Ash, Lilac, and others of the order. Evergreens,
all white-flowered, except 0. fragruns. Cut-
tings of ripened shoots, in spring, in sand;
under a hand-light, in a close frame or pit, also,
when procurable, by seeds ; and grafting ; loam
and peat of an open fibry character. Winter
temp., 38 to 48. O. satlva has stood for
years against south walls near London. The
scent of fragrans is sufficient to perfume a
large conservatory ; where only one of the
genus can be grown, this should be fixed upon.
O. Amenca'na (American). 6. June. North
arbo'rea (tree). 20. August. 1825.
Cape'nsis (Cape). 5. July. Cape of Good
- undula'ta (wave-leaved), 6. July.
Cape of Good Hope. 1730.
exce'lsa (tall). 15. May. Madeira.
fra'grans (fragrant). 4. Yellow.
Olea'ster (Oleaster. Wild Olive). 5.
panicula'ta (panicled). 10. July.
sati'va (cultivated). August. South Europe.
bumfo'lia (Box-leaved). 15. July. South
ferrugi'nea (rusty-leaved) . 15. July. Cape
of Good Hope.
obli' qua (twisted-leaved).
venttco'sa (warted). 6.
Good Hope. 1814.
15. July. South
April. Cape of
0. dioi'ca (dioecious). 30. March. East Indies.
la'ncea (spear-head-teaed). 20. August.
Isle of France. 181Q.
robu'sta (robust). June. Sylhet. 1624.
Roxburghia'na( Dr. Roxburgh's). 15. Au-
gust. East Indies. 1820.
OLEA'NDRA. The genus is founded
on Neriiformis, or Oleander-like. Nat.
ord., Ferns [Polypodiacese]. Linn.,
Stove Ferns with yellow spores. See Ferns.
0. articula'ta (jointed). June. India. 1837.
Cumi'ngii (Cuming's). June. Isle of Luzon.
neriifo'rmis (Oleander-like). May. E. Indies.
nodo'sa (knotty). May. East Indies. 1840.
Walli'chii(Wa.llich's). May. Nepaul.
OLEASTER, or Wild Olive. Elaa'gnus.
OLFE'RSIA. (Named after Olfcrs, a
German botanist. Nat. ord., Ferns
[Polypodiaceas], Linn., 2-Cryptogamia
Stove Ferns, with yellowish-brown spores.
O. a'podum (stemless). June. West Indies,
Blumea'num (Blume's). April. I. of Luzon.
c//?/o7iM7rt(Calla-leaved). August. Java.
O, oervi'<na (st&g-fiorned). May. \V. Indies.
confo'rme (conformed). August. Cape of
Good Hope. 1841.
Corcovade'nsis (Corcovado). May. Brazil.
longifo'lium (long-leaved). 1. W.Indies.
obtusifo'lium (blunt - leaved). June. Isle
scolopendrifo'lium (Scolopendrium - leaved).
August. Brazil. 1841.
si'mplex (simple). 1. July. Jamaica. 17Q3-
squamo'sum (scaly). July. West Indies.
visco'sum (clammy). August. West Indies.
villo'sum (shaggy). 1. July, Jamaica. 1843.
OLIVE-BARK TREE. JBu'dda.
OLIALAN'THUS. (From homalos, smooth,
and anthos, a flower. Nat. ord., Spimjc-
worts [Euphorbiaceae]. Linn., 2l-Mo-
ncecia IQ-Decandria. Allied to Hippo-
Stove evergreen shrub. Cuttings of firm
shoots, in sand, in heat ; loam and peat.
Winter temp., 50 to 60; summer, 60 to 85.
0. populifo'liu (Poplar -leaved). 6. White.
August. New Holland. 1825.
OMIME PLANT. Plecta'nthrus.
OMPHALO'BIUM. (From omphalos, the
navel, and lobos, a pod. Nat. ord.,
Conarads [Conaraceffi]. Linn., 10-De-
The beautiful zebra-wood of the cabinet
makers, is that of 0. Africanum. Stove ever-
green shrubs, with pale red flowers. Cuttings of
half-ripened shoots, in sand, under a bell-plass,
arid in bottom-heat ; peat and loam. Winter
temp., 55 to 60; summer, 60to 85.
