evergreen shrub. Cuttings.
SCIIIZOPETALON Walkeri. Half-
hardy annual. Seeds. Loam, peat,
SCIIOMBURGHIA. Three species.
Stove orchids. Division. A block ot
wood, or turfy heath mould and pot-
SCHOTIA. Five species. Stove or
green-house evergreen shrubs. Cut-
tings. Loam and peat.
evergreen climber. Cuttings.
peat, and sand.
SCHRANKIA. Two species
and half-hardy herbaceous perennials.
Young cuttings or division. Loam,
peat, and sand.
evergreen twiner. Cuttings,
peat, and sand.
SCLERA. A genus of ]Midges. S.
Jiyri, Small Pear Midge. S. Schmid-
bergeri, Large Pear Midge. When a
fallen pear is cut open, it is often found
core-eaten, and with a brown powder
marking the progress of the assailant.
This is caused by the larva of these
insects. The midges appear early in
July. M. Kollar says, that the small
pear midge has club-shaped halteres,
the club dark brown, and the stem
whitish. When alive, the abdomen is
of a lead colour, with black wings.
The head and thorax are black, as are
also the antennae ; the palpi are of a
pale yellow, the feet whitish, and the
The Large Pear Midge appears
about the same time as the preceding.
M. Kollar thus describes it: "The
female is little more than a line long,
and half a line thick, also much larger
than the smaller pear midge ; the male is
more slender, and somewhat shorter.
The antennffi are blackish, and not so
long as the body. The head is black
and shining, as is also the thorax ; the
proboscis ash-gray, the abdomen of the
male a deep black, that of the female
browner, with black wings ; the anal
point, however, is quite black. The
feet ash-gray, and the tarsi and wings
black. They both survive the winter,
and deposit their eggs in the blossom,
when it opens in early spring. The
larva eats its way into the core of the
young fruit, and again eats its way out
it to bury itself in the ground, and pass
into the chrysalis form." — Kollar.
SCILLA. Scjuill. Thirty-onespecies,
and many varieties. All bulbous per-
ennials, and chiefly hardy. S. hrevi-
folia is a green-house, S. indica is a
stove species. Offsets. Light soil.
SCIODAPHYLLUM. Seven species.
Stove or green-house evergreen trees,
shrubs, and climbers. Cuttings. Loam,
peat, and sand.
SCION is the portion of the branch
selected for insertion in the stock, and
destined to become the future plant.
The following directions, given by Mr.
Loudon, embrace all the information
generally applicable to the subject.
All particular directions will be found
under the title of the plant to be graft-
ed from : —
" Scions are generally the shoots of
last summer's growth, from the outside
lateral branches of healthy trees, be-
cause in them the shoots are not so
robust and apt to run to wood as in the
centre and top of the tree, nor so weak
as those which are at its base, and un-
der the shade and drip of the rest. An
exception to this rule is to be found in
the case of debilitated trees, where the
scions should be taken from the strong-
est shoots. The middle part of each
shoot makes always the best scion; but
long shoots, and especially where the
scion is of a rare variety, may be cut
into several scions of four or six inches
in length, reserving not fewer than two
nor more than five eyes to form the
future head of the tree.
" Scions should be cut several weeks
before the season for grafting arrives;
the reason is that grafting may most
successfully be performed by allowing
the stock to have some advantage over
the graft in forwardness of vegetation.
It is desirable that the sap of the stock
should be in brisk motion at the time
of grafting ; but by this time the buds
of the scion, if left on the parent tree,
would be equally advanced ; whereas,
the scions being gathered early, the
buds are kept back, and ready only to
swell out when placed on the stock.
Scions of pears, plums, and cherries
are collected in the end of January or
beginning of February. They are kept
at full length, sunk in dry earth, and
out of the reach of frost, till wanted,
which is sometimes from the middle
at one side, when the time arrives for i of February to the middle of March.
Scions of apples are collected any time
in February, and put on from tlie mid-
dle to the end of ^^il^ch. The Scions
are used as gathered." — Enc. Card.
It is quite true that tlie scion " over-
rideth the stock ;" — a peach scion pro-
SCOPARIA dulcis. Stove annual.
Seeds. Sandv loam.
