: up nearly level with the top of the pot,
and place three seeds in the very mid
1 die of each pot, and nine or ten seeds
; all over the surface ; if you just cover
i them with earth it is enough, and
press them down very tight.
them, and put them up in the window,
or greenhouse, and if the seeds are
good they will be up in less than ten
days ; give them abundance of air, and
no forcing. When the day is at all fine,
put them outside the window from ten
to three in the afternoon. They will
not stand much water ; a gentle shower
with a rose would suit them very well,
and the best time to give it them is in
the morning when you turn them out
side, as they will have time to drain
and dry properly before you take them
in for the night. If the three seeds in
the centre come up, the weakest of the
three must be pulled out as soon as
you can get hold of it; the rest to
be thinned one-half. The reason
for sowing so many seeds in one pot,
and for thus thinning them out after-
wards, is to make sure of one good
plant ; if the middle one turns out to
be so, that must be selected ; but if not,
you must choose the strongest and
most promising from among the rest ;
yet be in no great hurry to pull them
all out but one ; as long as three or
four have room, leave them. When
you have fixed on the one that is to
form the future tree, place a neat little
stick down by the side of it, a foot long,
and pushed down to the bottom of the
pot. Wlien the plant is two inches
long, tie it loosely to this stick with a
piece of worsted thread. Keep tying it
as regularly as it grows, and when it
reaches the top of the stick give it a
longer one, that is, if you wish a long
stein. Some people grow them up to
three, or even four, feet and more-
Suppose we say only a foot high for a
couple of them, as they must all go in
pairs ; eighteen inches for the next
couple, and two feet for a third lot ;
you would then be better able to judge
which size would suit your window
best ; and as soon and as often as side
branches issue forth from the stem of
your tree, you must stop them at the
[ 605 ]
second joint. Some people, who do
not know the value of leaves, cut off
the side shoots close to the stem at
once ; but the substance of the stems
and trunks of all trees, and mignonette
trees among the rest, is first formed by
the leaves. In the second year you
will cut off more than the half of these
side spurs, beginning at the bottom,
and only taking off a pair at a time,
and in ten days or a fortnight another
couple, and so on progressively.
There must be no flowers the first
season, at least as long as there are
some out in the borders. After the
middle of October you may let your
trees bloom all the winter, but before
that nip them off as fast as they ap-
pear. When the first little pots are
full of roots, say about Midsummer,
shift the plants into 5-inch pots, which
is the next largest size ; and if they
have done well they may want another
shift by the end of July, but never
shift them after the middle of August,
because, if we should have a cold au-
tumn they would not fill the pots with
strong healthy roots.
MIKA'NIA. (Named after J. MHran,
professor of botany at Prague. Nat.
ord., Composites [Asteracese]. Linn.,
IQ-Syngenesia I- JE quails. Allied to
Stove evergreen twiners, with white flowers,
blooming in August, except where otherwise
mentioned. Cuttings of half-ripened shoots,
in sand, under a bell-glass, and in heat; rich
sandy loam. Winter temp., 48 to 55 ; sum-
mer, 60 to 80.
M. ama'ra (bitter). 6. Guiana. 1813.
Gua'cu (Guaco). 6. Pale blue. South
opi'fera (Opium-bearing). 6. Brazil. 1823.
sca'ndens (climbing). 6. North America.
suave' olens (sweet - scented). 6. South
MILDEW, whether on the stems of
the wheat, or on the leaves of the chry-
santhemum, pea, rose, or peach, ap-
pears in the form of minute fungi, the
roots of which penetrate the pores of
the epidermis, rob the plant of its
juices, and interrupt its respiration.
There seems to be every reason to be-
lieve that the fungus is communicated
to the plants from the soil. Every
specimen of these fungi emits annually
myriads of rnftmte seeds, and these are
wafted over the soil by every wind, ve-
getating and reproducing seed, if they
have happened to be deposited in a
favourable place, or remaining until
the following spring without germinat-
ing. These fungi have the power of
spreading also by stooling or throwing
out offsets. They are never absent
from a soil, and at some period of its
growth are annually to be found upon
the plants liable to their inroads. They
are more observed in cold, damp,
muggy seasons, because such seasons
are peculiarly favourable to the growth
of all fungi. The best of all cures is
afforded by the application of flowers
of sulphur in some form to the parts
affected, either by dusting the sulphur
over the parts affected, or a sulphur
paint, for which a recipe is given at
page 260; merely clay, water, and
ilowers of sulphur, however, are suffi-
cient, and not so injurious to leaves.
