leted). 4. Purple. May. 1774.
quina'tum (five-fingered). 1. Pale yellow.
quinquelo'bum (five-lobed). 3. Red. July.
quinquevu'lnerum (five-spotted), 1$. Dark
purple. July. 1796.
radia'tum (ray-leaved). %. Dark purple.
renifo'rme (kidney-shaped). 2. Purple.
rubifo'lium (Currant-leaved). 3. White.
ri'gidum (stiff). Whitish. July.
ru'bens (red-flowered). 3. Purple. June.
rubroci'nctum (red -edged). 3. Purple,
white. May. 1774.
rugo'sum (wrinkly). 3. Pink, lilac. July.
suniculoBfo'lium (Sanicle-leaved). 3. Pale
red. July. 1806.
sea' brum (rough-wedge-leaved). 3. White,
red. June. 1775.
sca'ndens (climbing). 3. Rose. July. 1800.
scuta'tum (shield). White. August. 1701.
semitriloba'tum (half-three-lobed). 3. Pur-
ple. May. 1800.
soro'rium (sister). 3. White, red. May.
specio'sum (showy). 3. Purple. May. 1794.
spino'sum (thorny). 3. Pink. May. 1795.
spu'rium (spurious). 2. Violet. May.
staphisagrioi'des (Staves - acre -like). 1|.
Purple. July. 1825.
stenope'talum (narrow-petaled). l. Scarlet.
Synno'tii (Synnot's). . Lilac. August. 1825.
tenuifo' 'Hum (fine-leaved). 3. Purple. June.
terna'tum (three-leafleted). 3. Pink. June.
tetrago'num (square-sta/fced). 2. Pink. July.
variega'tum (variegated). 2. Pink.
tomento'sum (downy). 3. White. June. 1790.
tri'color (three-coloured). l. White, purple.
tricuspida'tum (three-pointed). 3. White,
purple. June. 1780.
tripa'rtitum (three-lobed-teawerf). 3. Pale
yellow. June. 1/89.
unicolo'rum (one- coloured), 2. Crimson.
P. uniflo'rum (one -flowered). 3. June. 1800.
variega'tum (variegated-cowered). 3. White,
red. June. 1812.
verbasciflo'rum (Verbascum-flowered). 1$.
Lilac. July. 1811.
viscosi'ssimum (clammiest). 3. Lilac, white.
mtifo'lium( Vine-leaved). 3. Purple. July
Watso'nii (Watson's). 3. Purple. May.
Willdeno'vii (Wildenow's). 2. White veiny.
zona'le (girdle). 2. Scarlet. August. 1710.
cocci'neum (scarlet). 3. Scarlet. Au-
crystalli'num (crystalline). 3. Scarlet.
margina 1 turn (wAife-margined). 2.
Propagation. By Seed is the only way
to raise superior varieties. The first and
most important of their qualities is form,
the next is substance, the next size, and
the last colour. To these may be added
habit and truss. Save seed only from
such as possess akeady these points ap-
proaching to perfection. In all attempts
to hybridize, let the one to bear I fie
seed possess the property of form. In
order to obtain the other properties
wanting, cut off the anthers of the well-
formed variety before the pollen-cases
shed their contents; and the moment
the hybridizing is performed, cover the
flowers with a close-fitting cap of fine
muslin net, to prevent insects from
carrying strange pollen to the stigma
dusted with pollen from such varieties
as have the desirable properties. When
the seed is ripe, gather it carefully, and
divest it of its arils, or feather-like
appendages, wrap it up in paper, and
keep it in a dry drawer, in a cool room,
till spring. Sow it early in March, and
place it in a gentle heat ; a hotbed that
has been at work for a few weeks will
answer admirably. Sow in wide shal-
low pots, well-drained, in a light rich
compost, press the seed down gently,
and cover it about a quarter-of-an-inch.
