in April, in a bed of rich light earth, in
drills half an inch deep, and six inches I Ascyron.
apart. The plants soon make their ap- i SALADING.
pearance, and when two or three inches ! American Cress,
high, thin to half a foot apart, and those I Beet Root,
removed prick out at a similar distance. Borage.
In the autumn or succeeding spring, as ! Burnet,
the plants are strong or weak, remove ; Celeriac.
them to their final stations. I Celery.
After-Culture. â During their future | Chervil,
existence, keep constantly clear of j Corn Salad,
weeds. The decayed flower-stalks, ; Cress,
stunted branches, &c., remove in early t Dandelion,
winter and spring, and the soil of the ' Endive,
beds slightly turn over. All irregular â˘ Finochio.
growth may be corrected during the: Garden Rocket,
spring and summer. When the plants I SALICORNIA.
have continued two or three years, a | and green-house evergreen shrubs and
little dry, well putrefied dung maybe j creepers. Hardy annuals and half-
turned in during early spring with con- i hardy perennials. Seeds or division,
siderable advantage. A due attention Common soil.
to the mode of gathering has no small ! SALISBURIA adiantifoUa. Maiden
influence in keeping the plants healthy I Hair Tree. Hardy deciduous tree.
shed their seed if struck on the floor.
S A G I T T A R I A . Fifteen species.
Hardy, half-hardy, stove and green-
house aquatic perennials. Division.
SAGUS. Four species. Stove palms.
Sandy loam and a strong moist heat.
ST. ANDREW'S CROSS. Ascyrum
ST. BARNABY'S THISTLE. Cen-
ST. JOHN'S WORT. Hypericum.
ST. MARTIN'S FLOWER. Als-
ST. PETER'S WORT. Hypericum
See the following ;
Six species. Hardy
and vigorous. The tops ought never to
be cropped too close, so as to render
the branches naked or stumpy. This
should be especially attended to in au-
tumn and winter. During this last sea-
Layers. Common soil. " The Salis-
buria is a native of Japan and China,
and forms a large tree in its native
country. Bunge, who accompanied the
Russian mission to China, states, that
son, they are less liable to be injured i he saw one with a trunk nearly forty
by severe frost, if kept with a full re- | feet in circumference. Mr. Loudon
gularhead. If appearance is consider- I says, the tree grows with considerable
ed, fresh plants must he raised every [ rapidity in the climate of London, and
three or (bur years. P'or drying, the has attained the height of forty or fifty
shoots and leaves may be gathered any feet, in as many years. The longevity
time in summer before the plants flower, : of the Salisburia promises to be great,
which they do in July. as the largest trees in England continue
To obtain Seed. â Two or three of the \ to grow with as much vigour, as when
newly planted. The highest tree tliere, flavour is that of oyster patties. â Aber-
planted in 1767, was, in 1S3S, above
" It was introduced into the United
States, by Mr. Hamilton, in 1784, and
the tree now growing at the Woodlands,
near Philadelphia, is, doubtless, the
one then imported. A specimen at the
Landreth Nurseries, when planted is
unknown, has attained the height of 50
cromhie. Hovey-s Mag.
SALTPKTIIE. See Salts,â Nitrate
SALTS. The day has long passed
when it was disputed whether any saline
bodies are promotive of the growth of
plants. It is now determined that some
plants will not even live without the
means of procuring certain salts. Bo-
feet and continues in fine health. There , rage, the nettle, and parietaria will not
is also one of considerable size in the exist except where nitrate of potash is
Mall, at Boston." â Comp. Florist.
SALIX. The Willow. One hundred
and eighty-five species. Hardy decidu-
ous shrubs and trees. Cuttings. Swampy
SALMEA. Two species. Stove
evergreen twiners. Young cuttings.
Light rich soil.
SALPIGLOSSIS sinuata, and its va-
rieties. Hardy and green-house annuals
and biennials. Seeds. Peat and loam.