Vre'do ro'sce, Pucci'nia ro'sce, and Ola-
dospo'rium herb a? rum, are the mildew
fungi of the rose-tree ; Oi'dium crysi-
phoi'des of the peach-tree ; Oi'dium
Tucke'ri of the vine ; Glceospo'rium con-
centri'cum of the cabbage ; and Ery'siphc
commu'nis of the pea. Of course there
are many others.
The most important point for sub-
duing the mildew fungus, is to apply
the sulphur immediately it appears.
To prevent its occurrence, nothing is
so effectual as keeping the roots and
the leaves equally active by a due
amount of warmth and moisture.
MiLK-WooD. Bro'simum spu'rium.
MiLK-WoRT. Poly 'gala.
MI'LLA. (Named after J. Milla, a
gardener to the Spanish court. Nat.
ord., Lilyivorts [Laliacese]. Linn., 6-
Hcxandria \-Monogynia. Allied to
Half-hardy little bulbs, with white flowers,
which succeed in a deep front border of light
soil ; offsets when in a dormant state.
M. biflo'ra (two-flowered).
uniflo'ra (one - flowered).
Buenos Ayres. 1832.
MILLINGTO'NIA. (Named after Sir
T, Mittinglan, professoy of botany at
Oxford. Nat. ord., Btgnon'uuh [Big-
noniacere]. Linn., ~\-Didynumi<t 2-An-
Stove evergreen tree. Cuttings of half-
ripened shoots, in sand, under a bell-glass, and
in bottom-heat ; sandy loam and peat. Winter
temp., 48 to 55 ; summer, 60 to 85.
M. simplicifo'lia (simple-leaved). 20. Yellow.
East Indies. 1828.
MILLIPEDE. See Ju'lus.
MILTO'XIA. (Named after the Earl
Fitzwilllam. Nat. ord., Orchids [Or-
cliidaceos]. Linn., 20-Gynandria l-Mo-
nandria. Allied to Brassia.)
Stove orchids from Brazil, except where other-
wise mentioned. Divisions in spring ; shallow
baskets in moss, sphagnum, &c., or fixed to a
block of wood, and then this block fastened
across the top, inside of a pot. Winter temp.,
60 ; summer, 60 to 90.
M. bi'color (two-coloured). White, red. 183p.
ca'ndida (white - lipped), 2. Yellow and
brown. March. 1830.
flave'scens (yellowish*ftp/)e<Z). 2.
White, yellow. June. 1837-
grandiflo'ra, (large - flowered). 2.
Brown, white. December. 1837.
Clowe'sii (Rev. J. Clowes's). 1. Yellow,
* <- pa'llida (pale). Yellow, brown.
cunea'ta (wedge-lipped). 1. Yellow, purple.
^-fla'va (yellow - flowered) . Yellow. July.
Karwi'nskii (Karwinski's). 3. Yellow,
brown. August. Mexico. 183p.
odora'ta (sweet-scented). 1843.
Russellia'na (Duke of Bedford's). Brown,
lilac. December. Rio Janeiro. 1835.
stella'ta (sizr-flowered) . White. February.
- specta'bilis (showy). 1. \Vhite, violet.
colora'ta (high-coloured). Rose.
atropurpu'rea (dark - purple).
MTME'TES. (From mimos, a mimic ;
referring to its resemblance to allied
genera. Nat. ord., Proteads [Protea-
ceee] . Linn., -i-Tctrandria l-Monoyynia.
Allied to Leucospermum.)
Greenhouse evergreen shrubs from the Cape
of Good Hope. Cuttings of the ripened
shoots, towards autumn, or in the spring,
before fresh growth commences, in sand, under
a glass, but without bottom-heat, at least until
a swelling takes place at their base ; peat and
a little loam. Winter temp., 38 to 45.
M, capitula'ta (small - headed). Red. June.
cuculla'tu (hooded-leaved) . 2. Purple. 1/89.
- di varica'ta (spreading). 2j. White July.