If the seed is good, it will quickly ger-
minate, and should then be removed
from the hotbed, and placed upon a
shelf in the greenhouse near to the
glass. Water very moderately, or the
plants will be apt to damp off. As soon
as the seedlings have made their second
leaf, pot them off singly into twa-inch
pots, in a compost of loam and leaf-
mould, in equal parts, with a liberal
addition of river-sand, finely sifted. Re-
place them on the shelf, and shade for
a time from hot sunshine. The seed-
lings will soon fill these small pots with
roots. They must then be re-potted
into a size larger pot, and may then be
treated in the same way as such as have
been propagated by cuttings. Keep
them close to the glass, and give abun-
dance of air on all favourable occasions.
As soon as the weather will permit,
place them out-of-doors, upon a bed of
ashes of sufficient thickness to prevent
worms from entering the pots. The
situation should be an open one, the
grand object being to ripen the wood,
and induce a stocky or bushy habit, so
as to insure them flowering the follow-
ing season. The size of pots to flower
them in need not be more than four-
and-a-half inches. When there is a
fear of autumnal frosts, remove them
into the greenhouse, and place them on
a shelf, at such a distance from the
glass as will serve to keep them dwarf
and bushy. There is no need to top
them in the manner recommended
hereafter for plants raised from cut-
tings, the object being not to make fine
specimens, but to get them to flower as
quickly as possible the spring following.
By Cuttings. Cuttings may be put
in and struck from March to August ;
the general time, however, is when the
plants have done flowering, and require
cutting down to make bushy plants for
the next season. This generally hap-
pens from the end of June to the be-
ginning of August.
The best place to strike the cuttings
in, is a well-constructed propagating-
house ; but as every one has not such
a convenience, they may be very suc-
cessfully propagated in a frame set
upon a spent hotbed, first removing the
soil, and replacing it upon a thick coat
of coal-ashes to keep out the worms.
Upon this coat place another of dry
sawdust, to plunge the cutting-pots.
This dry sawdust will serve to absorb
the moisture from the earth in the
pots, and the necessary waterings. The
best soil is pure loam, mixed with silver
sand. The size of the pots should
neither be too large nor too small
3 ] PEL
five inches wide at the top is the most
proper. Some use small pots, and only
place one cutting in each. This, where
the cuttings are few, and the conveni-
ence small, will be suitable enough.
It has this advantage, also, that the cut-
tings are, after being rooted, more con-
veniently repotted, without in the least
injuring the young and tender roots,
but where the quantity to be increased
is large, the former method of putting
in several cuttings in five-inch pots
will be more convenient, and, with
care, equally as successful. Whichever
method is adopted, the pots must be
well drained with broken potsherds,
the larger pieces at the bottom, and
smaller at the top. Fill them to the
top with the prepared loam, which
should be put through a rather coarse
sieve to take out the stones, roots of
grain, and other extraneous matter. It
should not be pressed down too hard,
but made firm enough to hold the cut-
tings fast. Another point is to use it
in a state neither wet nor dry. The
side-shoots which have not flowered,
and are not more than two inches long,
make the best cuttings. These should
be cut off close to the stem from whence
they spring with a sharp knife. Cut
off the bottom leaves close to the stem,
leaving only two of the uppermost.
Place the cuttings after they are made
in a shady place, upon a dry board or
slate, to dry up the wound. This will
take an hour on a dry day, or two hours
on a dull cloudy one. Then put them
in the prepared pots round the edge,
inclining the leaves inwards, so that
they may not touch the leaves of those
in the contiguous pots when they arc
placed in the frames, or set upon the
heated material in the propagating-
house. When a pot is filled, give it a
gentle watering, and set it on one side
to dry up the moisture on the leaves
and surface of the soil. Then plunge
them in the frame, and shade them
carefully and effectually from the sun,
or even from the light. Reduce the
shade gradually, using it only during
bright sunshine. A little air may also
be given every day, by tilting up the
lights behind, if in a frame. The pro-
pagating house will only require air
[ U07 ]
when the heat is too great, to reduce
the temperature to 55 or 60. The
cuttings must be frequently examined,
to see if roots are formed ; and as soon
as they are an inch long, pot them off
immediately into the smallest 60-pots,
which are generally about two inches
diameter. A small addition of well-
decomposed leaf-mould may be mixed
amongst the loam with advantage.