SALSAFY. Tragopogon porrifolius.
in the soil ; turnips, lucerne, and some
other plants will not succeed where
there is no sulphate of lime. These
are facts that have silenced disputation.
Still there arc found persons who main-
tain that salts are not essential parts of
a plant's structure; they assert that
such bodies are beneficial to a plant by
absorbing moisture to the vicinity of its
roots, or by improving the staple of the
soil, or by some other secondary mode.
This, however, is refuted by the fact
that salts enter as intimately into the
Soil. â This should be light and mode- constitution of plants as do ])liosphate
rately fertile. At the time of sowing
trench it, turning in a little manure with
the bottom spit only.
Sow in March and April, in an open
situation to remain, in shallow drills,
nine inches asunder, scatter the seeds
of lime into that of bones, and carbo-
nate of lime into that of egg-shells.
They are part of their very fabric, uni-
versally present, unremovable by edul-
coration however long continued, re-
maining after the longest washing, and
thinly, and cover them half an inch j always to be found in the ashes of all
deep. When the plants are up two or
three inches high, thin and weed them,
leaving them ten inches asunder, re-
peating the weeding as may be required
during the summer and during very dry
weather, watering occasionally very
and of any of their parts, when sub-
jected to incineration. Thus Saussure
ol)serves that the phosphate of lime is
universally present in plants. â Sur la
Veget, c. 8. s. 4.
The sap of all trees contains acetate
plentifully, and if half an ounce of guano of potash ; Beet-root contains malate
is added to each gallon of water it will and oxalate of potash, ammonia and
be very beneficial. This is all the cul- lime; Rhubarb, oxalate of potash and
ture they require. They will have large j lime ; Horse-radish, sulphur; Aspara-
roots by September or October; when g-us, super-malates, chlorides, acetates,
you may begin taking them up for use; ' and phosphates of potash and lime ;
and in November, when the leaves be- Potatoes, magnesia, citrates and phos-
gin to decay, a quantity may be pre- phates of potash and lime; Jerusalem
served in sand for use in time of severe I ^r^/c/io/ce, citrate, malate, sulphate,
frost; but those left in the ground will chloride, and phosphate of potash;
not be injured. In spring, when those j Garlic, sulphate of potash, magnesia,
remaining in the ground begin to vege- ! and phosphate of lime ; Geraniums,
tate, the shoots when a few inches high | tartrate of lime, phosphates of lime and
may be cut for use as asparagus, being magnesia ; Peas, phosphate of lime ;
excellent when quite young and tender. ! JiTidnei/ Beans, phosphate of lime and
Suffer, however, ahvays a few plants to : potash ; Oranges, carbonate, sulphate,
run up to stalk every spring to produce and muriate of potash; Apples and
Pears, malate of potash ; Grapes, tar-
trate of lime ; Capsicums, citrate, mu-
riate, and phosphate of potash ; Oak,
into cakes and fry them in butter. The i carbonate of potash ; and the Lilac,
The best mode of cooking the roots ' trate of lime ; Capsicums, citrate, mu-
is to boil and mash them, form them ; riate, and phosphate of potash ; Oak,
nitrate of potash. Let no one fancy
that the salts are a very trivial propor-
tion of the fabric of plants. In the
Capsicum, they constitute one-tenth of
narcissus, ranunculus, Stc. ; and in the
fruit garden it has been found beneficial
to almost every one of its tenants, espe-
cially the cherry and apple. On lawns
its fruit ; of carrot juice, one-hundredth; i and walks it helps to drive away worms,
of Rhubarb, one-eleventh ; of Potatoes
one-twentieth; whilst of the seed of the
Lithospermum officinale, they actually
constitute more than one-half. Their
constituents are as follows. â
Carbonate of lime . . . 43.7
Vegetable matter, phos-
phate of lime, &c. .
These amounts are nearly as much
of earthy saline matters as exist in hu-
man bones ; but if we turn to the mar-
and to destroy moss.
