S -Polyandria. )
Hardy annuals, with purple flowers, from
Barbary. Seeds sown under glass, in March,
or in the open border towards the end of April ;
earlier, if the ground is sandy and early.
M. malaeoi'des (MUow*like). 1. June, 1710.
[ 575 ]
M. malacoi'des s'mua'ta (wavy-cded), July*
tri'fida (three-cleft). 2. July. 1808.
MALPI'GHIA. Barbadoes Cherry.
(Named after Professor Malpiyhi, of
Pisa. Nat. ord., Malpighiads [Mal-
pighiacefe]. Linn., W-JDecandria }-
Trigynia. Allied to Galphimia.)
Stove evergreen shrubs. Cuttings of young
shoots almost ripe, but with leaves attached,
except at the joint cut through, in sand, under
a bell-glass, and In bottom heat, in summer ;
sandy peat and fibry loam. Winter temp., 50
to 55 ; summer, 60 to 85.
M. aquifo'lium (Holly - leaved). 7. Pink.
August. South America. 1759.
biflo'-ra (two-flowered). 10. Pale red. July.
South America. 1810.
cocci' f era (berry-bearing). 2. Pink. South
gla'bra (smooth- leaved). 16. Rose. May.
West Indies. 1755.
inca'na (hoary). Rose. Campeacby. 1742.
macrophy'lla (large-leaved). Red, pink.
July. Brazil. 1820.
ni'tida (glossy-leaved). 6. Pink. May.
West Indies. 1733.
-~ punicifo'lia (Pomegranate-leaved). 12. Rose.
West Indies. 1690.
MA'LVA. Mallow. (From malacho,
to soften ; referring to their emollient
qualities. Nat. ord., Mallowworts
[Malvaceae]. Linn., \Q-Monadelphia
Hardy annuals, by seeds in the open border
in April ; perennial herbaceous, such as Mon-
roana, &c., by seeds under a handlight, by
division in spring, and by cuttings of the young
shoots under a handlight ; stove and green-
house species, by cuttings generally inserted in
sandy soil under a handlight ; these last are
best grown in rich fibry loam and peat, and re-
quire merely the common treatment suitable to
greenhouse and stove.
M. angula'ta (angled). 1. Purple. July.
campanuloi'des (Campanula-like) . . Blush.
October. North America. 1825.
purpura'ta (purpled). l. Pale red. July.
M. amos'na (pleasing). 3. Purple. April.
Cape of Good Hope. 1790.
aspe'rrima (roughest). 3. Red. July.
Cape of Good Hope. 1796.
balsa' mica (balsamic). 4. Pink. July.
Cape of Good Hope. 1800.
'fo'lia (Bryony-leaved). 4. Purple.
Fiily. Cape of Good Hope. 1731.
campanula 1 ta (bell -flowered). 1. Pink,
lilac. July. Chili. 1839-
-!- Cape'nsis (Cape). 10. Red, white. June
Cape of Qood Hope. 171 3,
M. capita'ta (headed). 2. Red. April. Peru.
fra 1 grans (fragrant). 3. Scarlet. June.
Cape of Good Hope. 1759.
la'ctea (milk-coloured). 4. White. Janu-
ary. Mexico. 1780.
minia'ta (red). 4. Red- veins. June.
South America. 1698.
retu'sa (bent-back-teat>ed). 4. Pink. April.
Cape of Good Hope. 1803.
stri'cta (erect). 3. White. April. Cape
of Good Hope. 1805.
tridactyli'tes (three-fingered). 3. Pink.
July. Cape of Good Hope. 1791-
M. Dominge'nsis (Domingo). 2. Yellow.
July. St. Domingo. 1824.
tricuspida'ta (three-spmed). 1 . Yellow.
July. West Indies. 1726. Biennial.
M. Borbo'nica (Bourbon). 4. Yellow. July.
cocci'nea (scarlet). 5. Lilac. July. South
conci'nna (neat). 5. Lilac. May. South
sca'bra (rough-stemmed). 4. Yellow. June.
scopa'ria (Broom-like). 6. Yellow. April.
spica'ta (szwpte-spiked). 2. Orange. July.
tomento'sa (woolly). 3. Yellow. July.
East Indies. 1820.
