maining soil must be added ; each
light requiring, in the whole, from two
to three barrowsful. The surface of
the bed must be formed convex, the
plants occupying the highest point.
Two plants are enough for each light,
and a shoot may be led to each angle
of the light, and then the main shoots
taking the whole light, will form the
letter X, the centre of the letter in-
dicating the ridging-out point.
as each of these shoots reach to within
from six to nine inches of the frame
side, they must be pinched, and the la-
terals forced out by this pinching will
produce blossoms, some males, others
females ; the former generally prepon-
The female blossoms must be care-
fully "set" or impregnated daily, chos-
ing about two o'clock, p.m., for the
operation, when the farina will be dry.
As soon as from three to four fruit are
secured on each plant, and these are as
large as a pigeon's egg, all the blossoms
must be kept cut away, male and
female, as they appear. Each axillary
shoot with a fruit must be pinched or
stopped three or four eyes beyond the
fruit ; and frequent stopping practised
with all the other portions, removing at
all times coarse shoots which threaten
to overpower the bearing portions, The
[ 593 ]
chief object should be, to expose as much
healthy foliage as possible, and that
connected with bearing portions, to the
light, not suffering late- formed leaves
to over-shadow the older healthy leaves.
Still, the sides of the frame must be
occasionally watered; and when the
fruit is as large as a hen's egg, a liberal
watering of liquid -manure may be
given, avoiding, however, wetting the
collars of the plants at all times. Ven-
tilation must be daily had, but much
caution is necessary ; good linings
must be maintained, in order to sup-
port the necessary temperature with
ventilation. By these means, fine, ripe
Cantaloups or Eeechwoods may be cut
by the middle of May. We may add
that the root-watering may require to
be repeated, but water must be entirely
withheld a week or two before they
commence ripening, and an extra
amount of ventilation used during the
The main features of their culture
in houses or pits, or on trellises, are
precisely the same, except that having
a greater depth of soil, and more room
to ramble, a much greater length of
main shoot may be allowed before
stopping. In whatever situation, about
80 of bottom-heat, and an average of
75 atmospheric, will be found to suit
them best, except that in proportion as
the sun-light increases they will readily
bear an increase of from 5 to 10,
both to the roots and branches.
Bed. Although a common hotbed is
generally used for this plant, yet a pit is
more economical of heat, and by enabling
a more regular temperature to be sus-
tained, renders the fruit in greater per-
fection. The pit is a rectangular frame
or bin, built of nine-inch brickwork,
and enclosed by a glass case of the
necessary dimensions. Mr. Smith,
gardener to A. Keith, Esq., of Eavel-
stone, N. B., has suggested a mode of
building a pit which renders the re-
newal of the heat in it easy ; and as
the committee appointed to examine it
report, is the means of considerable
saving compared with the common
mode of forming an open bed. But
the facility with which linings may be
applied is its best feature,
The accompanying sketch will at
once show the form of the pit, and Mr.
Smith's mode of applying the linings.
A is the pit the side of which a a in-
stead of being a continuous piece of
brickwork are merely rows of pillars
six feet apart; and the brickwork of
the frame, b 6, is supported by bars of
iron reaching from pillar to pillar. An
outer wall, c c, is constructed at two-
and-a-half feet distance from the pillars
on each side ; thus two bins are formed
in which the linings are inserted, as is
found necessary, and are kept close
covered with thick boards ; d represents
the lights, which thus are formed with-
out any wooden frames. For other
modes of construction, see Hotbed,
Pits, &c. If a common hotbed is em-
ployed, fifteen barrow loads of dung
is the usual allowance to each light,
which make it about six inches higher
than is allowed for the cucumber bed
of largest dimensions.
If a melon-house be employed, the
following is the form and mode adopted
by Mr. Fleming.
" The house is twenty-eight feet long,
and fifteen wide, and is heated by means
of a saddle boiler, with four-inch pipes
passing round the outside of the pit,
which pipes are fitted with cast-iron
troughs for holding water to regulate
the moisture of the atmosphere. Be-
neath the pit is an arched chamber,
a, along the front of which runs the
flue, t, imparting a slight degree of
heat to the soil above, and also serving
to heat a series of arches, c, which run
along beneath the path, and are eu-
teredt from a bouse in front, d, and
[ 594 ]
which are used for forcing rhubarb, &c.,
in the winter." Gardeners' Chronicle.