SCOPOLIA"cf7rn/o/(Va. Hnrdy herb-
aceous perennial. Division. Light dry
SCOPVL \ forficalis, Garden Pebble
duces its peculiar foliage, fruit, &c., Moth, is thus accurately described by
though grafted npon a plum stock ; yet Mr. Curtis: — "The perfect insect mea-
the stock influences the habits and pro-
duce of the scion. Thus an apricot is
said to have been worked on a green-
gage plum, and a quince upon the au-
sures rather more thin an inch across,
when its wings are expanded. The
upper pair are hazel-coloured, with
four stripes, two of which are distinct,
tumn bcrgamot pear; the apricot be- and the other faint; the under wings
came as juicy as the green-gage, and as well as tlie body are whitish, and
far more delicate ; the quince was much I on the former, near the centre, there
more tender, and less gritty. See '
Stocks and Grafting.
SCISSORS of vari-
ous sizes are required
by the gardener. A
pair with very sharp
and pointed blades is
required for cutting
is a curved brown streak and another
black on the margin. The first brood
of cater[)illars occurs in May, and the
second in the autumn; and when very
numerous they do considerable injury
to cabbages and plantations of horse-
radish. The caterpillar is eight or ten
lines long, with the head of a light
aw'av the anthers oT brown colour, and the body is yellowish
flowers in hybrydiz-
ing. Stouter pairs
are used for removing
flower stalks, when
the petals havefillen
from roses, &c. Slid-
ing pruning scissors
(Fig. 151) are em-
ployed for cutting the
shoots ofshrubs; they
are powerful instru-
ments for the pur-
pose. See Shears.
Orecn-house evergreen shrub. Cuttings.
Sandy loam and peat.
SCOLOPENDRIUM. Two species,
and many varieties. Ferns. Hardy
herbaceous perennials. Seeds and di-
vision. Rock work.
SCOLYMUS. Three species. S.
maculatus is a hardy annual, the others
hardy herbaceous perennials. Division
or seeds. Common soil.
green, with black longitudinal stripes.
Almost the only method of destroying
these caterpillars, is to hand-pick them,
which, from their small size, will be
very tedious; if, however, a mat or
piece of linen be laid under the infest-
ed plants, they may be shaken into it,
and thus a great number be collected
in a short time." — Gard. Chron.
SCORPION. Genista scorpius.
SCORPION GRASS. Myosotis.
SCORPION SENNA. Coronilla
SCORZONERA. Seventeen species.
Hardy herbaceous perennials. S. villosa
is a biennial. Seeds. Common soil.
S. hispTnica. Common Scorzonora.
Though a perennial, yet, for general
use, it should be treated as an annual.
Sow annually in any open light spot of
ground, the latter end of March or be-
ginning of April, not earlier, lest the
plants run to seed. Trench the ground,
and with the bottom spit turn in a little
SCOLYTUS. A genns of Beetles, dung; sow in shallow drills, twelve
S. hamorrfious, small Bark Beetle, at-
tacks apple trees in May, making fur-
inches asunder, rakiug the mould even-
ly over them half an inch deep. The
rows into the inner bark and alburnum, plants will rise in two or three weeks,
where it deposits its eggs. The larva; When they are a little advanced in
continue feeding there until late in au-
growth, let them be thinned and clcan-
from weeds by hoeing. Thin the
S. destructor, elm-destroying Scoly- | plants to ten inches' <iistance; they
tus, does not confine its ravages to the ! will grow freely, and their roots con-
elm, but often attacks fruit trees, as the tinue increasing in size till September,
plum. — Kollar.
when they will have acquired their full
size, discoverable by their leaves be- two bodies in contact with each other,
ginning to decay. i the greater is the rapidity with which
The roots may either remain in the the progress towards equilibrium goes
ground, to be drawn as wanted, or on. This is one reason why a tempera-
taken wholly up in autumn when their ture of 32°, with a brisk wind attending
leaves decay, and preserved in sand all it, will injure plants to a far greater
winter. extent than a temperature many de-
To save seed. — Let some of the plants grees lower, with a still atmosphere;
remain where sown, when they will but it is aided by the operation of ano-
shoot up in the spring, and produce ther law of heat, viz., that aeriform bo-
plenty of seed in autumn. — Ahercrombie. dies convey it from a cooling body, as
SCOTCH ASPHODEL. To- a wall or a tree, by an actual change
fieldia alpina, in the situation of their own particles.