Ammonia. â The salts of ammonia
are highly stimulating, and afford by
their ready decomposition, abundant
food to plants. The dungs of animals
are fertilizing exactly in proportion to
the amount of ammonia in them. The
only care required is not to apply them
too abundantly. Half an ounce to each
gallon of water, given at the most twice
a week, is a good recipe for all the am-
moniacal salts. The ammoniacal gas
row, it only contains one-twentieth of liquor at the rate of one pint to two
saline matters; the blood only one- i gallons of water, is highly beneficial to
hundredth; muscle, only one-thirty- spinach and grass. â Gard. Chron.
fourth ; yet no one will argue that these
saline constituents, though smaller than
those in vegetables, are trivial and un-
Saline manures are generally bene-
ficial, and often essential. An import-
ant consideration, therefore, is con-
tained in the answer to the query â so
often put. How should saline manures
be applied ? Our answer is, that, when
practicable, they ought to be in very
small quantities and frequently, during
the time of the plant's growth. No
plan can be worse than soaking seed in
Phosphate of Ammonia has been ap-
plied with advantage to cress.
Sulphate of Ammonia. â This, and the
nitrate of ammonia, have proved bene-
ficial to potatoes in Scotland. A writer
in the FloricuUural Cabinet says, that
having obtained a pailful of gas liquor,
he diluted it with water, and added
some sulphuric acid, thus forming a
solution of sulphate of ammonia, and
watered with it in October, a bed (twen-
ty feet long by four feet two inches
wide) destined to be planted with Ra-
nunculuses. They bloomed very strong
a saline solution, for the purpose of. i'l this bed, some of the flower-stems
giving such salt to the plant of which it
will be the parent. It is soddeningthe
embryo with a superfluity totally use-
less to it, and if it does not injure the
germination, it will be most probably
washed away before the roots begin to
absorb such nutriment. For the mode
in which salts are beneficial to plants,
were two feet high ; the blooms averag-
ing between three and four inches in
diameter; the roots also lifted large
and clean. â Flor. Cab.
Chalk may be applied in large quan-
tities, twenty or thirty tons per acre, to
render a light siliceous soil more re-
tentive or a heavy soil more open. Its
basis, lime, enters into the composition
Common Salt. â Chloride of sodium, ' of most plants in some state of combi-
applied in the spring at the rate of | nation. It is very far from immaterial
twenty bushels per acre, has been found where this mineral is obtained from to
very beneficial to asparagus, broad improve the staple of our soils. Those
beans, lettuces, onions, carrots, pars- [ chalks which are merely carbonate of
neps, potatoes, and beets. Indeed its lime, with a trace of oxide of iron, are
properties are so generally useful, not I unexceptionable ; but there are some
only as promoting fertility, but as de- i which contain phosphate of lime, and
stroying slugs, 8e.c., that it is a good these are very much to be preferred,
plan to sow the whole garden every ! Mr. Brande states the chalk of Brighton
March with this manure, at the rate
above specified. The flower garden is
included in this recommendation ; for
some of the best practical gardeners
recommend it for the stock, hyacinth,
amaryllisj ixia, anemone, colchicum,
to be thus constituted.
Carbonate of lime .
Phosphate of lime . . 0.11
Oxides of iron and manganese 0.14
Alumina and silica . . 0.80
If the chalk is to be burnt into lime
beforq it is applied, care should be
taken that it does not contain, like some
ofthe Yorkshire chalks, a large propor-
tion of carbonate of magnesia. Mag-
nesia remains long in a caustic state,
and has been found injurious to the
plants to which it has been applied
is further sustained by the experiments
of Dr. Jackson, the American chemist.
He found phosphates in peas and beans
of various kinds, in pumpkin seeds,
chestnuts, potatoes, raspberries, and
turnips. See Bones.