M. Harto'gii (Hartoge's). 5. July. 1824.
hi'rta (hairy). 3. Red. July. 1774.
palu'stris (marsh). 1. Purple. July. 1802.
pauciflo'ra (few-rtowered). 3$. Red. July.
purpu'rea (purple). 2. Purple. November.
vacciniifo'lia (Whortleberry - leaved). 3.
MIMO'SA. (From mimos, a mimic ;
referring to the irritability of the
leaves, as if imitating animal sensi-
bility. Nat. ord., Lequminom Plant*
[Fabacese], Linn., %$-Polygamia 1-
Stove evergreens, except pudica, commonly
called the Sensitive Plant, which is an annual,
and viva, which is herbaceous. Seeds sown in
a hotbed, in the spring; cuttings, also, of young-
shoots, getting rather firm at the base, in sandy
soil, and in heat ; sandy loam, leaf-mould, and
a little peat. Winter temp., 50 to 55; sum-
mer, 60 to 85 P . The foliage of most is beau-
tifully leafleted, and many species more or less
sensitive to the touch; most of them furnish
fine examples of what is termed sleep in plants,
as the leaflets fold together at night.
M. angula'ta (angled-branched) . White. June.
* Barclay a' 'na (Barclay's). 1. Madagascar,
ca'sta (chaste). 2. Pale yellow. July. South
cilia'ta (hair-fringed). White. June. Brazil.
ferrugi'nea (rusty). 1. East Indies. 1818.
florlbu'nda (bundle -flowered). 1. Pink,
June. Cumana. 1824.
inttrmc'dia (intermediate). Rose. April,
latlspino'sa (broad -spined). 3. White,
September. Madagascar. 1823.
marglnu't a (bordered) . Pink. Mexico.
obtusifo'lia (blunt-leaved). 3. Red. June.
poli/da 1 ctyla (many-fingered). 1^. Purple,
June. Guiana. 1822.
pudibu'nda (blushing). 2. Pale red. Balm
pudi'ca (chaste. Humble plant). 1. White*
June. Brazil. 1638.
rubricau'lis (red-stalked). 3. Pale yellow.
June. East Indies. 1799-
sensiti'va (sensitive). 1^. Pink. June.
strigo'sa (bristled). 1. Purple. June. South
Urague'nsis (Uruguay). 2. Red. June.
Buenos Ayres. 1840.
vi'scida (clammy). 2. Red. Brazil. 1825.
vl'va (lively), l^. Purple. August. Ja-
MI'MULUS. Monkey Flower. (From
mimo, an ape ; in reference to the
ringent or gaping mouth of the flower.
Nat. ord., Figworts [Scrophulariacea> j.
Linn.. 14-Didynamia S-
[ 60? ]
Common soil, provided it be moist ; divisions,
cuttings, and seeds. A few, like roseus, re-
quire the protection of a pit in winter ; but
where that is not available, seeds of them, sown
in March or April, will bloom in summer and
M.floribu'ndua (bundle-flowered). J. Yellow.
August. North America. 1826.
parviflo'rus (small - flowered), i. Yellow.
M. lana'tus (woolly). l. Yellow. June.
North America. 1826.
ro'seus (rosy). 1. Rose. August. Cali-
tri'color (three-coloured). Pink, crimson.
June. California. 1848.
M. ula'tus (winged). 1. Light blue. July.
North America. 1/83.
cardina'lis (cardinal-like). 2. Scarlet. June.
glabra'tus (smoothed). Yellow. June.
gutta'tvs (spotted-flowered) . l^- Yellow.
July. North America. 1812.
-r- Lewi'sii (Lewis's). ^. Pale purple. Au-
gust. Missouri. 1824.
lu'teus (yellow). 3. Yellow. July. Chili.
- rivula'ris (rivulet). ^. Yellow. July.
- Younga'nus (Mr. Young's), $. Yel-
low spotted. July. Chili. 1833.
moscha'tus (Musk-/>/n>). ^. Yellow. Au-
gust. Columbia. 1826.
propi'nquus (related). . Yellow. April.
North America. 182".
ri'ngens (gaping), l. Light blue. July.
North America. 1759.
variega'tus (variegated). 1. White, rosy.
June. Chili. 1831.