0. Africa'num (African). 8. Guinea. 1822.
I'ndicum (Indian). 8. Ceylon.
OMPHALO'DES. Venus's Navelwort.
(From omphalcs, the navel, and eidos,
like ; referring to the seed. Nat. ord.,
Borageworts [Boraginaceffi]. Linn., 5-
Pcntan dria 1 -Monoyyn ia. )
Seeds of annuals in open border, in March,
and once or twice more during the summer ;
the perennials by division ; 0. verna is a beau-
tiful plant, in the recesses of rock-works, in
shady corners, thriving as well in shade as the
0. interme'dia (intermediate). Blue. April.
Arabia. 1836. Biennial.
linifo'lia (Flax-leaved). 1. White. July.
littora'lis (shore). 1. White. July. France.
scorpioi'des (Scorpion-like). 1. Blue. July.
[ C45 ]
0. amplcxicau' lis (stem-clasping). 1. White.
July. Spain. 1823.
myosotoi'des (Mouse-ear-like). l. Brush.
September. Russia. 1838.
ni'tidum (shining). 2. White. May. Por-
sempervi' rens (evergreen). 2. Blue. June.
vc'rna (spring). . Blue. March. South
ONCI'DIUM. (From ogkos, a tumour ;
referring to excrescences on the base
of the lip orlabellum. Nat. ord., Orchids
[Orchidaceffi]. Linn., 20-Gynandria 1-
Monandria. Allied to Odontoglossum.)
Stove orchids. Divisions as growth is com-
mencing in spring ; very shallow baskets suit
all the largest-leaved kinds, or they may be
fastened to a block of wood, that fastened
across the mouth of a pot, the pot filled loosely
with pieces of wood and charcoal, to ensure
perfect drainage, and then rotten wood, sphag-
num, and fibry peat, laid round the lower part
of the plants, provided the base of the leaves is
not covered. Hardy kinds, as Flexuosum, re-
quire more packing ; small tender kinds must
be carefully treated to prevent damping, espe-
cially when not growing. Winter temp., 58 to
65 ; summer, 60 to 90.
0. alti'ssimum (tallest). 4. Yellow, brown.
March. Panama. 1793.
ami'ctum (frilled). 1. Yellow, brown,
blotched. April. Brazil. 1846.
amplia'tum (broad - lipped}. 2. Yellow,
brown. March. America. 1832.
ma'jor (larger-lowered). . Yel-
low. March. Guatemala. 1840.
asce'ndcns (ascending). Yellow. April.
barba'tum (bearded). l. Yellow. April.
Barke'ri (Barker's). 1. Yellow. April.
Batemania'num (Bateman's). Yellow. April.
Baue'ri (Bauer's). Yellow, brown. April.
bicallo'sum (two-warted). 1. Orange, brown.
July. Panama. 1842.
bi'cnlor (two-coloured-/?oKwed). $, Yellow.
September. Mexico. 1841.
bicornu'tum (two -horned). 1. Yellow,
spotted. June. Rio Janeiro. 1830.
bifo'lium (two-leaved). $. Yellow, purple.
July, Montevideo. 1811.
pa'llidum (pale-yellow), g. Pale
yellow. July. Monte Video. 1832.
bruchyphy'llum (short - leaved). Yellow,
brown. July. Mexico. 1836.
ca'ndidum( white). White, yellow. March.
carina'tum (keeled). Brown, yellow. Au-
gust. Xalappa. 1838.
Carthagine'nse (Carthaginian). 4. Olive. |
May. Carthage. 1791.
Cebolle'ti (Cebollet's). 1. Yellow. April.
West Indies. 1825.
cilia' turn (fringed- lipped). . Yellow, red.
January, Brazil, 1818.
O.citri'num (lemon-coloured). 5. Yellow. Au-
co'ncolor (one-coloured). . Lemon. May.
Organ Mountains. 1839.
confrago'sum (uneven). Straw. July. Mexico.
corni'gerum (horn-bearing). J. Yellow.
July. Brazil. 1829-
cri 1 spurn (cmled-petaled). 3. Orange. June.
lu'teum (yellow). Yellow. May.