Super-Phosphate of Lime. â Chrysan-
themums were much increased in vi-
Ckloride of Lime gradually gives out gour when watered with a solution of
a portion of its chlorine, and is con- this salt in the Chiswick Garden, at the
verted into muriate of lime, a very de-
liquescing salt, which can hardly exist
in any soil, however light, without
keeping it moist ; and its nauseous
odour may be found to keep off the
attacks ofthe fly, and other vermin. A
solution containing one ounce in five
gallons of water, is said to destroy the
aphis and the caterpillar, if poured over
the trees thev infest.
end of July. It is thought, if the appli-
cation had been made earlier, the be-
nefit would have been still more marked.
Professor Lindley says this salt seems
to have a beneficial effect on most
plants, and that it may be applied in
different proportions without the least
risk of injuring the plants. â Card.
Heaths appear to like it. The best
Gas Lime is a hydro-sulphuret of lime, practical mode of obtaining super-phos-
^l^_^^^ ^j. jjjj^g j.^j. manure, is to pour
one pound of sulphuric acid, mixed
with one pound of water, upon each
two pounds of bone dust, allowing the
mixture a week to complete the decom-
position. Sulphate of lime and super-
phosphate of lime are the result. The
Duke of Richmond and others have
with a little ammonia. It is an excel
lent manure, especially to cabbages,
turnips, cauliflowers, and brocoli, dug
in at the time of planting or sowing.
If sown over the surface at the time of
inserting the crop, at the rate of twenty
bushels per acre, it will etfectually
drive away the turnip-fly, slug, &c
Gypsum, or Plaster of Paris, is sul- ; tried this with very great success upon
phate of lime, composed of
Sulphuric acid ... 43
Water .... 22
It has been found very useful as a
top dressing to lawns, and dug in for
turnips and potatoes. Three hundred
weight per acre is abundance
turnips. It being in a liquid form, it
must be mixed with earth to facilitate
its application, or else be applied
through the rose of a watering-pot.
SALT TREE. Halimodendron.
SALVIA. See Clary and Sage.
One hundred and five species. The
Nitrates of Potash (Saltpetre), and of ^ shrubby, stove, and green-house kinds,
increase by cuttings ; the herbaceous,
by division ; the annuals and biennials,
-seeds. Common soil suits them all.
S. patens makes a splendid bed. The
Soda (Cubic Petre), have been found
beneficial to carrots, cabbages, and
lawns. One pound to a square rod of
ground is a sufficient quantity. Both
these nitrates have been found bene- Hower-spikes should be cut off for a
fii:ial to potatoes in Scotland. Mr.
Murray says that, from 1810 down to
the present time, he has been in the
habit of watering pinks and carnations
with solutions of these two nitrates,
and the benefit has been uniform and
eminent in promoting their luxuriance.
â Gard. Gaz.
Tliey have also been given in solu-
time, and the young shoots regularly
pegged down till they nearly cover the
bed, when the flowers will be produced
so numerously as to form one mass of
intense blue. â Gard. Chron.
Mr. Vaux, of Ryde, in the Ise of
Wight, says, that there " it ripens seeds
perfectly in the open air. Sow it in
pots in autumn ; put the pots in a cool
tion with great benefit to lettuces, j frame protected from frost, where they
celery, fuchsias, and dahlias. One may remain during the winter. In the
pound to twelve gallons of water. 1 spring, place in the green-house when
Nitrate of Soda destroys slugs.
Phosphate of Lime. â The importance part of May, bed them out ; they bloom
of bones and other manures containing beautifully during the summer and au-
phosphoric salts as a general manure, turan
the seedlings come up ; and in the early
Vlay, bed them out ; they bloom
lly during the summer and au-
For beds they arc superior to
S A V
cuttings, as they grow dwarf and more
bushy." â Gard. Chron.
SAMBUCUS. Elder. Seven spe-
cies and many varieties. All hardy.
The deciduous shrubby kinds are in-
creased by cuttings ; the herbaceous
perennials, by division. They will
grow in any soil. See Elder.