When they are finished potting off,
give another gentle watering, and re-
place them in the frame or propagat-
ing house until fresh roots are formed ;
renew the shading, but disuse it as soon
as it is safe to do so, and then give
plenty of air, to prevent them being
drawn up and spindly. To cause them
to become bushy plants furnished with
branches close to the pot, nip off the
top bud ; the lower side buds will then
break and push forth, and these must
be again stopped as soon as they have
made three leaves. The plants will
then be ready to receive a second pot-
ting, and should be removed into the
The above remarks and directions,
so far as the cuttings are concerned,
relate only to the as-they- are- called,
show varieties. There is another class
of pelargoniums which are denominated
fancy varieties. These are more diffi-
cult to increase by cuttings. Place the
cuttings in shallow pans, one-and-a-
half-inch only deep, with a hole in the
centre, in the usual loam and sand,
placing them on a shelf in the propa-
gating-house, or in the frame, close to
the glass, upon topsy-turned pots. The
cuttings are made very short, with a
portion of the old wood at the bottom
of each. Very little water is given till
the callosities are formed, when it is
given more freely, and then roots make
their appearance, when they are imme-
diately potted oft', and the usual treat-
By Buds. Make a shallow pan ready
for them, by first putting in a portion
of pure loam and sand, then a cover-
ing of pure sand alone, give a gentle
watering to settle it, and then prepare
the buds. Take a shoot of moderate
the two lowest buds, leaving about a
quarter-of-an-inch of wood below each
bud. After that, split the shoot con-
taining the two buds down the centre.
If the two buds are not exactly oppo-
site, but one a little below the other,
the upper one must be shortened below
the bud to the proper length. The
upper cut should be very nearly close
to the bud. Make a sufficient nvmber
ready at once to fill the pan or pot, and
plant them, using a short blunt stick a
degree thicker than the bud-cutting.
Insert them, so as only to leave the
bud just above the sand. Plant them
close to, and round the edge of the pan,
placing the cut side close against the
pot, which will, of course, place the
bud side inwards. Then fill up the
holes with a little dry sand, and water
gently again. Place them either in a
propagating-house, a shady part of a
stove near the glass roof, or in^a frame.
Shade from bright sunshine in what-
ever situation they are placed, and
water as required. The buds will soon
break, and show leaves shortly to be
followed by a shoot.
By Roots. Some kinds of Fancy Pe-
largoniums, and most of the Cape original
species, are difficult to increase by any
of the above methods. In such cases
there is left the mode of increase by
cuttings of the roots. This is almost
certain of success. Take an old plant,
shake off carefully all the soil, and cut
the roots into short pieces, retaining as
many fibres as possible to each. Put
each root-cutting singly into as small
pots as they can be got into, leaving
the top just visible. Place them in the
house, or frame, appropriated to propa-
gation ; give a gentle watering, and
shade effectually. New roots will soon
push forth, and then shoots will appear,
generally in clusters. When that takes
place, reduce the shade, to give colour
to the leaves and strength to the shoots.
As these advance in growth, thin them
gradually, by slipping one or two off at
a time, till finally they are reduced to
one which is to form the future plant.
As soon as this shoot attains the height
of two or three inches, nip off the top
strength, cut off the leaves, but not i to cause side shoots to grow, and so
quite close to the stem, then cut off ' form a neat bushy plant.
[ 698 ]
General Culture : The ffousc.~-'Pel&x-
goniums, like all other large families of
plants, require a house to themselves,
and one peculiarly adapted to pro-
duce tine specimens. The span-roofed
form is the best ; and for this satisfac-
tory reason, that the plants in such a
house grow on all sides alike. The
sides of the house should be of glass,
the side windows should move up and
down to allow a large circulation of
air, and the top lights should also be
moveable, to let out the upper stratum
of heated air. The plants should be
placed upon stages near to the glass.