Organ Mountains. 1838.
cuculla'tum (hooded). Red, purple. Feb-
cu'rtum (curtailed). Brown, yellow. 1846.
deltoi'deum ( triangular- Ji^joed). 1. Yellow.
October. Luna. 1836.
Devonia'num (Duke of Devonshire's). 2.
Yellow, brown. January. Guatemala.
divarica'tum (spreading). l. Yellow,
orange, brown. December. Brazil.
cu'preum (copper-coloured). 14- Yellow,
copper. December. Brazil. 1836.
excava'tum (hollowed). Yellow. May. Gua-
/ata>e7ftti(sickle-petaled). Brown. Au-
fimbriu! turn (iringed - flowered} . Yellow.
flabelli'ferum (fan-bearing). Brown, purple.
July. Brazil. 1843.
flexuo'sum (zig-zag). l. Yellow, brown,
June. Brazil. 1818.
ma'jor (larger - flowered}. l.
Yellow. June. Brazil. 1839.
Forbe'sii (Forbes's). 1. Scarlet, yellow.
September. Organ Mountains. 183/.
Forke'lii (Forkel's). Yellow, crimson. June.
gutta'tum (spotted). Yellow, brown. April.
fu'lgens (brilliant). Jamaica. 1838.
ma! jus (larger). Jamaica. 183S-
Harrisonia'num (Harrison's). 1. Yellow,
spotted. October. Brazil. 1830.
hasta'tum (halbert-ft#ped). Brown, yellow.
August. Mexico. 1840.
Henchma'nni (Henchman's). Pale rose.
May. Mexico. 1839.
hi'ans (gaping-flowered). Brown, yellow.
May. Brazil. 1837-
Huntia'mim (Hunt's). Yellow, red. Sep-
incu'rvum (curled-back). Bluish white.
July. Mexico. 1839-
Inslea'yi (Insleay's). Yellow, brown. July,
intermedium (intermediate). 2. Orange*
iridifo'lium (Iris-leaved). $. Yellow. June.
la'cemm (cut-lipped). l. Yellow. April;
Lancea'num (Lance's). l. Yellow, purple.
August. Surinam. 1834.
ma' jus (larger). Green, purple^
August. Guiana. 1836.
Lcmonia'num (Sir C. Lemon's). 3- Yellow,
spotted). March. Havannah. 1836.
teuchocM'lum (white-lipped). 1. Yellow,
brown. August. Guatemala. 1835.
[ 046 ]
0. Linde'nii (Linden's). May. Guatemala. 1840.
linguifo'rme (tongue-shaped). Yellow, rose.
longifo' Hum (long -leaved). 3. Yellow,
brown. March. Mexico. 1840.
luna'tum (crescent - lipped). 1. Orange.
June. Demarara. 1836.
lu'ridum (lurid). 2. Olive, brown. March.
gutta'tum (speckled). 2. Yellow,
red. July. Jamaica. 1837.
purpura'tum (purple-stained). 2.
Crimson, purple, speckled. September.
macranthe'rum (large-anthered). . Green,
purple. March. Mexico. 1840.
microchi'lum (small-lipped). Yellow, crim-
son. September. Guatemala. 1838.
mono'ceras (one-horned). 2. Yellow. Jan-
uary. Rio Janeiro. 1839.
na'num (dwarf). White. La Guayra. 1842.
nebula' sum (cloudy), Yellow, brown. Gua-
nu'dum (naked). Fellow, crimson. July.
oblonga'tum (oblong-leaved). Yellow. July.
onu'stum (loaded). 2. Yellow. October.
ornithorhy'nchon (bird's-bill). 2. Pink,
white. July. Mexico. 1826.
2. Pale purple. December. Guate-
ihy'llum (thick-leaved). 2. Yellow,
January. Mexico. 1839.
papi'lio (Butterfly Plant). 1J. Yellow,
purple. June. Trinidad. 1823.
limba'tum (bordered). l. Crimson,
brown, yellow. October. Trinidad.
pectora'le (breast-plate). Brown, crimson.