SCOTCH LABURNUM. Cytisus al- That portion of the air which is nearest
piniis. to the cooling body is expanded, and
SCOTTIA. Three species. Green- ; becoming specifically lighter, ascends,
house evergreen shrubs. Young cut- and is replaced by a colder portion,
tings. Sandy loam and peat. i This, in its, turn, becomes heated and
SCREEN. All cooling is occasioned dilated, and gives place to another
either by the heat being conducted from colder portion. And thus the process
a body by a colder, which is in contact goes on, until the cooling body is re-
with, it, or by radiating from the body i duced to the same temperature as the
cooled, though circumstancesaccelerate air.
or retard the radiation ; and whatever In a still atmosphere, this goes on
checks the radiation of heat from a body slowly ; the air in contact with the
is a screen, and keeps it warmer. | wall and tree rises very gradually as it
For example, a thermometer, placed imLiibes warmth from them ; but if there
upon a grass plot, exposed to a clear be a brisk wind, a constant current of
sky, fell to 35''; but another thermo- air at the lowest temperature then oc-
ineter, within a few yards of the pre- curring, is brought in constant contact
ceding, but with the radiation of the , with them, and the cooling is rapid, in
rays of heat from the grass checked by accordance with the law of equilibrium
no other covering than a cambric pocket just noticed. A shelter of netting, or
handkerchief, declined no lower than even the sprays of evergreens, are of
42'-'. No difference of result occurs the greatest service in preventing the
whether the radiating surface be paral- sweeping contact of cold air at such
lei or perpendicular to the horizon ; for limes. Snow is a good shelter; it pre-
when the mercury in a thermometer, vents heat radiating from plants; pro-
hung against an openly exposed wall, tects them from the chilling blasts ; and
fell toSS'', another thermometer, against is one of the worst conductors of heat,
the same wall, but beneath a web of I have never known the surface of the
gauze stretched tightly, at a few inches earth, below a covering of snow, colder
distance, indicated a temperature of i than 32'', even when the temperature
43°. I of the air above has been 28°.
These results explain the beneficial ' Strange as it may appear, yet it is
operation of apparently such slight nevertheless true, that a screen is more
screens to our wall-fruit when in bios- beneficial in preserving the tempera-
som. A sheet of canvas or of netting ture of trees, when from three to six
prevents the direct radiation of heat inches from them, than when in imme-
from the wall; the cooling goes on diate contact with their surfaces. When
more slowly, and is not reduced to that a woollen net was suspended four in-
of the exterior air at night, before the ches from the wall on which a peach
return of day begins to re-elevate the j tree was trained, the thermometer fell
external temperature. very slowly, and the lowest degree it
The colder the body surrounding reached was 38°; when the same screen
another hotly, the more rapid the radia- was twelve inches off, it fell to 34°;
tion from the latter; for it is a law of and when drawn tightly over the tree,
heat that it has a constant tendency to it barely kept above 32^, the tempera-
be diffused equally; and the greater ture of the exterior air. When at
the diversity of temperature between . twelve inches from the wall, it permit-
ted the too free circulation of the air; i den and Norway remaining covered
and when in immediate contact with with snow, whilst England is some 20^,
the polished bark of the peach, pcrlKi|)s
another law of cooling came into ope-
ration. The law is, that polished sur-
faces radiate heat slowest. Thus, if
two glass bottles, equal in size and
thickness of glass, and of the same
shape, be tilled with warm water, and
one of the bottles be covered with an
envelope of fine muslin, this bottle will
give out heat to the surrounding air
with much greater rapidity than the
other bottle; so that, in a given time,
the bottle with the envelope will be
found colder than the one which has
Screens, such as the preceding, or
the slighter agents, sprays of ever-
or more, warmer; and an upper cur-
rent of warm air is consequently flow-
ing hence to those countries, whilst a
cold under current is rushing hither to
supply its place. This wind, and its
consequent cold weather, is so regular
in its appearance, that in Ilampsliirc,
and some other parts of England, the
peasantry speak of it as the black thorn
winter, that bush being in blossom dur-
ing a part of its continuance. — Princ.