These stages ought to be broad enough
to allow large specimens to stand clear
of each other upon them. The size of
the house will depend upon the means
of cultivation, and the number in-
tended to be grown. To exhibit collec-
tions of ten or twelve in number, three
or four times during the season, the
house should be at least fifty feet long,
and twenty feet wide. This will allow
a stage in the centre ten feet wide,
walks round it two-and-a-half feet wide,
and a platform all round two-and-a-half
feet broad. This will leave the stage
ten feet wide, and forty feet long, which
will be ample space for three rows of
twelve plants in each, full- sized and
well-grown specimens. On the plat-
forms next the front light, smaller-
sized plants may be placed to succeed
the other when they become unsightly
through the bloom being over.
The only heat wanted is just enough
to keep out the frost, and the best mode
of obtaining that heat is by hot water
circulating in cast-iron pipes. (See
Compost. Procure from an old pas-
ture, where the grass is of a fine tex-
ture, as much turf, three or four inches
thick, as will serve to pot the collection
for one year ; cast it into the compost-
yard, and have it immediately chopped
up into small pieces, and, as it is done,
lay it up in a long ridge, facing east
and west, so that the sun can shine
upon each side morning and evening.
The ridge or bank should not exceed
two feet high, on a base of three feet
wide. The grassy surface and green
roots will soon begin to ferment during
the process of decomposition, and the
gases arising will penetrate to every
particle of soil, and moderately enrich
it, quite sufficient to grow geraniums.
Let it be turned over every three
months for a year, and then it will be
fit for use. Unless it be very heavy, or
of a close texture, it will not require
any addition. If too heavy, add sand
to render it of an open texture.
Culture of Established Plants. Cut
them down in July, leave them in
a cold pit, and in eight or ten days
after being cut down, and receiving
moisture about the tops rather than
among the roots, the pots may receive
a fair watering, as much as will reach
every good root. When the buds break,
gradually give air. When one inch in
length or so, take the plants to the
potting-bench, shake the soil from the
roots, examine and prune the roots a
little, re-shift into similar, or, what in
general will answer better, smaller-
sized pots ; place them again in the
cold pit, and keep close until the fresh
roots are running in the new soil, then
give air gradually until at length you
expose them entirely to the atmosphere ;
steering clear, however, of cold rains
and anything like frost. Plants cut
down in June and July, if transferred
to small pots, will require to be placed
in blooming pots in the end of October.
Those cut down in the end of July or
during August, Avill not want repotting
until the new year has brought length-
ened sunshine; and from these dif-
ferent successions of bloom may be ex-
pected. To have it fine, cleanliness,
air, light, room, and a temperature sel-
dom below 40, must be leading consi-
derations. During winter, unless dur-
ing sunshine, the temperature should
never be higher. After a sunny day it
may be from five to eight degrees lower
at night with impunity. In the case of
large plants, little stopping will be re-
quired after repotting. Thinning in-
stead will often be necessary. Hence,
old plants generally produce the earliest
bloom, as every general stopping of the
shoots as well as every shift given re-
tard the blooming period.
PELLITOKY OF SPAIN. A'nthemispyre'-
[ 609 ]
PELTA'RIA. (From pchc, a little
buckler ; referring to the shape of the
seed-pod. Nat. ord., Crucifers [Brassi-
cacese]. Linn., Tetradynamia. Allied
Seeds ; division of the roots of alliacea.
P. allia'cea (Garlic-scented). 1. White. June.
Austria. 1601. Hardy herbaceous.
giant if o'lia(Woad- leaved). 1. White. June.
Syria, 1823. Hardy annual.
PENJE'A. (Named after P. Pena, a
German botanist. Nat. ord., Sarcoco-
lads [Penaeacese]. Linn., 4.-Tetrandria
Greenhouse evergreens, from the Cape of Good
Hope, and red-flowered, except where other-
wise mentioned. Cuttings of stubby side-shoots,
in summer, in sand, under a bell-glass ; sandy
peat, and a little charcoal. Winter temp., 40
P.fruticulo'sa (small- shrubby). 1. June. 1822.
imbrica'ta (imbricated). Pink. June. 1824.
lateriflo'ra (side-flowering). 1. June. 1825.
margina'ta (bordered). l. June. 1816.
muerona'ta (pointed-leaved). 2. Yellow.
myrtoi'des (Myrtle-like). 2. June. 1816.
sarcoco'lla (thick-necked). 1. June. 1825.
squamo'sa (scalyl. 1. June. 1787-
PENNYROYAL. Me'ntha pnle'yium.