April. Brazil. 1842.
pelica'num (Pelican-beaked). Yellow. Octo-
ber. Mexico. 1839.
pe'ndulum (drooping -flowered). Brown,
yellow. September. Guatemala. 1840.
pergame'neum (parchment). Yellow. Au-
gust. Guatemala. 1839.
phymatochi'lum (long-lipped). 2. White,
yellow. April. Brazil. 1 1844.
Pinellia'num (Pinelli's). Brown, red. Brazil.
pu'bes (downy). 1. Green, red. April.
flave'scens (yellowish). 1. Red,
yellow. October. Brazil. 1839.
pulche'llum (neat). . White, spotted. May.
pulvina'tum (cushion - like). 8. Yellow,
brown. June. Brazil. 1836.
pu'milum (dwarf). . Yellow. May.
pa'llidum (pale). . Pale yellow.
May. Brazil. 1840.
rani'fcrum (frog -bearing). 1. Yellow.
August. Brazil. 1838.
' ma' jits (larger -flowered). 1.
Yellow. August. Brazil.
refle'xum (bent-back). Yellow. October.
ro'seum (rosy)i Rose, July, Mexico.
O. ro'seum ma'jus (larger). Rose. March. Hon-
pa'llidum (pale). Pale rose. March.
Russcllia'num (Russell's). 1. Purple, green.
Rio Janeiro. 1835.
sangu'intum (crimson-blotched). Crimson,
red. La Guayra.
sphacela'tum (scorched). 2. Yellow, brown.
February. Mexico. 1838.
Yellow, brown. February. Mexico.
spilo'ptcrum (spotted-winged), j}. Brown,
yellow. February. Brazil. 1844.
strami'neum (straw-coloured). Straw, crim-
son. Vera Cruz. 1837.
sua've (sweet-scented). Yellow. April.
Sutto'ni (Sutton's). Brown, yellow. Au-
gust. Mexico. 1842.
Taylcu'rii (Tayleur's). 2. Brown. August.
tc'nue (slender). J. Yellow, brown, spotted.
August. Guatemala. 1841.
tetrape'talum (four-petaled). 1. Yellow,
tri'color (three-colored-flowercd). l. Yel-
low, white. April. Jamaica. 1843.
trique'trum (triangular-leaved). %, White,
purple. September. Jamaica. 1793.
trulli'ferum (trowel-lipped). Brown, yellow.
September. Brazil. 1838.
unguicula 1 turn (nail-bearing). 3. Yellow.
October. Mexico. 1846.
unico'rne (one-horned). Pale yellow. June.
uniflo'rum (one-flowered). ^. Brown, yel-
low. November. Organ Mountains.
variega'tum (variegated). 2. Yellow. July.
West Indies. 1824.
viperi'num (poisonous). Pale yellow. July.
volu'bile (twining). Yellow, brown. De-
Wentworthia'num (Earl Fitzwilliam's).
Yellow, crimson. March. Mexico. 1839.
Wra'yce (Mrs. Wray's) . 2. Yellow, brown.
ONE-SHIFT SYSTEM OF POTTING is
giving a plant in a pot one large shift,
instead of frequent small ones. Thus,
instead of moving a plant successively
from a three to a five-inch pot, thence to
a seven or an eight, and thence again to
a ten or a twelve, allowing the roots to
become matted at the sides of the pot,
or merely to reach there, according as
flowering or growing are the objects
aimed at, the plant is moved at once
from a three, four, or five-inch pot,
into one of eight, twelve, or sixteen
inches in diameter. It is seldom that
a cutting, or a seedling, or a very
small plant, is at once moved into a
large one, as during its very small
C 047 ]
state it can be more safely, easily, and
economically attended to in a small
pot. The one-shift system requires
room for its adoption. Striking indivi-
dual, rather than mere general results,
are its characteristics ; and, therefore,
where a constant show of bloom, and
considerable variety in a small space
are chiefly desired, it should only be
sparingly adopted. The chief object
aimed at is rapidity of growth, and thus
obtaining a beautiful specimen in a
much shorter period than could easily
be realized by the succession-shift
system. By the one-shift system we
obtain a vigorous growth, but yet, from
being in a pot, luxuriance may be so
controlled as not to interfere with the
flowering. In fact, with the extra care
and trouble involved, we obtain the
advantage without the disadvantages of
the planting-out system. For the one-
shift system, as well as in every other
case, where a fine specimen is desired,
a young plant must be commenced
with that has never had its roots matted
round the pot. Such a plant will soon
overtake one four times its size, but
which has several times densely rilled
its pot with roots.
