trenching. — In preparing the land
able to absorb from the soil the portion for plantations, the same chemical ex-
ofthis earth so essential for their healthy ! amination of the composition well illus-
growth. And it is precisely such heath tratcs the advantages derived by the
soils as those to which I have alluded ! plant, from merely previously stirring
as being so materially benefited by the I the soil ; since it is evident that when
application of lime, chalk, or marl the constituents of the young trees are
(which also contains chalk), that are ' contained in it in only very limited pro-
found, when examined in their natural
state, to be nearly destitute of carbon-
ate of lime.
It is for the same reasons that, in
the early state of their growth, timber
plantations are benefited so materially
by being manured with organic mat-
ters — a fact well known to those who
portions, in such case the more easily
their roots arc enabled to penetrate in
search of that necessary nourishment,
the more rapid will be their growth.
Previous trenching of the soil also
conduces to the healthy growth of trees
in more ways than one. It renders
them less subject to injury from want
of moisture in the heats of summer ; i
the atmosphere more freely finds access
to their roots; and not only yields its
watery vapour in the warmest weather
for their service, but its gases, so es-
sential to their very existence, are also
in a similar manner more readily ab-
Draining. — The most neglected, yet
most important, of all the branches of
forest culture, is draining. This ought to
be done thoroughly before planting ; but
if it has been neglected, may be done
at any time, the sooner the better, and
the effects will surprise, in a year or
two, even the most sanguine. I have
seen larch plantations, by draining only,
converted from sickly worthless trees
to thriving valuable woodlands.
Planting. — "Too little attention,"
Mr. C. Johnson justly observes, " is
usually paid by planters in the choice
of their plants, the manner in which
they have been reared, and in the care
of their removal. Instead of attending
to the acquired habits of the tree, it is
a very common practice for the plants
to be bought of some nurseryman who
has reared them in a warm rich bottom,
and then, as a natural consequence,
when the trees are transplanted to a
cold, poor, hungry, exposed soil, a
large proportion of them are sure to
perish, or, if they live, many become
stunted or stag-headed.
" There are other very common er-
rors, of which I have long noticed the
ill effects ; for instance, the want of
care with which the roots of the young
trees are deposited in the earth, and
the unnecessary length of time which
is suffered to elapse between the period
when the plant is taken from the nur-
sery and replanted. I have always
found the good effect of causing the
roots of the young plant to be carefully
arranged and spread out before the
earth is thrown in upon them — the
usually heedless way in which the roots
are thrust into the hole, and perhaps
broken or materially bruised in the act
of treading in the earth upon them, is
of necessity prejudicial to the young
plant; and then, again, a still more
negligent practice, that of ploughing
in the young trees, is too often adopted
on a large scale, by which the plants
are still more hastily deposited in the
soil, and are neither fixed with suffi-
cient firmness in the ground, nor even
placed in an upright position." — Farm.
There is certainly no economy in this
hasty mode of planting ; the trees perish
in great numbers; they linger for years
without vigour ; have to be replaced at
a considerable expense; and, in the
mean time, the owners lose all the ad-
vantage which might have been ensured
from a more skilfully obtained rapidity
of growth. In planting on a large
scale, the same pains and care should
be taken as in inserting a shrub in the
Pruning. — If care be taken to rub
off ill-placed shoots in the early stages
of a tree's growth, no after-pruning —
no extensive application of the knife
and saw — will be required, except in
case of casual ties. When a large branch
requires amputation, it is best to leave
a stump projecting a full foot from the
stem. The face of the wound should
be towards the ground, and the edges
trimmed smooth with a very sharp
PLASHING is " a mode of repairing
or modifying a hedge by bending down
a portion of the shoots, cutting them
half through near the ground to render
them more pliable, and twisting them,
among the upright stems, so as to render
the whole more effective as a fence,
and at the same time preserve all the
branches alive. For this purpose the
branches to be plashed, or bent down,
must not be cut more than half through,
in order that a sufficient portion of sap
may rise up from the root to keep alive
the upper part of the branches.
" Where hedges are properly formed
and kept, they can very seldom require
to be plashed." — Farm. Enc.
PLATANTHERA. Thirteen species.