Culture of the Persian kinds. These
are much more tender than the ordi-
nary green-fleshed melons ; they will
not endure so low a temperature, and
neither will they thrive in so moist an
atmosphere. A high authority, speak-
ing of the Persian melons, has thus
observed : " They are found to require
a very high temperature, a dry atmo-
sphere, and an extremely humid soil,
Avliile they are at the same time im-
patient of an undue supply of moisture,
which causes spottings and decay long
before the fruit is ripe."
We are informed that in Persia,
where the melon grows in the open
fields, that the ground where they are j
cultivated is crossed in various ways by j
streams, between which the melons |
are placed on raised beds highly ma- j
mired. It would seem, therefore, that ;
in order to excel in their culture, the
following may be taken as maxims : <
1 st. The brightest of glass is i*equisite, '.
to admit every ray possible of the sun-
light. '2nd. A very high atmospheric
temperature must be sustained, and
especially in order that the cultivator i
may be enabled to ventilate freely, to j
prevent the accumulation of damp, j
.')rd. A rich soil, dry in its upper sur-
face, but rather moist beneath. It is
urged by those who have been success-
ful iii their culture, that they should be
trained on trellises ; and there is no
doubt the opinion is correct. They
may, however, be trained against the
back walls of stoves, or grown in large
pots, to which in due time a dish of
water may be affixed, and the shoots
trained on portable trellises.
We will conclude with a few general
remarks. The foliage of melons, of
whatever kind, should never be ruffled
or disturbed; training and stopping,
therefore, must be attended to in due
time. Melons should not be encou-
raged to become luxuriant until a crop
of fruit commences swelling; after
this, it is almost impossible to encou-
rage them too much. Again, they
should never be watered indiscrimi-
nately overhead, after the manner of
cucumbers, unless it be some of the
ordinary green-flesh kinds, during
periods of continued heat and a dry
Diseases. These are few properly
so called except the gum and canker,
and those are mostly engendered by
wounds or braises on gross subjects,
producing a sort of vegetable gan-
grene. When such occurs, it is a good
plan to place a slate, tile, or piece of
glass, beneath the affected part, and to
pile a mixture of quick lime three
parts, and charcoal dust one part, in a
hillock around and above the wound,
changing the same when it becomes
Insects. See Acatus, Aphis, and
MELON PUMPKIN. Curcu'bita vnelo-
MELON THISTLE. Meloca'ctns.
MELON TUEK'S CAP. Meloca'ctu scorn -
MEME'CYLON. (Dioscorides name
for the fruit of the Arbutus. Nat. ord.,
Melastomads [Melastomacere]. Linn.,
S-Octandria \-Monogynia. Allied to
The berries of M. edttle are eatable, but not
very good. Stove evergreens. Cuttings of shoots,
in sand, under a glass, in heat ; loam and peat,
with a good portion of sand, and pieces of char-
coal. Winter temp., 50 to 55 ; summer, 60
M. angula'tum (angled). 3. Purple. May.
capitella'tum (small-headed;. 4. July. East
gra'nde (large). Blue. May. East Indies.
edu'le (eatable). 10. Purple. Ceylon. 1820.
MENASTE'LMA. (From nienc, the
inoon, and stelmrt, a crown ; referring
to the shape of the heads of flowers,
Nat. ord., Asdcpiads [Asclepiadaoere].
Linn., b-Pcntandria %-Jtigynia.)
Stove evergreen twiner. Cuttings of the
younpr shoots when three inches long, taken off
close to the stem, in sand, under a glass, and in
bottom heat ; peat and loam. Winter tern]).,
55 to 60 ; summer, 60 to 80.
M. parviflo'rum (small-flowered). 6. Green,
white. West Indies.
MENIO'CUS. (From mene, the moon,
and okkos, the eye ; referring to llu-
shape of the seed-pod. Nat. ord., Cru-
cifers [Brassicacepe]. . Linn., lf)-7V/>v/-
dynamia. Allied to Anbretin.. )
A hardy annual. Seed in April, in common
jlf. linifo'Kus (Flax-leaved\ A. White. June.