MIMU'SOPS. (From wm/w, an ape,
and ops, a face ; fancied resemblance of
the flowers. Nat. ord., Su-potads [Sa-
potacese]. Linn., S-Octnndria l-Mono-
tjynia. Allied to Bassia.)
Mimusops Elengi is an Indian fruit tree;
and the sweetish gum of the M. Kaki is eaten
by the natives. Stove, white-flowered, ever-
green trees, from the East Indies. Cuttings
of half-ripened shoots, in sand, under a glass,
and in heat ; sandy loam and leaf-mould.
Winter temp., 48 to 55 ; summer, 60 to 80.
M. Elc'ngi (Elengi). 15. 1/96.
hexa'ndra (six-stamened). 10. 1804.
Ka'ki (Kaki). 10. 1/96.
MI'NA. (Named after F. X. Mlna,
a 'Mexican minister. Nat. ord., Bind-
weeds [Convolvulacese]. Linn., 5-Pen-
1 an (I ria l-Monoyynia. Allied to Ipo-
Greenhouse annual. Seeds sown in a hotbed,
in spring, potted, and re-potted, and hardened-
off for flowering in the greenhouse ; sandy
loam, peat, and leaf-mould.
M. lo'bata (lobed). 6. Red, yellow. June.
MINT. See Me'nfha.
MIRA'BILIS. Marvel of Peru. (From
mlraUlls, wonderful, as everything was
at first considered that came from
America. Nat. ord., Nyctagos [Nyctagy-
nacea?]. Linn., b-Pentandria l-Mono-
Greenhouse herbaceous perennials. By seeds
sown in a hotbed, in spring, and plants
hardened-off by degrees to stand in the open
border ; by their fusiform (carrot-shaped) roots
taken up and preserved in sand or dry moss
during the winter ; rich sandy loam. May be
managed similarly to a Dahlia.
M. dicho'toma (forked). 2. Yellow. July.
hy'brida, (hybrid). 2. White. July. 1813.
jala'pa (Jalap). 2. Red. July. West
a'lba (white). 2. White. July.
West Indies. 1596.
fla'va (yellow). 2. Yellow. July.
West Indies. 1596.
ru'bro-a'lba (red and white). 2. Red,
white. July. West Indies, 1596,
ru'bro-flava (red and yellow). 2. Red,
yellow. July. West Indies. 1596.
longiflo'ra (long - flowered). 2. White.
July. Mexico. 1759.
ca'rnea (flesh - coloured). 2.
Pink. August. Germany.
viola' cea (violet - coloured). 2.
Pink. August. Germany.
suave'olens (sweet-scented). l. White.
July. Mexico. 1824.
MIRBE'LIA. (Named after C. F. B.
Mirbel, a physiological botanist of Paris.
Nat. ord., Leguminous Plants [Fabacece] .
Linn., \0-Decandria l-Monoyynia, Al-
lied to Pultenoea.)
Greenhouse evergreens from New Holland.
Cuttings of the half-ripened shoots, in May,
under a bell-glass, and in sand, over well-
drained sandy peat; sandy peat, with a few
nodules of fibry loam and charcoal. Winter
temp., 40 to 48.
M. Ba'xteri (Baxter's). 2. Yellow. 1825.
dilata'ta (wide-leaved"). 3. Yellow. July.
floribu'nda (many- flowered). 2. Purple.
grandiflo'ra (large-flowered). 2. Yellow.
Meisne'ri (Meisner's). 2. Reddish purple.
pu'ngens (stinging). 2. Yellow. June.
reticula'ta (netted). 3. Yellow. June.
specio'sa (showy). 2. Purple. June. 1824.
MISTLETOE. (J r i'scum a'lbimi). Name
derived from the Saxoii for the same
[ 008 ]
plant, Misdta. The best months for
sowing it are February and March.
Make two cuts, in the shape of the
letter V, on the under-side of the branch
of an apple-tree. Make the cuts quite
down to the wood of the branch ; raise
the tongue of bark made by the cuts,
but not so as to break it, and put un-
derneath one or two seeds freshly
squeezed from the Mistletoe berry.
Let the tongue back into its place, and
the process is completed. If the seed
is good, the seedlings, not unlike cu-
cumber plants, soon appear. They
remain attached to the branch, and do
not seem to injure the tree.
Open the bark underneath the branch
to receive the seed, because it is thus
preserved from an accumulation of rain
water, and is shaded from the sun.