SAMOLUS. Three species. Green-
house or hardy herbaceous perennials.
Division. Common soil, and a rather
SAMPHIRE. Crithmum maritimum,
though a native of the sea-shore, may
hardy and half-hardy herbaceous peren-
nials and creepers. Division, ^eeds,
and also by young cuttings of the
branching species. Sandy loam and
SARACHA. Three species. Hardy
trailing annuals. S. viscosa, a green-
house deciduous shrub, is increased by
cuttings, the others by seeds. Common
SARCANTHUS. Six species. Stove
orchids. Cuttings. Moss, potsherds,
and wood, and a moist atmosphere.
SARCOCAPNOS enneaphylla. Hardy
be cultivated successfully in the garden. I herbaceous perennial. Seeds or cut-
So//. â It requires a sandy or gravelly
soil, and the north side of a wall.
Propagation. â The roots may be
planted, or the seed sown, in April;
the only cultivation required being to
keep the plants free from weeds, and to
water it about twice a week with water
containing half an ounce of guano and
one ounce of salt per gallon.
SAMYDA. Seven species. Stove
evergreen shrubs. Cuttings. Loam and
SAND is one of the agents most fre-
quently employed by the gardener in
the culture of potted plants. The kind
most suitable to his purpose, is either
silver sand, or drift river-sand, both of
which are silica nearly in a state of
purity. These sands being very slow
conductors of heat, and affording a
ready escape for superfluous moisture,
are admirably adapted for promoting
the rooting of cuttings, and preventing
the damping-oft' of seedlings. See Po^-
ting, Soil, and Damping-^.
SAND WOOD. Bremontiera am-
SANGUINARIA. Two spe-
cies. Hardy tuberous-rooted peren-
nials. Division or seeds. Sandy loam
SANGUISORBA. Burnet. Eight
species. Hardy herbaceous perennials.
Division, seeds. Common soil. See
SANSEVIERA. Fourteen species.
Stove herbaceous perennials. Suckers.
Sandy loam. S. carnea is hardy.
SANTOLINA. Five species. Hardy
evergreen shrubs. Cuttings. Common
SANVITALIA procumbens. Hardy
trailing annual. Seeds. Common soil.
SAPONARIA. Soapwort. Thirteen
species. Hardy annuals and biennials,
tmgs. Common soil, rock work.
SARCOCAULON. Three species.
Stove evergreen shrubs. Cuttings.
Loam, peat, leaf-mould, and sand.
SARCOCEPHALUS esculentus. Stove
evergreen shrub. Cuttings. Loam, peat,
SARCOLOBUS. Two species. Stove
evergreen twiners. Cuttings. Rich
Green-house evergreen shrubs. Young
cuttings. Loam, peat, and sand.
SARCOSTEMMA. Two species.
Stove evergreen twiners. Cuttings.
SARRACENIA. Side Saddle
Flower. Five species. Half-hardy
herbaceous perennials. Divisions. Peat
and sphagnum. They require a close
SASSAFRAS. Laurus sassafras.
SATUREIA. Savory. Seven spe-
cies. Hardy and half-hardy evergreen
shrubs, and herbaceous perennials. S,
hortensis is an annual. Division, slips,
cuttings, seeds. Dry light sandy soil.
SATYRIUM. Eight species. Green-
house tuberous-rooted orchids. Divi-
sion. Sandy loam and peat.
SAURAU'JA. Two species,
evergreen shrubs. Ripe cuttings,
orchid. Division. Sandy peat.
SAUSSUREA. Twelve species.
Hardy herbaceous perennials. Division
or seeds. Common soil.
SAUVAGESIA. Two species. Stove
annuals. Seeds. Peat and loam.