M. cri'spa (curled). 5. White. June. Sy-
lu'cida (shining). Pink. June.
Mawitia'na (Mauritanian). 6. Pink. July.
South Europe. 1768.
Mulle'rii (Multer's). Sardinia. 1832. Bi-
M.Henni'ngii (Henning's). 3. White, red.
June, Russia. 1820.
Ita'lica (Italian), 3. Purple. August.
lateri'tia (brick-coloured). . Red. Sep-
tember. Buenos Ayres. 1840.
Monroa'na (Monro's), 2. Scarlet, Au-
gust. Columbia. 1828.
More'nii (Moreni's). 3. Red. July. Italy.
moscha'ta (musk). 2. Flesh. June.
undula'ta (waved). 2. White.
MALVAVI'SCUS. (From malva, the
Mallow, and viscus, glue; referring to
the mucilage with which it ahounds.
Nat. ord., Mallounvorts [Malvaceae].
Linn., IG-Monadelphia S-Polyandria.)
Stove evergreen trees. Cuttings of the some-
what stubby side-shoots, in sand, under a bell-
glass, and in heat, but the bell-glass must kg
[ 570 ]
elevated at night to prevent damping; fibry
peat, and sandy lumpy loam. Winter temp.,
50 ; summer, 00 to 85.
M. arbo'reus (tree). 12. Scarlet. West Indies.
mo'llis (soft), 12. Scarlet. August. Mexico.
pilo'sus (shaggy). 12. Red. October. Ja-
MAMME'A. Mammee -Tree. (The !
native name. Nat. ord., Gitttifers
[Clusiaceee]. Linn., IB-Polyemdria 1-
Monogynia. Allied to Marcinia.)
Cultivated in the West Indies and South
America for its fruit, called the Mammee Apple,
or Wild Apricot, said to rival the Mangosteen.
Stove evergreen trees, with white flowers. Cut-
tings of the half-ripened shoots, in sand, under
a bell-glass, and in bottom-heat ; fibry sandv
loam, and a little dried leaf-mould. Winter
temp., 50 to 55; summer, 60 to 80.
M' Africa'na (African). 60. July. Africa. 1823.
America' na (American). 60. South Ame-
MAMMILLA'RIA. A section of the
Ca'ctus, which see.
Dwarf plants, composed of an assem-
blage of tubercles, somewhat resem- I
bling the teats of animals ; these are |
generally terminated with bunches of
hairy bristles, and between them the
flowers appear. To grow them suc-
cessfully, they should be fresh dressed,
or repotted, in sandy loam and peat,
with a fair portion of brick rubbish,
and cow-dung, old and dried, in April
or May; afterwards kept in a tempera-
ture of from 75 to 90, with plenty of j
atmospheric moisture, but little or no
water given to the roots until they are
rooting freely; then water may be
given, and the stimulus to growth con- <
tinued for two or three months, when
moisture must be gradually withdrawn, '
even when the sun heat is allowed to
remain in as great a degree to consoli-
date the tissues ; and in the end of i
autumn the atmosphere must be
gradually cooled, to enable the plants
to stand dry, and in a dry atmosphere,
and a temperature of from 45 to f)0
during the winter. No shade will be
required, unless just after potting,
before fresh growth is made. Those
who try them in windows may easily
give them the above treatment by j
placing them in a close box or pit for
two months in summer. Easily pro-
pagated by offsets and protuberance?.
! Their greatest enemy is the red spider;
j plenty of syringing when growing in
i summer, and steaming with sulphur
j from a hot-water plate at other times,
| is the best remedy. Water somewhat
liberally in summer, when in flower
i and growing; little or none must be
given at other times.
MANDARIN ORANGE. C Virus nn'bilis.
MAXDEYI'LLA. (Named after H.
J. Mandevllle, Esq., our minister at
Buenos Ayres. Nat. ord., Dot/lanes
[Apocynacece]. Linn., b-Pentaudria 1-
Monoyynia. Allied to Echites.)
Half-hardy evergreen climber. Generally by
cuttings of the small stiif side shoots, when about
three inches in length, taken off close to the
old wood, and inserted in sand, under a bell-
glass, and in a mild bottom heat ; peat and
loam. Winter temp. 40 to 48 ; does little
good as a pot plant, but is splendid when
planted out and allowed room in a greenhouse
or conservatory, where fine climbers are prized.