MEXI'SCIUJH. (From meniskos, a
crescent ; referring to the shape of the
spore or seed-cases. Nat. ord., Ferns
fTolypodiacen?]. Linn., 2-i-Cryptoyamia
Stove Ferns with brown spores. See Ferns.
M. cuspida'tum (sharp-pointed). May. Isle
palu'stre (marsh) . 4. May. West Indies.
proli'ferum (proliferous). May. East Indies.
retieula'tum (netted). f . May. Mar-
sorbifo'lium (Sorb-leaved). 1. Brazil. 1823.
Mphy'llum (three-leaved). 1. June. East
MENISPE'RMUM. Moonseed. (From
mene, the moon, and sperma, a seed.
Nat. ord., Menispermads [Menisperma-
ee83]. Linn., 22-Dicecia IQ-Decandria.
Allied to Cocculus.)
Chiefly hardy deciduous twining plants. Di-
vision of the roots ; cuttings in spring, under a
hand-light, and by seeds sown at the same
rime ; common garden soil.
M. amari'ssimum (most-bitter). Yellow. East
Indies. 1804. Stove evergreen climber.
Canade'nse (Canadian). 10. Green, yellow, i
June. North America. 1691.
. loba'tum (\obe-leaved). Green, :
yellow. June. North America. 1/32. ;
Lyo'nii (Lyon's). 10. Purple. June. North
MENONVI'LLEA. (Named after T. de
Menonville, a French naturalist. Nat.
ord., Crucifors [Brassicacese] . Linn.,
1 5. Tt'tradynamia. )
Hardy annual. Seeds ; common garden
M.fiUfo'lia (thread-leaved). 1. Greenish l
white. August. Chili. 1836.
ME'NTHA. Mint. (Mentha is the
Latin name of the herb. Nat. ord., j
Labiates, or Lipworts [Lamiaceae]. I
Linn., l-Didynamia 1 Grymnospermia.) \
Hardy herbaceous perennials, purple-flowered i
except where otherwise mentioned. Division
of the plant or roots, in spring and autumn
the first period is the best m stiff clayey soils ; '
common garden soil.
M. arve'nsis (field), f . August. Britain.
balsa'mea (Balsam-scented). lj. July. Italy, i
bla'nda (mild). 2. White. September. !
Ca nade'nsis (Canadian). 1. August. North;
glabra'ta (smoothed). 1, July.!
North America, 1800.
M. cltra'ta (citron-scented). July. Britain.
cocci' nea (scarlet). 1. Scarlet. July. East
dental ta (toothed). 1. July. Germany.
glabra'ta (smoothed). 1. July. Egypt. 1802.
inca'na (hoary). l. July. Greece. 1/90.
lavanditia'cea (Lavender- Jmoed). 1. July.
piperi'ta (Pepper). 2. August. England.
pule'gi um (Pennyroyal). . August. Britain.
J2eg-M/e'/ii(Requien's). ?. Lilac. August.
salici'na (Willow-teawed). Cape of Good
sua'uis (sweet). Red. July. France.
vi'ridis (green. Spear}. 2. August. Britain.
cri'spa (curled). 2. July. 1807.
MENTZE'LIA. (Named after C.Ment-
zel, a German botanist. Nat. ord.,
Loasads [Loasacese]. Linn., 12-Icosan-
dria 1-Monogynia. Allied to Bartonia.)
Easily raised from seed ; and stipitatu from
shoots, in sand, under a glass, in heat ; sandy
loam and peat.
M. a'spera (rough). 2. Yellow. July. America.
1733. Hardy annual.
stipita'ta (ataiked-flowered). 2. Yellow.
October. Mexico. 1835. Hardy
MENYA'NTHES. Buck Bean. (From
men, a month, and anthos, a flower ; the
time of duration. Nat. ord., Gentian-
worts [Gentianaceffi]. Linn., 5-Pentan-
drla 1-Monogynia. Allied to Yillarsia.)
Hardy perennial aquatics. Division of the
plant, and by seed in spring ; moist situation.
M. trifolia'ta (three-leaved). 1. White. July.
America'na (American). 1 . Pale
red. July. North America. 1818.