S. montana, winter or perennial sa-
vory. S. hortensis, summer or annual
They niriy be sown in the open
ground in spring. In the latter end
of March or in April, sow the seed in
a light rich soil, moderately thick, and
rake them in evenly; the seedlings
soon come up; give occasional weed-
ing, and thin them moderately, and they
may either remain where sown, or may
be transplanted. Observe, however, I
of the Winter Savory, that when the
seedlings are about two or three inches I
high, it is eligible to plant out a quan-
tity of the strongest, in moist weather,
in nursery rows six inches asunder, to
remain till September or spring follow-
rough surface occasions decay. See
SAXIFR.4.GA. Saxifrage. Ninety-
two species, and some varieties. Chief-
ly hardy herbaceous perennials ; a few
are annuals, and some half-hardy. â
Seeds. Division. Light sandy soil.
SCABIOSA. Seven species. Hardy
herbaceous perennials. Seeds. Com-
SC.y.VA. Hawk Fly. Of this genus
there are several species, of which the
most common are S. 7ibesii and S. py-
ing, then to be transplanted with balls rastri. Wherever aphides are abun-
where they are finally to remain,
rows a foot asunder. But the Annual
or Summer Savory may either remain
where sown, thinning the plants to six
or eight inches' distance, or when two
inches high may be pricked out in beds,
in rows the above distance ; in either
case the plants will become useful in
June or July, and until winter. Or
when designed to have the Winter or
Summer Savory remain where sown,
the seeds may be sown in shallow drills,
dant, whether on the cabbage, hop, or
elsewhere, there is a fleshy green mag-
got. This is the larva of a hawk-fly,
and should be left undisturbed, as it is
a voracious destroyer of plant lice. â
SC^-EVOLA. Eight species. Green-
house herbaceous perennials, or stove
evergreen shrubs. Cuttings. Turfy
loam, peat, and sand.
SCALLION. See Ciboule.
SCARES are but very ineflicient pro-
eithcr in beds, or along the edge of any tections ; for birds soon sit on the very
bed or border by way of an edging
branches which bear the malkin. To
By Slips, ^-c.âln the spring or early lighten them eff"ectually, it is best to
part of summer, the Winter Savory may employ boys, for the short time scaring
be increased plentifully by slips or cut- 'ÂŤ required. Over seed beds a net is
tings of the young shoots or branches, 'he best protection; but threads taut-
five or six inches long ; plant them with I fined across the beds, are said to be
a dibble, in any shady border, in rows equally efficacious,
six inches asunder, giving occasional SCARLET POMPONE. Lilium pom-
waterings, and they will be well rooted ponnim
by September, when they may be trans-
SAW-DUST mixed with dung of any
sort speedily decays, and forms a very
valuable manure. In one instance, the
dung of four rabbits and their young
ones, saw-dust in their hutches l)eing
used instead of straw, was the only
manure used upon one-quarter of an , *"^ Pf J^" .
acre.â Card. C/iron, \ ^^Âť^\^\j
SAW-FLY. See Athalia.
SAWS for garden pruning must have
a double row of teeth, to obviate the green-house, and hardy herbaceous
tendency to nip, that the dampness of perennials. Division or seeds. Peat
green wood and the leverage of the and loam,
branch occasions. One with a very SCHIZANDRA coccii
narrow blade, and one with a handle house evergreen trailer. Ripe
six feet long, will be found convenient, tings. Sandy loam and peat.
The face of the wound made by a saw
SCEPTRANTHES Dru/nmond/. Half-
hardy tuberous-rooted perennial. Off"-
sets. Rich mould.
SCHELHAMMERA. Two species.
Green-house herbaceous perennials.
Division. Peat and loam.
SCHIMIDELIA. Five species. Stove
evergreen tree. Ripe cuttings. Loam
S. Two species. Stove
evergreen tree and shrub. Ripe cut-
tings. Common soil.
SCHIZ.'EA. Five species. Stove,
SCHIZANTHLS. Six species. Har-
should always be cut smooth with the dy annuals. Seeds. Light soil,
knife, otherwise the wet lodging on its SCHIZOMERIA ovata. Green-hous