PENTADE'SMA. (From pente, five, and
desma, a bundle ; referring to the dis-
position of the stamens. Nat. ord.,
Gnilifers [Clusiacese]. Linn., IS Poly -
adelphia %-Polyandria. Allied to Gar-
Stove evergreen tree. Cuttings of ripe shoots,
in sand, under a bell-glass, and in bottom-heat ;
fibry loam and sandy peat. Winter temp., 60;
summer, b'0 to 90.
P. butyra'cea (b\itter-and-tallow-tree). 30.
November. Sierra Leone. 1822.
PENTA'PETES. (From pente, five, and
petalon, a petal ; five petals in the flower.
Nat. ord., Byttneriads [Byttneriaceee],
Linn,, IQ-Monadelphia 7 -Dodecandria.
Allied to Dombeya.)
Stove scarlet-flowered plants, flowering in
July. Cuttings of half-ripened shoots in sand,
under a glass, in moist heat ; also by seeds in a
hotbed in spring ; sandy loam and leaf-mould.
P. ova'ta (egg-leaved). 2, New Spain. 1805.
phaeni'cea (scarlet). 2. India. 1690.
PE'NTAS. (From pente, five ; refer-
ring to the number of petals and
stamens. Nat. ord., Cinchonads [Cin-
chonacese]. Linn., 5-Pentandria l-Mo-
Stove evergreens from South Africa, with
pink flowers. Cuttings of young shoots, in
sandy soil, in a hotbed ; sandy loam and fibry
peat. Winter temp., 45 to 58; summer, 60
to 75. Propagated in spring, in a hotbed, the
plants so raised will bloom freely in the green-
house during the summer.
P. ca'rnea (fash-coloured). l. May. 1842.
parviflo'ra (small-flowered). 2. May.
PENTLA'NDIA. (Named after J. P.
Pentland, Esq., Consul-general in Peru.
Nat. ord., Amaryllids [ Arnaryllidacese] .
Linn., 6-Hexandria 1-Monoyynia.}
Half-hardy Peruvian bulbs; offsets ;, sandy
loam, peat, and leaf-mould ; require protection,
or lifting out of the ground in winter.
P. minia'ta (red-lead-coloured). 1. Red. Sep-
lacuno'sa (pitted). 1. Red. Sep-
Suliva'nica (Sulivan's). 1. Orange.
PENTSTE'MON. (From pente, five, and
stemon, a stamen ; four fertile and one
abortive stamen. Nat. ord., Figworts
[Scrophulariaceeej. Linn., 1-i-Didy-
namia %-Angiospermia. Allied to Che-
Seeds sown in a hotbed, in spring, the plants
will bloom in the flower-garden the same sum-
mer ; division of the plant, in spring, as growth
commences ; cuttings of the young shoots, any
time in spring, summer, or autumn, under a
hand-light, in sandy soil; sandy loam and leaf-
mould. Gentianoides, and its varieties coc-
cinea and alba, require a little protection in
winter, when north of London ; a few fir boughs
and some moss among the plants will generally
be sufficient ; but to make sure, a few cuttings
should be kept over the winter in a cold pit.
HALT-HARD Y HERBACEOUS.
P. atropttrpu'reum (dark-purple), 1$. Dark
purple. July. Mexico. 1827-
azu'reum (blue-lowered). . Blue. June.
campanula' turn (bell -flowered"). l. Lilac.
purple. June. Mexico. 1794.
Cobce'a (Cobcea- flowered). 2. Pale purple,
gentianoi'des (Gentian-like). 4. Purplish
blue. July. Mexico. 1846.
Hartwe'gii (Hartweg's). 24. Double purple.
June. Mexico. 1825.
dia'phanum (transparent). 2.
Rose. Scarlet. July. Mexico. 1843.
Ku'nthii (Kunth's). 1$. Purple. Mexico.
minia'tw (vermilion). 1. Vermilion, rose.