M, suave' olens (sweet-scented). 20. White.
June. Buenos Ayres. 183/.
MANE'TTIA. (Named after X. Mn-
netti, an Italian botanist. Nat. ord.,
Cincltonads [Cmchonacere]. Linn., A.
Tetrandria \-Monogynia, Allied to
Stove evergreens, climbers. In a cool green-
house they thrive only in summer ; cuttings of
the young shoots, in sandy soil, under a bell
glass ; such kinds as Coccinea, also by division
of the fleshy, tubercled-like roots as growth,
if commencing; sandy peat and fibry loam.
Winter temp., 45 to 50 ; Summer, 60 to 85.
M. bi'color (two-coloured). 3. Scarlet, yellow.
March. Rio Janeiro. 1843.
cocci'nea (scarlet). 20. Scarlet. June.
gla'bra (smooth-surfaced). li. Scarlet. Au-
gust. Buenos Ayres.
Lygi'stum (Lygistum). 20. Pink. March.
sple'ndens (splendid). Crimson. May.
uniflo'ra (one-flowered). 3. Rose. No-
vember. St. Martha. 1844.
MANGI'FEBA. Mango-Tree. (From
manyo, the Hindoo name of the fruit,
and fcro, to bear. Nat. ord., Anacants
[Anacardiacece]. Linn., W-
The Mango is the most esteemed fruit in
India, having a grateful perfumed flavour. Stove
evergreen trees from the East Indies. Cuttings
of the nearly ripe shoots, in sand, under a
glass, and in heat; peat and rich loam. Winter
temp., 50 to 60; summer, 60 to 90.
M.fte'tida (fetid). 80V Eed, 1824.
[ 577 ]
M. 1'ndica (Indian). 20, White, July. 1690.
oppositifo'lin (opposite - leaved). Yellow.
MAME'STRA. The larva of the Bright-
line-brown-eye, or Pot-herb Moth (Ma-
me'stra olera'cea), may be found early in
December, beneath the surface of the
earth, undergoing its transformations.
This caterpillar is one of the most de-
structive of our garden enemies, feed-
ing on the stem, just under the suri'ace,
of cabbages, but more especially brocoli,
lettuces, and some other garden pro-
duce during the autumn. It is of a
livid yellowish-brown colour, darkly
striped on the back and sides, and with
a white stripe nearly over the feet,
which are light brown. It has black
dots between the dark stripes. When
young, and sometimes even when fully
grown, it has a green ground colour.
The moth comes forth in the summer.
It measures one-and-a-half inch across
the fore-wings, which are nearly of a
uniform cbesmit colour, but slightly
clouded, and with a .whitish irregular
line near the outer edge, with an orange-
coloured kidney-shaped spot near it,
and a roundish dark spot near the
centre. The under wings are dusky
white, with the veins and a crescent-
shaped spot in the centre all dusky.
Mame'stra Bra'ssica. During the
latter part of the evenings of May and
June, a middle-sixed brown moth may
be seen very often Hying in our gardens,
and visiting our beds of cabbages and
lettuces, of which its caterpillars are
most destructive. This is the Cabbage
Moth (Mamestra brassica*, and Noctua
brassier of some naturalists). It mea-
sures about one inch and three-quarters
across the opened fore-wings, which are
dusky brown, clouded with darker
shades, and marked with pairs of dark
spots on their front edge; from these
! spots proceed the streaks which mark
| the wings across; there are various
i spots on the wings, some yellowish,
i and those in the middle surrounded
with white, the kidney -shaped one with
a whitish grey crescent round it and
blackish beyond ; the wings have a
grey, yellowish-striped fringe, and near
this, at the point farthest from the
body, they have a row of black triangu-
lar marks; the hind-wings are light
brownish grey, with dark veins ; the
body and head are of various shades of
blackish grey, with a darker stripe of
the same colour down the centre of the
back. During the day this moth rests
on the shady sides of the stems 'of
trees, or the branches of hedge-row-
bushes, and even by the side of clods
on the soil.