MENZIE'SIA. (Named after A. Men-
zies, surgeon and naturalist to the ex-
pedition under Vancouver. Nat. ord.,
Heathworts [Ericaceas], Linn., S-Oc-
tinidria \-Monogynia. Allied to An-
Chiefly by layers early in autumn, and by
cuttings under a hand-light ; sandy peat, with
a little loam.
HARDY DECIDUOUS SHRUBS.
globula'ris (g\o\)\ila.r-flowere.d) .
May. North America. 0.
M. ernpetri'formis (Empetrum-like). Purple.
June. North America. 1810.
polifo'lia (Polium-leaved). 2. Purple. July.
.. a'tro-purpu'ren (dark-purple\ 2,
[ 606 ]
M. polifo'liaflo're-a'lbo( white-flowered). White.
latifo'lia (broad-leaved). 2. Purple.
longifo'lia (long-leaved). 2. Purple.
na'na (dwarf). . Purple. July.
pa' llida (pale-flowering). 2. Purple.
toxifoli'a (Yew-leaved). Purple.
MERCURY (Chenopo'dium lo'mts Hen
ri'cus). This perennial plant is known
by the various names of Angular-leaved
Goosefoot, English Mercury or Allgood,
Good Henry, Good King Henry, and
Wild Spinach. In many parts of Lin-
colnshire, as about Boston, it is culti-
vated to use as spinach ; the young
shoots are also peeled, boiled, and
eaten as asparagus. Sow the seed in
March but in October is better in a
well-manured bed, prepared as for as-
paragus ; in the middle of September
plant the seedlings, during rainy
weather, in a similar bed in rows, a
foot apart each way. Hoe .frequently,
and use the shoots or tops as required.
Dress the beds with manure the same
as for asparagus ; they will continue in
production many years.
This must not be mistaken for Mer-
ciirialis, or Mercury, one of our common
hedge weeds, for this is poisonous. Mer-
curlalis is a Dioecious plant, and belongs
to the Nat. ord., Spurgeworts ; but the
Chenopodium belongs to the Nat. ord.
Chenopods, and to the Linneean class
and order Pentandria Monogynia.
This should have been added to Bulbocodium.
M. Caucn'sica (Caucasian). . Purple. Au-
gust. Caucasus. 1823.
MERODON NARCISSI. Narcissus Fly.
The bulbs of the daffodil and of other
species of the narcissus frequently re-
fuse to vegetate ; and the usual cause
is, that their interiors have been eaten
by the grub of this two-winged fly.
This disappointment may be avoided
if these bulbs are examined before
In the month of November, says Mr.
Curtis, one or two large roundish holes
are sometimes found on the outsides of
the bulbs of the daffodil and narcissus.
The bulbs are more or less decayed
within, where a maggot will generally
be found, which by feeding in the
heart during the summer and autumn
months, has been the sole author of
the mischief. This larva is somewhat
like the flesh-maggot, and not unlike a
bot, only that it is not jagged with
spines, and instead of being whitish,
its natural colour, is changed to brown
by its living amongst the slimy matter
which has been discharged from its
own body, causing the gradual rotting
of the bulb. Towards the end of No-
vember the maggot is transformed into
a pupa, to accomplish which it eats its
way out of the bulb near the roots, and
buries itself in the surrounding earth.
The pupse are dull brown, egg-shaped,
rough, and strongly wrinkled. In this
state they remain until the following
spring, when the flies issue from them.
Their eggs are then deposited, but
upon what part of the plant they are
laid, has not been observed, but pro-
bably upon the bulb near the base of
the leaves. April seems to be the
month when most of the flies hatch ;
and they have been compared to small
humble-bees, from the disposition of
the colours, which are, for the most
part, yellow, orange, and black, but
they certainly bear a greater resem-
blance to some of the bot-flies ; from
bees they are readily distinguished by
having only two wings, the horns and
proboscis are totally different, and they
have no stings.
(From mesembria, mid-day, and anthe-
mon, a flower ; referring to the flowers
opening better on sunny days. Nat.
ord., Ficoids [Mesembryaceee]. Linn.,
1 2-Iscosandria Q-Di-pentagynia.)