Hardy orchids, except the stove, P.
susannce, and the green-house, P.jiava.
Seed. Loam, peat, and chalk.
PLATANUS. Plane-Tree. Two spe-
cies and three varieties. P. orientalis
does not suffer from the disease which
has of late years attacked one indige-
nous species. Hardy deciduous trees.
Layers, cuttings, and seed. Common
Stove evergreen tree. Cuttings. Peat
PLATYCHILUM celsianum. Green-
house evergreen shrub. Young cut-
tings. Sandy loam and peat.
P L A
PLATYLOBIUM. Six species.
Greeii-house evergreen shrubs. Seed.
Sandy peat and a little loam.
PLATVLOPHUS trifoUatus. White
ash. Green-house evergreen tree. Ripe
cuttings. Loam and peat.
PLATYSTKMON. Two species.
Hardy annuals. Seed. Sandy loam.
PLATYSTIGMA linear e. Half-hardy
herbaceous. Division. Sandy loam.
PLATYSTYLIS. Three species.
Hardy herbaceous. Division and seed.
PLE.4SURE-GR0UND is a collective
name for that combination of parterres,
lawns, shrubberies, waters, arbours, &c.
yvhich are noticed individually in these
pages. One observation may be ap-
plied to all — let congruity preside over
the whole. It is a great fault to have
any one of those portions of the plea-
sure ground in excess ; and let the
whole be proportioned to the residence.
It is quite as objectionable to be over-
gardened as to be over-housed. Above
all things eschew what has aptly been
termed gingerbread-work. Nothing of-
fends a person of good taste so much
as the divisions and sub-divisions we
are sometimes compelled to gaze on
" with an approving smile."
PL EC T RAN THUS. Six spe-
cies. The annual and biennial species
by seed ; the shrubs and herbaceous by
cuttings. All in rich light loam. They
are all tenants of either the green-house
PLECTRITIS congesta. Hardy an-
nual. Seed. Common soil.
PLECTRONIA corymhosa. Green-
house evergreen tree. Cuttings. Loam
PLKROMA. Four species. Stove
evergreen shrubs. Young cuttings.
Sandv loam and peat.
PLETHORA. See Extravasated Sap.
PLEURANDRA. Seven species.
Green-house evergreen shrubs,
cuttings. Sandy loam and peat
species. Stove epiphytes. Division.
Wood and moss.
PLOCAMA pendula. Green-house
evergreen shrub. Cuttings. Loam and
PLUM. Prunus domestica.
the London Horticultural Society at
Chiswick. The following limited,
though select number, we extract from
the catalogue of the old Landreth Nur-
series. (See p. 466.)
The descriptions and cuts of a few-
choice kinds may aid those about to
plant, in selecting with advantage.
Washington. (Bolmar's Washing-
ton.) (Fig. 130.) " This is an Ameri-
can seedling, accidentally produced in
the city of New York. Its great size
and beautiful appearance, at once intro-
duced it into general culture ; it must
be confessed, there are many of greater
merit, though but few of more prepos-
" Skin yellow, or yellowish-green,
when fully matured dotted with red.
Flesh yellow, separating freely from
the stone. The tree is of vigorous
Ripe j growth, hardy, and well suited to our
climate." — Rural Reg.
Columbia. (Fig. 131.) " An admi-
rable plum, well worthy of its name;
raised by Mr. Lawrence, of Hudson,
New York, who has doubly served us
by producing another first rate plum,
' Lawrence's Favorite.' The Columbia
is a free bearer, fruit of the first class,
both as regards size and quality. Skin
purple, abounding in bloom. Flesh
orange. Ripe at Philadelphia close of
Varieties. — One hundred and twenty-
seven are cultivated in the Gardens of August." — Rural Reg
Colour — y yellow; b blue ; r red ;
Plums. — Explanation of Abbreviations
p purple. Size. — l large ; m medium.
* American Seedlings of acknowledged merit
*Bingham's Egg .
Blue Gage .
*Bleeker's Gage .
Coe's Golden Drop
*Cooper's Red American
*Gage, Prince's Imperia
*Huling's Superb .
Red Magnum Bonum
White Magnum Bonum