Not only are screens required for
out-door plants, but for those under
glass ; and Mr. Paxtoji is quite right in
saying, that " one of the tilings vvhich
should be constantly borne in mind,
greens, placed before the branches ofj and more especially in the forcing sea-
wall-trees or other plants, as already son, is the most etTectual means of keep-
noticed, operate beneficially in another ing up the requisite temperature in the
way, checking the rapid passage of the , hot-houses with least fuel ; and that, in
air over them: such passage is detri- ' all cases where practicable, the use of
mental in proportion to its rapidity, for | external coverings, if properly used,
the more rapid it is, the greater is the \ will render strong fires in a great niea-
amount of evaporation, and, conse- ! sure unnecessary. Some coverings are
quently, of cold produced. Mr. Daniell used at Chatsworth constantly at night,
says, that " a surface which exhales v.hich makes frcmi ten to titteen degrees
one hundred parts of moisture when ; dilference in the temperatures of the
the air is calm, exhales one hundred
and twenty-five parts when exposed to
a moderate breeze, and one hundred
and fifty parts when the wind is high."
During all high winds, but especially
when blowing from points varying be-
tween the east and the south, for they
are the driest in this country, the gar-
if)uses where they are appiiod, and to
maintain which, without them, would
consume three times the quantity of
fuel now necessary." — Gard. Chron.
P'or wall-trees, now that glass is be-
come so ninch cheaper, the best of all
screens may be employed, viz., glazed
frames, of a length extending from the
dener will always find shelter is bene- i coping of the wall, to the surface of
ficial to his plants, whether in blossom, the soil, about two feet from the stems
or with fruit in its first stages of growth, i of the trees.
for these winds cause an evaporation
much exceeding in amount the supply
of moisture afforded by the roots.
In March, such shelters are much
required, for the winds are then violent
and dry even to a proverb ; but it is
during the days of its successor, April,
that sets in the only periodical wind
known in this island. It comes intcr-
mittingly, and with a variable force
from poi[its ranging from east to north-
east, and is one of the most blight-
ing winds we have. It continues until
about the end of the second week in
May, though often until its close ; and
SCREW I'INR. Pandanus.
SCREW TREE. Hdicteres.
SCROPHULARIA. Figwort. Seven
species. Hardy herbaceous perennials.
S. vcrnalis, a biennial. Seeds. Light
soil, and a moist situation.
SC RU B B Y O A K . Loph ira nfricam .
SCURVY GRASS. Cochlear ia offici-
nalis. " This vegetable grows sfionta-
ncously on the sea shores of England,
and is also found in the interior. It is
used like the Cress, and occasionally
mixed with corn salad.
" Sow in autumn and manage as di-
rected for winter spinach; it is used
it is a good plan to have the tree, dur- during the winter and spring." — R. Reg
ing the whole period, by day as well To obtain Seed. — A few plants must
as by night, protected. This periodical be left ungathered from in the spring,
wind is occasioned, probably, by Swe-' They will run up to flower about May,
and perfect their seed in the course of dung must be added ; but decayed
the two following months.
j leaves are preferable, and sea- weed
SCUTELLARIA. Twenty-seven still more so. Common salt is a very
species. Hardy herbaceous perennials, beneficial application, either applied
»S. humilis is a half-hardy. S. haienen-
sis, a stove herbaceous perennial. .Seeds
and division. Common soil. The shrub-
by species increase by young cuttings.
SCYPHANTHUS grandiflorus and
elegans. Hardy twining annuals. Seeds.
SCYTHE. This mowing implement
being confined, in the garden, to cut-
ting the fine short grass of lawns, re-
dry, in the spring, in the proportion of
twenty or thirty bushels per acre, or by
occcasional waterings, with a solution,
containing four ounces in the gallon,
round every stool during the spring.
The situation cannot be too open and
free from trees.
Propagation is both from seed and
slips of the root. The first is the best
mode ; for, although from slips it may
quires to be much sharper than that be obtained with greater certainty, yet
used in cutting the coarser grasses, the plants arising from seed are the
which stand up more firmly to the strongest and longest lived. Sow from
scythe. It is also necessary that the October to the commencement of April;
mowers should not score the grass, that but the best time for inserting it is
is, should not leave the mark of each during January or February. Leave
stroke of the scythe, which has a very the plants where raised ; and, to guard
unsightly appearance; to prevent which, against failure, insert the seed in patch-
have the scythe laid out ratlier wider, es of six or twelve seeds, each six
an inch or two beyond heel and toe, inches apart, and the patches two feet
especially for very short grass; and in ' asunder. If intended for transplanting,
mowing, keep the point rather out, and the seed may be sown in drills twelve
do not draw that part too fast toward, inches asunder ; in either case it must
gathering the grass neatly to the left in ] not be buried more than two inches be-
a range; and having mowed to the end low the surface ; and it is a good prac-
of the swaith, mow it lightly back again, tice, previous to inserting it, to bruise
to trim off all scores, and other irregu- ; the outer coat of the seed, without in-
larities, unavoidably left the first time.