Greenhouse succulent plants, from the Cape
of Good Hope, except when otherwise men-
tioned. All by seeds, and most of them by
cuttings, dried at the base, before inserting
them m sandy soil, peat, loam, lime-rubbish,
and old cow-dung, well drained. Winter temp.,
38 to 45. Well suited for window plants,
and rough rockwork, out-of-doors, in summer.
Seeds should be sown in a hotbed, and plants
gradually hardened off before planting out.
M. cadu'cum (deciduous). 1. Pink. July. 1774.
calendula 1 ceum (Marigold-^owercrf). 4- Yel-
low. August. 1819-
-T Cajifo'rmcvm ( Calif ornian). Purple. Sep-
tenber. California, 1847.
[ 507 ]
M. crystalti'num (crystalline. Ice Plant). White.
July. Greece. 17/5.
genicutiflo'rum (joint-flowering). 1. White.
gla'bra (smooth). Yellow. August. 1/87-
helianthoi'des (Sunflower-like). $. Yellow.
pilo'sum (shaggy), j. Yellow. July. 1800.
pinnati'fidum (leaf-cleft). 1. Yellow. July.
pomeridia'num (afternoon). 1. Yellow.
- - Andre' wsii (Andrew's). 1.
pube'rulum (rather-downy). White. 1829.
pyro'pceum (flame-coloured). Rose, white.
- - ro'seum (rosy). Rose, white.
Tripo'lium (Aster-leaved). . Pak yellow.
August. 1700. Biennial.
GREENHOUSE EVEEGREEN TRAILERS.
M. abbrevia'tum (short-jointed). <|. New Hol-
ttcinacifo'rme (scimitar-formed). . Pink.
- lo'ngum (long). . Pink.
eequilatera'le (equal-sided), f . Pink. June.
New Holland. 1791.
attenua'tum (thin). . White. July. 1821.
Austra'le (southern). 4> Yellow. July.
New Zealand. 1733.
barba'tum (bearded). . Pink. July. 1705.
calyci'num (fcm#-calyxed). 3 White. July.
ca'ndens (glittering). . White. June. 1820.
- viri'dius (greener^. White. Sep-
clavella'tum (smri]l-clvh-lcaved). 4. Pink.
June. New Holland. 1803.
aggrega'tum (crowded-leaved) .
i. Pink. June. NBAV Holland. 1803.
Pink. July. 1811.
3. Pink. June.
re'ptans (creeping). -\. Pink.
rigidicau'le (stifF-stemmed). &
Ro'ssi (Ross's). 3. Pink. Van Dieman's
rubricau'le (red-stalked). . Pale purple.
- de'nsius (denser). . Pink. 1818.
- subvi'rens (greenish). Pink.
rubroci'nctum (red - bordered) . . Pink.
- - compre'ssum (compressed). .
_^ - te'nerum (tender). 4. Pink.
sarmento'sum (twiggy). 1^. Red. April.
Scho'ltti (Scholl's). 1. Pink. May.
serrula'tum (saw-leaved). 4. Pink.
- - viri'dius (greener). .
si'mile (similar). 1. Pink. 1819-
stria'tum (channeled- bristly). |.
' liens (pale). . White.
de'At'fc (weak). $. 1824.
de'nsum (dense-bearded). $. Pink. June.
edu'le (eatable. Hottentot Fie). A. Pink.
Jilamento'sum (thready), i. Pink. May.
floribu'ndum (bundle-flowered). . Pink.
furfu'reum (brsinny-twigged). J. Blush.
gemina'tum (twin), j. Pink. 1/92.
glauce'scens (milky- greenish). . Pink.
hirte'llum (dwarf-bristly). . Pink. Au-
hi'spidum (bristly). 3. Purple. July. 1704.
- platype'talum (broad-petaled). .
Purple. July. 1820.
hispifo'lium (bristly - leaved). . White.
- - ro'seum (rosy), i. Pink. July.
~ subhi'spidum (slightly-bristly). 2- Purple.
subula'tum (a.\v\-leaved Daisy-flowered). 4.
torqua'tum (torqued). 3. Pink. August.
va'Kdvm (strong). 4. Pink. May. 1824.
virga'tum (twiggy). 3. Pink. March. 1793.
GREENHOUSE EVERGREEN SHRUBS.
