Banksia'na (Banks's - scrub}. 40. May.
North America. 1785.
Benthdmia'na (Bentham's). 200. California.
, Bru'lia (Calabrian). Calabria.
- Bungea'na (Bunge's). North of China.
- Ce'mbra (Cembra. Siberian}. 25. May.
pu'mila (dwarf). Siberia.
- Chilmalma'na (Chilmalm's). 40. North of
- commu'nis (common).
ru'bra (red). Scotland.
- e'dulis (eatable-seeded). North Mexico.
- Ehrenbe'rgii (Ehrenberg's). 100. Mexico.
- exce'lsa (tall). 100. Nepaul. 1823.
- Finlaysnnia'na (Finlayson's). Cochin China.
-fle>xilis (pliant). New Mexico.
- Fremontia'na (Capt. Fremont's). 20. Cali-
- Iialepe'nsis (Aleppo). 40. June. Levant.
mari'tima (maritime), 40. May.
South of Greece.
-i'nops (Jersey. Poor). 30. May. North
- insi'gnis (remarkable), 60. California. 1833.
- insula'ris (island). Philippines.
- Koraie'nsis (Corean). 10. Corea.
- Lambertia'na (Lambert's). 200. North
- Lari'cio (Corsican. Larch). 80. May. Cor-
- Llavea'na (La Llave's). 25. Mexico. 1830.
- macroca'rpa (large-coned). 120. California.
- Merku'sii (Merkus's). 100. Sumatra.
- mi'tis (soft-leaved). 50. May. North Ame.
monti'cola (mountain-top). California. 1831,
Mu'gho (Mugho). May. Austria.
murica'ta (prickly-coned}. 40. California.
ost eospe'rma (scaly-seeded). New Mexico.
Pallasia'na (Pallas's). 40. May. Siberia,
parviflo'ra (small-flowered). Japan. 1846.
Pe'rsica (Persian). South of Persia.
Pen'ce (Pencean). Mountains of Rumelia.
Pina'ster (Cluster. Pinaster), 60. June.
S. Europe. 1596.
Lemonia'na (Sir C. Lemon's). 30.
mi'nor (les - coned). 60, May.
variega'ta (variegated - leaved}.
Pi'nea (Stone Pine). 60. June. South
Cre'tica (Cretan). May. Crete.
.'gilis (thin-shelled}. 60. May.
pondero'sa ( weigh ty-wooded). 50. North
pumi'lio (dwarf). 20. May. Europe.
pu'ngens (stinging). 40. May. North
Pyrena'ica (Pyrenean). 50. May. Pyrenees.
radia'ta(ra.di&ted-scaled). 100. California,.
resino'sa (resinous)-. 80. May. North
[ 718 ]
P. rt'gida (stiff). 80. May. North America.
ru'dis (rude). Mexico.
Sabinia'na (Sabine's). 120. March. Cali-
sero'tina (late). 40. May. North America.
strobifo'rmis (cone-shaped). 120. Mexico.
stro'bus (large - coned. Weymouth), 200.
April. North America. 1705.
a'lba (white). 100. May.
brevifo'lia (short-leaved). 100. April.
sylve'stris (wood. Scotch). 80. May. Scot-
Tee'd a (Frankincense). 80. May. Florida.
tenuifo'lia (slender-leaved). 80. Guatemala.
tubercula'ta (warted). 100. California.
40. May. North America. 1739.
PIP, in floriculture, is a single corolla
or flower, where several grow upon a
common stem, as in the Polyanthus
and Auricula. The pips thus growing
together are described as a Truss.
PI'PEE. Pepper. (From pepto, to
digest; referring to the stimulating-
power. Nat. ord., Peppenvorts [Pipera-
ceee]. Linn., 2-Diandria 3-Triandria.)
Stove evergreens. Cuttings of half-ripened
wood, under a bell-glass, in sandy soil, in heat ;
also by suckers from the bottom of the plant.
Winter temp., 50 to 60; summer, 60 to 80.
The genus contains the pepper plant, and the
Betle, of which the leaf is chewed in India as
much as tobacco is in the west.