The Mistletoe may also be propa-
gated by grafts, and it is said that it
will succeed upon any tree. It is cer-
tainly found upon the pine in Ger-
many, but we question very much whe-
ther it would live upon the walnut. It
will grow, yet with difficulty, upon the
oak, but it readily takes upon the apple,
pear, poplar, and willow. Mr. Beaton
says (Gard. Mag. iii. 207, N. S.) the
first weeks of May are best for grafting
the Mistletoe, and it should never be
inserted less than five nor more than
ten feet from the ground. Make an
incision in the bark of the tree, and in-
sert into it a thin slice of Mistletoe,
having a bud and one leaf at the end.
Grafts larger than half-an-inch in dia-
meter require a notch to be cut out of
the branch, the incision to receive the
scion being made below this notch, and
a shoulder left on the scion to rest on
the notch, as in crown- grafting. Bud
ding the Mistletoe may also be prac-
tised in the middle of May. Mr. Bea-
ton says it is only a modification of
grafting, a heel of Avood being retained
below the bud for insertion.
MITCHE'LLA. (Named after Dr.
Mitchell, of Virginia. Nat. ord., Cm-
chonads [Cinchonacese]. Linn., 4-7V-
Hardy herbaceous creeper. Division, cut-
tings under a hand-light, and layering the
running stems; sandy fibry peat, either in a
sheltered American border, or in a pot protected
lilse tbe generality of Alpine plants.
M. re'pens (creeping). . White. June.
North America. 1731.
MITE'LLA. (The diminutive of mitra,
a mitre ; referring to the shape of the
seed-pods. Nat. ord., Saxifrages [Saxi-
fragacese] . Linn., IQ-Decandria 2-Digy-
nia. Allied to Heucheria.)
Hardy, white-flowered, herbaceous perennials
from North America. Division of the roots, in
spring; common garden soil. Pretty for
border or rockwork.
M. cordifo'lia (heart-leaved). . May. 1812.
diphy'lla (two-leaved). . April. 1/31.
nu'da (naked-stemmed). 4> July. 1/58.
penta'ndra (five - stamened) . 3 . Yellow.
prostra'ta (lying-down). . May. 1818.
tri'fida (three-cleft-petaled). . May. 182;.
MITRA'RIA. (From mitra, a mitre ;
referring to the seed-pod. Nat. ord.,
Gesnerworts [GesneraceseJ. Linn., 14-
Didynamia 2-An(/iospermia. Allied to
Evergreen shrub. Cuttings of the half-
ripened shoots, in sand, under a bell-glass, in
summer ; better ripened shoots under a hand-
light, in a shady place. A beautiful spring
Klant for the greenhouse, and supposed to be
ardy enough for all sheltered places out of
doors ; sandy peat and fibry loam.
M. cocci'nea (scarlet). 4. Scarlet. July.
San Carlo de Chiles. 1848.
MITRACA'RPUM. (From mitra, a mitre,
and karpos, a fruit. Nat. ord., Cincho-
nads [Cinchonaceae]. Linn., \-Tetran-
dria 1-Monogynia. Allied to Kicbard-
Stove annuals, with white flowers. Seeds,
in a hotbed, in March, potted and hardened off
to bloom in the stove and greenhouse during
M. Fische'ri (Fischer's). 1. July. Jamaica.
hi'rtum (hairy). . July. Jamaica. 1818.
stylo'sum (long-styled). 1. August. Ma-
villo'sum (shaggy). . July. Jamaica. 1816.
MIXTURE OF SOILS is one of the most
ready and cheapest modes of improving
their staple, and thus rendering them
more fertile ; and upon the subject we
have nothing to add to the following
excellent remarks of Mr. Cuthbert
" I have witnessed even in soils to
all appearance similar in composition,
some very extraordinary results from
their mere mixture. Thus in the gra-
velly soils of Spring Pai'k, near Croy-
don, the ground is often excavated to a
[ 000 ]
depth of many feet, through strata of
barren gravel and red sand, for the
purpose of obtaining the white or silver
sand, which exists beneath them.