SEAFORTHIA elegans. Stove palm.
Seed. Turfy loam and sand.
SEA-KALE.' Crambe Maritima.
Soil and Situation, — A light mode-
rately rich soil, on a dry substratum,
suits it best, though in any dry soil it
will succeed. A bed may be composed
for it of one-half drift sand, one-third
rich loam, and one-third small gravel.
jurmg its vegetating power, as by this
treatment the germination is accele-
rated. The plants will in general
make their appearance in four or five
months, never sooner than six weeks ;
but, on the other hand, the seed will
sometimes remain twelve mouths be-
fore it vegetates.
The best time for increasing it by
slips is in March. Rooted suckers may
be detached from established plants ; or
their roots, which have attained the
thickness of the third finger, be cut into
lengths, each having at least two eyes.
road stuff" or coal-ashes; if the loam is j The cuttings must be inserted in an up-
poor, a little well-rotted dung or de-
cayed leaves being added. The soil
must be deep, so that the roots can
penetrate without being immersed in
water, which invariably causes their
decay. The depth should not be less
right position, two or three inches be-
neath the surface. It is best to plant
two together, to obviate the danger of
failure, at two feet apart, to remain.
Some persons, from a desire to save a
year, recommend yearling plants to be
than two feet and a half; and if not so obtained and inserted in February or
naturally, worked to it by trenching. March ; but as the shoots ought not to
If at all tenacious, this opportunity may be cut for use the first season after
be taken to mix with itdrift or sea-sand, ' planting, the object is not attained, for
so as to reduce it to a friable texture, seedlings may be cut from the second
If wet it must be drained, so that water year.
never shall stand within three feet of The beds should be laid out three
the surface. If poor, well putrefied j feet wide, and a two feet alley between
every two, in preference to the plan | to cover over each stool sand or ashes
sometimes recommended of planting; to the depth of about a foot ; tlie shoots,
three rows in beds seven feet wide. It'
the months of June and July prove dry,
the beds should be plentifully watered.
The seedlings require no other atten-
tion, during the first summer, than to
be kept free from weeds, and to be thin-
ned to five or si.\ in each patch. When
their leaves have decayed and are clear-
ed away, about November, they must
be earthed over an inch or two with dry
mould from the alleys, and over this
about six inches depth of long litter
spread. In the following spring the
litter is to be raked off, and a little of
the most rotten dug into the alleys.
When the plants have perfectly made
their appearance they must be thinned,
leaving the strongest plant, or, as Mr.
Maher recommends, the three strong-
est, at each patch, those removed being
transplanted at similar distances if re-
quired ; but it must be remarked, that
those transplanted never attain so fine
a growth, or are so long lived. In the
second winter the earthing must be in-
creased to five or six inches deep over
the crowns, and the covering ol litter
performed as before. In the third
spring, the litter being removed, and
some dug into the alleys, as before,
about an inch depth of drift sand or
coal-ashes must be spread regularly
over the surface. The sprouts may
now be bleached and cut for use ; for, if
this is commenced earlier, the stools
are rendered much less productive and
much shorter lived. In November, or
as soon as the leaves are decayed, the
beds being cleared of them, the coating
of sand or ashes removed, and gently
stirred with the asparagus-fork, they
must be covered with a mixture of three
parts earth from the alleys, and one part
of thoroughly decayed leaves, to the
in their passage through it, l)emg ex-
cluded from the light, are effoctually
bleached. Dry clean straw may be
scattered loosely over the plants to
elTect the same purpose. But pots are
by much to be preferred to any of these
coverings. Common flower-pots, of
large dimensions, may be employed,
care being taken to stop the liole at
the bottom with a piece of tile and clay,
so as to exclude every ray of light ; but
those suggested by Air. Maher are ge-
nerally adopted. They are of earthen-
ware, twelve or eighteen inches in
diameter, and twelve high. Mr. Sabine
improved upon them by making the top
moveable, which prevents the trouble
arising from the escape of the spread-
ing shoots, or the entire removal of the
dung at the time of forcing. Frames of
wicker are sometimes employed, being
covered with mats more perfectly to