The caterpillar is green, variously
marked with grey or black, with a dark
stripe down the back, and a dirty yel-
low one down each side ; the spiracles
(breathing-holes) are white, surrounded
with black, and close above the yellow
stripe. The caterpillar is found in July,
August, and September, feeding upon
the hearts of cabbages and lettuces.
The only remedies are destroying the
moths whenever seen, and hand-pick-
ing the caterpillars. The latter bury
themselves in the ground, and remain
in the pupa or chrysalis state all the
winter. The Cottage Gardener.
MANGLE'SIA. (Named after Captain
Mangles, and his brother, Robert Man-
yles,Esq,, of Sunning Hill, distinguished
patrons of botany. Nat. ord., Proteads
[Proteacece]. Linn., -Tetrandria 1-
Monoyynia. Allied to Grevillea.)
Greenhouse evergreen shrubs from Swan
River. Cuttings of ripe shoots, in sand, under
a glass, and in heat, after the base of the cut-
ting- begins to swell ; sandy loam and fibry
peat. Winter temp., 35 to 45.
M. fflabra'ta (smooth). 5. White. May. 1838.
purpu'rea (purple). Purple. May. 183Q.
vesti'ta (clothed). Purple. May.
MANICA'RIA. (From man lea, a glove ;
referring to the spathe, or rolling leaf
which surrounds the flower-stern. Nat.
ord., Palms [Palmacere]. Linn., 21-
Monceda ( J-nneandria.)
Stove Palm. Seeds in a strong heat, in a
hotbed ; rich sandy loam. Winter temp., 55
to 65 ; summer, 65 to 00.
30. East j
M. sacci'fera (sugary. Wine-palm).
MA'NIHOT. (The Brazilian name of
the root. Nat. ord., Spurgeworts [Eu-
phorbiacese] . Linn., Sl-Moncecia 7-
Heptandria. Allied to Jatropha.)
Stove evergreen shrubs, except digitata, I
which only requires a greenhouse; all the !
species placed under Janipha should be re- |
stored to this genus. For culture, see Janipha
M. digita'ta (finger-leaved). Blue, green. July, j
graci'lis (slender). Brown, green. July.
sinua'ta (wavy-edged). Brown. July.
tenuifo'lia (thin-leaved). Blue, brown.
June. Brazil. 1822.
MANTI'SIA. Opera Girls. (Named
after an insect, Mantis, to which the |
flowers have been compared. Nat. ord., j
Gingenvorts [Zingiberaceee]. Linn., 1- |
Monandria \-Monogynia. Allied to
Stove herbaceous evergreens, from the East
Indies. Division of the roots, as growth com-
mences ; sandy peat and fibry loam, well
drained. Winter temp., 48 to 55; summer,
60 to 85.
M. saltato'ria (dancing). 1. Purple. July.
spatula'ta (spatulate). 1. Blue. June. 1823.
MANGO GINGER. Curcu'ma ama'da.
MANGO TREE. See MangVfera.
MANNA ASH. O'rnus rotund'ifo'lia.
MANU'LEA. (From manus, the hand ;
from a faint resemblance in the divi-
sions of the flower. Nat. ord., Figirorts
[Scrophulariacece]. Linn., \-Didy-
namia 2-Angiospei-mia. Allied to Chce-
Greenhouse evergreens, from the Cape of
Good Hope. Several species are taken from
this genus and added to Lype'ria. Seeds, sown
in spring, in a slight hotbed ; cuttings of the
young shoots, firm at their base, in sand, under
a bell-glass, but without bottom-heat ; sandy
loam, and peat, and leaf-mould. Winter temp.,
38 to 48.
M. cheiru'nthus (Wall- flower). 1. Orange.
corda'ta (newt-leaved). $. Red. July. 1816.
ru'bra (red). 1$. Red. June. 1790.
visco'sa (clammy). 1. Pink. September.