The freely-growing plants, and whose
existence is short, are the best to com-
mence with. Many of them are best
managed upon this system. Wherever
rapidity and strength of growth is an
object, annuals intended to flower in
pots, after being once pricked off into
small pots or preparatory beds, and
thus established, can scarcely be too
soon afterwards transferred to their
blooming pots. Where double flowers,
as in the balsam, or swelling-off part
of the ilower, as the receptacle in the
case of the cockscomb, are wished for, j
then different methods may be adopted
to secure a desired end. With such
hard-wooded plants as Heaths and
Epacrises, the most striking results
are obtained by the one shift system ;
but as greater care is necessary to
success with such plants, we would
advise young beginners to try some of
the above soft-wooded plants in the
first place, and to keep in view for all
the cases they may try, whether the
plants are soft-wooded or hard.
In common with other modes of
potting, the pots should be sound,
fairly burned, dry, and either new, or
thoroughly clean, outside and inside.
Secondly, yood drainage always essen-
tial must here form a chief element
of success. In all plants intended to
remain in the same pot for years, it
cannot be too particularly attended to.
Green moss, or chopped wheat straw,
strewed over the drainage, is a good
thing for preventing the earthy parti-
cles above being washed into and
choking it up. Broken charcoal, from
whence the dust has been extracted, is
also very useful for this purpose. In-
deed, larger pieces of charcoal may
constitute the chief part of the drain-
age, which will be lighter than most
things that could be used a matter of
considerable importance. On this
account, alone it is valuable for mixing
with the compost, to keep it open,
independently of any chemical proper-
ties it may possess. Thirdly, soil.
Tliis, whatever maybe its constituents,
should be rough and lumpy : the bulk,
in general cases, consisting of pieces
from the size of peas up to that of
beans and walnuts; and in cases of
larger pots, a few pieces may be as
large as hen's eggs. In such compost
the plants will grow rapidly ; and even
in the case of heaths, &c., they will
maintain a healthy appearance for
years. Should much of the compost
be in larger pieces, the plant will not at
all be greatly injured for the first sea-
son, or more, nor yet as long as the
roots are contented to crawl around the
surface of the lumps ; but when they
have reached the side of the pot, and
necessity leads them to penetrate the
large pieces, a declining appearance is
apt to present itself. Hence the com-
plaints against the system, that though
plants grow vigorously at first, they
were short-lived. Such large shifts in
the fine sifted soil of old could not
succeed, unless in potted specimens
! that received more care than can in
! general be given to plants. Using
huge lumps of loam, or peat, would
tend to produce a similar evil, though
from causes apparently different. The
! middle course is the safe one, but with
[ 648 ]
rough soil, it is necessary to surface
with a little that is finer, that the air
may not enter too freely. Fourthly.
A plant never thrives well when the
surface of the hall is sunk several
inches below the rim of the pot ; and
there is something uncouth in observ-
ing the centre of the ball sticking up
in the centre of the pot, like a mole-
hill. In all cases, therefore, but espe-
cially where it is intended for a plant
to continue for years, the compost
should be pressed firmly before the
young plant is set in the centre of the
pot ; and as, nevertheless, it will gra-
dually sink a little, the surface of the
old soil may just be a little below the
rim of the pot. If the roots are the
least matted, they should now be
gently disentangled, and packed care-
fully with the hand, in layers, putting
the finest of the rough soil over the
young rootlets, and the coarser towards
the outside next the side of the pot ;
and squeezing all rather firmly toge-
ther with the hand, taking care, how-
ever, that the soil is in that happy
medium that may be termed neither
dry nor wet, and yet sufficiently heated
to occasion no immediate check by
cold. Fifthly. Watering is the most
important of all points, and, where it
cannot be properly attended to, the
one-shift system should not be at-
tempted. For some time you must
merely water as far as the roots ex-
tend the unappropriated soil must
not be soaked, or it will become sour
and unhealthy for the roots even before
they get to it. No regular routine dash
or dribble from the water-pot will do
with the one-shift system. Sixthly.