M. acumina' turn (pointed-leaved). 2. White.
acuta'ngulum (acute-angled). l. White.
acu'tum (great-&cute-leaved). %. Red. July.
adace'ndens ( ascending- tongue). J. Yellow.
adu'ncum (hook- leaved). 1. Pink. Feb-
agni'num (lamp). . Yellow. June. 1824.
- erectiw'sculum (more-erect- leaved).
i. Yellow. May. 1824.
- mi'nus (less). . Yellow. May.
albicau'le (white-stemmed). 1. White. Au-
a'lbidum (whitish). $. Yellow. July. 1714.
albino' turn (white - marked). 4- Yellow.
albipuncta'tum (white-dotted), i- Septem-
aloi'des (Aloe-like). }. YeUow. 1819.
anato'micum (skeleton-leaved), if. White.
- - fra'gile (brittle), f. White,
a'nceps (two-edged). 1$. Pink. June. 1811.
- pa'llidum (pale). l. Pale pink.
angu'stum (nxrrovf'tongued). 4. Yellow.
[ 598 ]
M. angu'stum heterophy'llum (various-leaved). |
4- Yellow. July. 1790.
pa'llidum (pale). . Yellow.
a'sperum (rough). l. 1818.
casrule' scens (bluish). l. 1820.
aura'ntium (orange). l. Orange. July.
au'reum (golden). 1. Yellow. June. 1750.
bellidiflo'rum (Daisy -flowered). ^. Red,
white. July. 1717-
. subula'tum (awl - shaped -
leaved). $. Red. July. 1717
vi'ride (pea-green). . Red.
bibractea'tum (double-bracted). J. Yellow.
bicolo'rum (two-coloured). 1A. Orange.
mi'mts (smaller). . Orange.
pa'tulum (spreading). 1. Orange.
bidenta'htm (two - toothed). 1. Yellow.
ma 'jus (larger). 1$. Yellow.
bi'fidum (two-cleft). . Yellow. November.
bigibbera'tum (two-bunched). \. Yellow.
bla'ndum (mild). 14. White. June. 1810.
bra'chiatum (forked), li. Yellow. July.
bractea'tum (bracted). 1$. Yellow. Au-
brevicau'le (short-stemmed). 4. Pale yellow.
brevifo'lium (short- leaved). 1. Pale yellow.
bulbo'sum (bulbous-rooted). *. Pink. Au-
calamifo'rme (Reed - shaped). 1. White.
canalicula' turn (small-channel-Jraoed). 2.
Pink. August. 1/94.
cani'num (dog). 4. Yellow. September.
ca'nvm (hoary), i- Yellow. 1795.
capita' f urn (headed). 1. Pale yellow. Au-
rami'gernm (branchy). 1. Pale
yellow. August. 181 6.
cari'nans (keeling). . 1818.
caule'scens (stemmed - delta - leaved). lj.
Pink. June. 1731.
clandesti'num (clandestine). . White.
cocci'neum (scarlet). l. Scarlet. July.
acu'tius (acuter calyxed] . i .
mi'tms (smaller). 14. Scarlet.
compa'ctum (compact) . . Yellow. No-
compre'ssum (compressed). \\. Red. Au-
confc'rtum (crowded -leaved], 1^. Pink.
conapi'cuum (conspicuous). 1. Red. Sep-
M. comlli'num (coral). 1. Pink. May. 1820.
cordifo'lium (heart-leaved). $. Pink. July.
cornicula'tum (small - horned) . 1. Pale
yellow. April. 1732.
isophy'llum (equal-leaved). 1 .
Pale yellow. April. 1732.
coru'scaiis (glittering), 1. Pale yellow.
crassicau'le (thick-stemmed), i. Pale yel-
low. July. 1815.
crassuloi'des (Crassula-like). 4. Pink. July.
crucia'tum (cross-leaved). $. Yellow. May.
cultra'tum (pruning-knife-teaed). ^. Yel-
low. September. 1820.
cur'tum (short-sheathed). 1^. White.
ma'jus (larger). l. White.
mi'mts (smaller). 1$. White.
poli 1 turn (polished). 1$. White.
cttrvifo'littm (curved-leaved). 1. Pink. Oc-
curviflo'rum (curved-flowered). 2. White.