July. Mexico. 1846.
pulche'llum (pretty). l. Lilac. June.
ro'seum (rosy). l. Rose. Mexico. 1825.
P. acumina'tum(pomte<\.-leaved). Purple. July.
North America, 1827.
P. a'lbidum (whitish). J. White. July. Mis-
angustifo'lium (narrow-leaved). l. Lilac,
purple. August. Louisiana. 1811.
argu'tum (neat). 3. Blue. Columbia. 1825.
attenua'tum (wasted). Cream. July. North
breviflo'rum (short-flowered). 2. White,
pink. September. California.
confe'rtum (crowded- flowered). 2. Pale
yellow. July. North America. 1827.
crassifo'lium (thick-leaved). 1. Blue. June.
deu'stum (blasted). 1. Cream. North Ame-
diffu'sum (spreading). 1J. Purple. Sep-
tember. North America. 1826.
digita'lis (Fox-glove-like). 1$. White. Au-
gust. Arkansas. 1824.
erianthe'rum (woolly-anthered). . Purple.
August. Louisiana. 1811.
-*- gla'brum (smooth). l. Dark purple. Au-
gust. Louisiana. 18)1.
glabe'rrimum (smoothest). 2. Blue. Co-
glandulo'sum (glanded). 2. Pale blue. June.
North America. 182/.
glau'cum (milky- green). 1. Pale lilac. July.
North America. 1827.
Oordo'ni (Gordon's). ]. Sky blue. June.
Rocky Mountains. 1845.
gra'cilis (slender). 1. Blue. August. North
grandiflo'rum (large -flowered). Purple.
July. North America. 1811.
heterophy'llum (various-leaved). l. Red.
July. California. 1834.
tiirsu'tum (narrow-leaved~lia.iry). 1, Pale
purple. August. North America. 1758.
leeviga'tum (smooth). 2. Lilac. August.
North America. 1776.
Mackaya'num (Sir W. Mackay's). 1. Pur-
ple, yellow. August. Ohio. 1834.
Alurraya'num (Murray's scarlet) . 3. Scarlet.
August. S. Felipe. 1835.
uva'tum (egg-leaved). 4. Blue. July. North
proce'rum (tall). 1. Purple. July. North
pruinn'sum (frosted). I. Blue. June. North
pube'scens (broad-leaved-downy). 1^. Pale
purple. August. North America. 1/58.
Richardso'nii (Richardson's). l. Dark
purple. July. Columbia. 1825.
Scou'leri (Scouler's). 3. Purple. May.
North America. 1827.
specio'sum (showy). 3. Blue. August.
North America. 1827.
statictefo'lium (Statice-leaved). 1^. Lilac.
June. California. 1833.
triphy'llum (three-leaved). l. Pale red.
July. California. 1827-
ocnu'stum (graceful). 2. Purple. June.
North America. 1827.
PEPPER. Pi' per.
PEPPERMINT. Me 'ntha pipcri'la.
PEPPER VINE. Ampclo'psis bipiit-
PERENNIAL. A plant of any kind that
lives for more than two years.
PERE'SKIA. Barbadoes Gooseberry.
(Named after Pieresk, a French patron
of botany. Nat. ord., Indian Figs [Cac-
tacese]. Linn., 1%-Icosandria 1-Mono-
yynia. Allied to Cactus.)
Stove succulents. Cuttings, in sandy loam,
in heat, at almost any time ; sandy loam, lime
rubbish, and a little peat and old cow-dung.
Winter temp., 40 to 55 ; summer, 60 to 80.
P. acule'uta (prickly). 5. White. October.
W. Indies. 1696.
Ble'o (Bleo). 5. Pale red. November.
crassicau'lis (thick-stemmed). Mexico. 1838.
grandiflo'ra (large-flowered). Red. Mexico.
grandifo'lia (large-leaved). 3. Brazil. 1818.
grandispi'na (large-spined). Mexico. 1818.
longispi'na (low-spined). 4. S.America.
Petita'che (Petitache). Mexico. 1838.
j0ortttec>/o'fta(Portulaca-leaved). 8. Pur-
ple. W. Indies. 1820.