MANURES are either animal, vege-
table, or mineral. They directly assist
the growth of plants, by entering into
their composition, by absorbing and re-
taining moisture from the atmosphere,
by absorbing the gases of the atmo-
sphere, and by stimulating the vascular
system of the plants. Manures indi-
rectly assist vegetation, by lulling pre-
datory vermin and weeds, by promoting
the decomposition of stubborn organic
remains in the soil, and by protecting
plants from violent changes of tem-
All these properties seldom, if ever,
occur in one species of manure, but
each is usually particularized by pos-
sessing one or more in a superior
degree. That is the most generally
applicable manure which is composed
of matters essential to the growth of
plants ; the chief of these are carbon,
hydrogen, and oxygen, therefore all
animal and vegetable substances are
excellent manures. It would evidently
be of great benefit, if every plant could
be manured with the decaying parts of
its own species. This rule might be
so far followed, as that the stems of
potatoes, peas, &c., could be dug re-
spectively into the compartments where
those crops are intended to be grown
in the following year; but such manure
requires the addition of ammoniacal
Some manures ameliorate a soil by
absorbing moisture from the atmo-
sphere. This property is at least as
beneficial to ground that is aluminous
as to that which is siliceous ; for it is
equally useless to either during periods
of plentiful rain; but in the drought
of summer, when moisture is much
wanting to plants, it is beneficial to
both ; in very dry seasons it is even of
> greater importance to clayey than to
i light soils ; for vegetation on the former
suffers more from long - continued
1 drought than on the latter, the surface
of the clayey soil becoming caked and
impervious to air, the only grand source
of compensatory moisture that is avail-
able to the languishing plants, and
which is more open to those which
grow on light, and, consequently, more
The foUowing table of the compara-
tive absorbent powers of many manures
is extracted chiefly from An Essay on
[ 579 ]
the Use of Salt in Agriculture, by Mr.
Horse-dung evaporated previously to
dryness, at a temperature of 100, ab-
sorbed during an exposure of three
hours to air saturated with moisture
at 62, 145 parts ; putrefied tanners'
bark, under similar circumstances (66 ),
14") parts ; unputrefied tanners' bark,
115 parts; cow-dung, 130 parts; pig-
dung, 120; sheep-dung, 81; pigeon-
dung, 50; refuse marine salt (GO) ,
49; soot (08), 36; burnt clay, 29;
the richest soil (in one hour), 23 ; coal
ashes, 14; lime (part carbonate), 11;
crushed rock salt, 10 ; gypsum, 9 ;
The absorbing power of a manure is
much influenced by the state in which
it is presented to the atmosphere. In
a finely divided state mere capillary
attraction assists it ; hence the im-
portance of keeping the soil frequently
stirred by hoeing, &c. But a mere
mass of cotton, by means of capillary
attraction, will absorb moisture from
the air, yet it parts with it at a very
slight elevation of temperature ; it is
of importance, therefore, to ascertain
which are the manures that not only
absorb but retain moisture powerfully.
The following results of our experi-
ments throw some light on this point :
Pig-dung evaporated to dryness at a
temperature of 106, and then moist-
ened with six parts of water, required
for being reduced to dryness again, at
the above temperature, 135 minutes;
horse - dung under similar circum-
stances, 90; common salt, 75; soot,
75 ; rich soil, 32 ; chalk, 29 ; poor soil
(siliceous), 23; gypsum, 18.
These experiments point out a cri-
terion by which we easily ascertain the
comparative richness of any two given
soils or manures : the most fertile will
be most absorbent and retentive.
Some manures increase the growth
and vigour of plants by stimulating
their absorbent and assimilating organs.
The stimulating powers of excrementi-
tious manures arise from the salts of
ammonia they contain.
Sir H. Davy found vegetation assisted
by solutions of muriate of ammonia
(sal-ammoniac), carbonate of ammonia
(volatile salt), and acetate of ammonia.
Night soil, one of the most beneficial
of manures, surpasses all others in the
abundance of its ammoniacal consti-
tuents in the proportion of three to
one. It may be observed, that the
nearer any animal approaches to man
in the nature of its food, the more fertili-
zing is the manure it affords. We have
no doubt that a languishing plant one,
for example, that has been kept very
long with its roots out of the earth, as
an orange-tree recently imported from
Italy might be most rapidly recovered,
if its stem and branches were steeped
in a tepid weak solution of carbonate
of ammonia ; and when planted, an
uncorked phial of the solution were
suspended to one of the branches, to
impregnate the atmosphere slightly
with its stimulating fumes.
Manures are also of benefit to plants
by affording some of the gases of the
atmosphere to their roots in a concen-
trated form. A soil, when first turned
up by the spade or plough, has gene-
rally a red tint, of various intensity,
which by a few hours' exposure to the
air subsides into a grey or black hue.