When this fine sand is removed, the
gravel and red sand is thrown .back
into the pit, the ground merely levelled,
and then either let to cottagers for gar-
dens, or planted with forest trees ; in
either case the effect is remarkable ;
all kinds of either fir or deciduous
trees will now vegetate with remarkable
luxuriance; and in the cottage-gardens
thus formed, several species of vege-
tables, such as beans and potatoes, will
produce very excellent crops, in the
very soils in which they would have
perished previous to their mixture, j
The permanent advantage of mixing j
soils, too, is not confined to merely
those entirely of an earthy composi-
tion; earths which contain inert or-
ganic matter, such as peat or moss
earth, are highly valuable additions to
some soils. Thus, peat earth was suc-
cessfully added to the sandy soils of i
Merionethshire, by Sir Kobert Yaughan. j
The Cheshire farmers add a mixture
of moss and calcareous earth to their
tight-bound earths, the effect of which
they describe as having ' a loosening
operation ; ' that is, it renders the soil
of their strong clays less tenacious, and, I
consequently, promotes the ready ac- j
cess of the moisture and gases of the |
atmosphere to the roots. The culti-
vator sometimes deludes himself Avith
the conclusion that applying sand, or
marl, or clay, to a poor soil, merely
serves to freshen it for a time, and that
the effects of such applications are
apparent for only a limited period.
Some comparative experiments, how-
ever, which were made sixteen years
since, on some poor hungry heath land
in Norfolk, have up to this time served
to demonstrate the error of such a
conclusion. In these experiments the
ground was marled with twenty cubic
yards only per acre, and the same com-
post ; it was then planted with a proper
mixture of forest trees, and by the side
of it a portion of the heath, in a state
of nature, was also planted with the
same mixture of deciduous and fir-
Sixteen years have annually served
to demonstrate, by the luxuriance of
the marled wood, the permanent effect
produced by a mixture of soils. The
growth of the trees lias been there
rapid and permanent ; but on the ad-
joining soil the trees have been stunted
in their growth, miserable in appear-
ance, and profitless to their owner.
Another, but the least commonly
practised mode of improving the staple
of a soil by earthy addition, is claying ;
a system of fertilising, the good eifects
of which are much less immediately
apparent than chalking, and hence one
of the chief causes of its disuse. It
requires some little time to elapse, and
some stirring of the soil, before the
clay is so well mixed with a sandy
soil as to produce that general in-
creased attraction and retentive power
for the atmospheric moisture, which
ever constitutes the chief good result
of claying poor soils. Clay must be,
moreover, applied in rather larger pro-
portions to the soil than chalk; for not
only is its application rarely required
as a direct food for plants for the mere
alumina which it contains, since this
earth enters into the composition of
plants in very small proportion, but
there is also another reason for a more
liberal addition of clay being required,
which is the impure state in which the
alumina exists in what are commonly
called clay soils. Farm Encyc.
MODE'CCA. (The Indian name. Nat.
ord., Papayads [Papayacese], Linn.,
%'2-Dicecia 5 - Pentandria. Allied to
Stove evergreen climbing plants, resembling
Passion-flowers, from the East Indies. Cuttings
of young shoots, in May, in sandy soil, under a
bell-glasg, and in heat; peat and loam. Winter
temp., 48 to 55; summer, 60 to 75.
i M. triloba'ta (three-lobed). 10. August. 1818.
j tubern'sa (tuberous). 10. August. 1822.
MODI'OLA. (From modiolits, the nave
1 of a wheel ; referring to the formation
I of the seed-vessel. Nat. ord., Mallow -
\ worts [Malvaceae], Lirin., \ft-Mona-
\ delphla 8-Polyyynia. Allied to the
Seeds, in spring j division of the two herba-
ceous kinds, at the same time, and by cuttings
of the young shoots under a hand-light ; com-
mon sandy loam. The herbaceous require ft
dry, sheltered place, or the protection of a cold
pit during the winter.
M. Carolinia'na (Carolina). Red. June. North
America. 1723. Hardy annual.
decu'mbens (lying-down). Red. June. South
America. 1815. Half-hardy herba-
prostra'ta (lying-flat). Scarlet. May. Brazil.
1806. Half-hardy herbaceous.
MOERHI'NGIA. (Named after P.
Moerhing, a German botanist. Nat.
ord., Cloveworts [ Caryophyllacese ] .
Linn., S-Octandria 2-Digynia. Allied
Hardy herbaceous perennials, from south of