Temperature. On this system, for some
time after potting, the plants should
have from o to 10 more heat than
they otherwise would require; and a
close atmosphere until fresh growth is
proceeding freely. A dash from the
syringe frequently in hot days will be
of great importance. Every incitement
to growth must thus be given ; and
when that has been accomplished, then
air must be freely imparted, and a drier
atmosphere maintained, that the fresh
wood ,so freely made may be thoroughly |
matured. Seventhly. Time of Potting. '
Upon this system, in the case of all
lasting plants intended to be our com-
panions for years, this should take
place in spring and early summer, in
order, first, that growth may be quickly
made, and then maturation of the wood
be effected before the dark days come,
when, in the generality of cases, the
low temperature of winter will give
them the rest they require, before
breaking and flowering vigorously and
profusely the following season.
ONION. A' Ilium ce'pa.
Soil rich, open and well drained, in
a situation entirely free from trees ; if
the soil be poor, abundance of dung
should be applied in the preceding
autumn or winter. Sea-sand, particu-
larly if the ground is at all tenacious, is
advantageously employed ; coal ashes,
and especially soot, are applied with
particular benefit. In digging over
the ground, small spits only should be
turned over at a time, that the texture
may be well broken and pulverized.
Varieties : 1, Silver-skinned onion,
hardiest; 2, Early Silver-skinned; 3,
True Portugal ; 4, Spanish ; 5, Stras-
burg; 0, Deptford (largest in Eng-
land); 7, Globe (white or red), best;
8, James's Keeping Onion; 9, Pale
Bed; 10, Yellow ; 11, Blood red; 12,
Tripoli; 13, Two-bladed; 14, Lisbon.
Sow for the main crop during
March. Main crops may even be in-
serted as late as the beginning of
April ; and at its close a small sowing,
to draw young in summer, and for
small bulbs to pickle; again in July
and early in August, for salads in
autumn, and finally in the last week
of August or early in September, to
stand the winter, for spring and be-
ginning of summer. Sow thinly in
drills, eight inches apart. An ounce
of seed is sufficient for a rood of
ground, especially for the main crops,
as they should never be allowed to
grow to a size fit for salads, without
thinning. The beds should be about
four feet wide, for the convenience of
Cultivation. In about six weeks after
sowing, the plants will be of sufficient
size to allow the first thinning and
small hoeing, by which they are to be
[ (U9 J
set out about t,wo inches apart; if this
is performed in dry weather it will keep
the beds free from weeds for six weeks
longer, when they must be hoed a
second time, and thinned to four inches
apart ; and now, where they have failed,
the vacancies may be filled up by trans-
planting there some of those thinned
out. The best time for doing this is j
in the evening, and water must be given
for several successive nights. In trans-
planting, the root only is to be inserted,
and no part of the stem buried. No
plant is more benefited by liquid manure
being given twice a week. After the
lapse of another month they must be
thoroughly gone over for the last time,
and the plants thinned to six inches
asunder. After this they require only
occasionally the stirring of the surface,
which the hoe effects. In order to
prevent their running too much to
blade, it is a good practice, in July,
before the tips change to a yellow hue,
to bend the stems down fiat upon the
bed, which not only prevents it, but
causes the bulbs to become much
larger than they otherwise would. The
bend should be made about two inches
up the neck.
Storing. About the close of August
the onions will have arrived at their
full growth, which may be known by
the withering of the foliage, by the
shrinking of the necks, and by the ease
with which they may be pulled up.
As soon as these symptoms appear,
they must be taken up, the bed being
frequently looked over ; for if the whole
crop is waited for, the forwardest, es-
pecially in moist situations, or seasons,
are apt again to strike root.
Spread on mats in the sun, frequently
turn, and remove under shelter at
night. In two or three weeks, when
the roots and blades are perfectly
withered, and the bulbs become firm,
they are fit for storing, being housed
in dry weather, and carefully preserved
from bruising ; previously to doing
this, all soil and refuse must be re-
moved from them; for these are apt
to induce decay : to prevent this as
much us possible, all faulty ones should
bo rejected. In the store-house they
must be laid as thin at> may be, or