The first colour appears to arise from
the oxide of iron which all soils con-
tain, being in the state of the red or
protoxide ; by absorbing more oxygen
during the exposure, it is converted
into the black or peroxide. Hence one
of the benefits of frequently stirring
soils ; the roots of incumbent plants
abstract the extra dose of oxygen, and
reconvert it to the protoxide. Coal
ashes, in common with all carbona-
ceous matters, have the power of
strongly attracting oxygen. Every
gardener may have observed how ra-
pidly a blight spade of iron left foul
with coal ashes becomes covered with
rust, or red oxide.
Manures assist plants by destroying
predatory vermin and weeds. This is
not a property of animal and vegetable
manures they foster both those ene-
mies of our crops. Salt and lime are
very efficient destroyers of slugs, snails,
Stable manure, and all decomposing
animal and vegetable substances, have
a tendency to promote the decay of
[ ftfiO ]
stubborn organic remains in the soil,
on the principle that putrescent sub-
stances hasten the process of putre-
faction in other organic bodies with
which they come in contact. Salt, in
a small proportion, has been demon-
strated by Sir J. Pringle to be gifted
with a similar septic property, and
that lime rapidly breaks down the tex-
ture of organized matters is well known.
There is no doubt that rich soils, or
those abounding in animal and vege-
table remains, are less liable to change
in temperature with that of the incum-
bent atmosphere than those of a poorer
constitution. This partly arises from
the colour of the soils. Some manures,
as salt, protect plants from suffering by
sudden reductions of temperature, by
entering into their system ; stimulating
and rendering them more vigorous,
impregnating their sap, and, conse-
quently, rendering it less liable to be
MARANHAO NUTS. Sertholle'tia.
MARA'NTA. Arrow Hoot. (Named
after B. Maranti, an Italian botanist.
Nat.ord., Marants [Marantaceo?]. Linn.,
1 -Monandria 1-Monof/ynia. Allied to
A kind of arrow-root is obtained from the
rhizome, or fleshy roots of some of the species.
Stove evergreens ; division of the roots, in
spring ; rich sandy loam, with nodules of peat.
Winter temp., 50 to 60; summer, 60 to 8.1.
M. angustlfo'lia (narrow- leaved). 2. Red.
July. West Indies. 1820.
bi'color (two-coloured). 3. White. July.
mi'nor (smaller). . White. April.
South America. 1828.
linea'ta (white-lined.-leawed'). 1. 1848,
ro'sea (loay-lined-leaved}. 1. 1848.
Malacce'nsis (Malacca). 2. Green, white.
December. East Indies. 1820.
obli'qua (twisted- leaved). 2. Red. July.
Ton' chat (Touchat). 8. Red. July. East
variega'ta (variegated), 1. July. South !
MARA'TTIA. (Named after J. F. \
Maratti, an Italian botanist. Nat. ord., j
Danaaworts [Danseacese]. Linn., 2- j
Cryptoaamia l-FUiccs. Allied to Ferns. )
Stove evergreens. Division, in spring, or by
spore-like seeds; peat and loam. Winter
temp., 55 to 60 ; summer, 60 to 85.
M, ala'ta (winged).
M, cicutafo'lia (Cicuta-leaved). Brown, yellow.
e'legans (elegant). 8. Brown, yellow.
Ice'vis (smooth). 2. Brown, yellow. Ja-
MARGINS of streams and other waters
must always accord with the pleasure-
grounds in which they are placed. Art,
therefore, must imitate each in its
proper place, not always by a studious
picturesque arrangement of the mar-
ginal accompaniments in each case,
but by excavating the groundwork,
planting the trees and shrubs, and
leaving the rest to the motion of the
waves of the water. After the effects
of one winter, stones or gravel may be
deposited in spots suitable for stony or
MARGYRIOA'RPUS. (From margaron,
a pearl, and karpos, a seed-vessel ; re-
ferring to the pearly succulent fruit.
Nat. ord., Sanguisorbs [Sanguisorba-
cese]. Linn., %-Diandrla \-Monogynta.
Allied to Cliffortia.)
Stove evergreen shrub. Cuttings of half-
ripened shoots, in April or May, in sand, under