P. Be'tle (Betle). 6. E.Indies. 1804.
di' 'scalar (two-coloured). 4. July. W,
genicula'tum (swollen-jointed). 2. Jamaica.
gla'brum (smooth). 10. Campeachy. 1768.
glauce'scens (milky-green). 3. Peru. 1822.
laurifo' Hum (Laurel-leaved). 10. July. W.
lo'ngum (long). 6. June. E. Indies. 1788.
ni'grum (black). 6. E.Indies. 1790.
tomento'sum (downy). 14. August. W.
trioi'cum (tricecious). 6. East Indies. 1818.
tubercula'tum (pimpled). 6. South Ame-
rica. 181 tf.
umbella'tum (umbelled). 3. June. West
PIPEEIDGE, the Barberry.
PIPES for heating horticultural struc-
tures are preferably made of cast iron,
painted black. Earthenware has been
recommended for the purpose, but they
are so much more liable to breakage
and leakage, as to outweigh any original
saving in the cost. For draining, earthen
pipes with a bore an inch in diameter
are the best.
TABLE of the quantity of pipe, four inches
diameter, which will heat one thousand cubic
feet of air per minute, any required number
of degrees ; the temperature of the pipe
being 200 Fahrenheit.
external Temperature at which the room is
a ; r- | required to be kept.
10 1 126 150
12 |H9 142
120 144 170il99
175 206 239
To ascertain by the above Table the
quantity of pipe which will heat one
thousand cubic feet of air per minute,
find, in the first column, the tempera-
ture corresponding to that of the ex-
ternal air, and in one of the other
columns find the temperature of the
room ; then, in this latter column, and
on the line which corresponds with the
external temperature, the required
number of feet of pipe will be found.
PIPING, a mode of propagating the
Carnation, Picotee, and Pink, is only
another word for a cutting. Some
persons pull off the pipings from the
plant, and stick them in without more
ado, but this is a slovenly way ; besides,
in pulling off the pipings, the main
stem of the plant is materially injured,
and often destroyed. The more correct
way is, with a sharp knife, to cut off
the side-shoot close to the stem, without
injuring it, leaving a sufficient number
of shoots to preserve the health of the
plant. Take off one kind at once,
making the proper number or tally at
[ 710 ]
the same time ; then dress the pipings
by cutting off the lower leaves, leaving
about four at the top. These four leaves
should not be mutilated or shortened,
as they are the organs to send down
sap to form the roots. Put the pipings
in pots filled with light earth, and a
covering of sand upon it. Place them
in a frame with a little bottom-heat,
watering gently when dry, and shading
from the sun until they are ripened.
PIPTA'NTHUS. (From pipto, to fall,
and anthos, a flower ; short duration of
the flowers. Nat. ord., Leguminous
Plants [Fabacece]. Linn., 10-Decandria
1-Monogynia. Allied to Anagyris. )
Hardy deciduous shrub. Seeds, which ripen
freely ; cuttings of ripe shoots, under a hand-
light ; layers, cuttings also of roots ; rich sandy
loam ; should have the protection of a wall in
exposed cold places, far north of London.
P. Nepaule'nsis (Nepaulese). 10. Yellow.
May. Nepaul. 1821.
PIQUE 'RIA. (Named after A. Pique-
ria, a Spanish botanist. Nat. ord.,
Composites [Asteraceee]. Linn., 19-
Hardy herbaceous perennial. Seeds, but
chiefly division in spring ; common soil.
P. trine'rvia (three-nerved). 2. White. July.
PISCI'DIA. Jamaica Dogwood. (From
jnscis, a fish, and ccedo, to kill ; the
leaves, twigs, and bark, are used to
stupify fish. Nat. ord., Leguminous
Plants [Fabaceee]. Linn., 16 - Mona-
delphia 6-Decandria. Allied to Andira.)
Stove evergreen, white-flowered trees from the
West Indies. Cuttings of half-ripened shoots,
in sand, under a glass, in heat ; sandy fibry
loam. Winter temp., 48 to 60; summer, 60
P. Carthagine'nsis (Carthagena). 30. 1690.
Erythri'na (red). 25. 1690.
PISTA'CIA. Pistachia Tree. (Altered
from its Arabic name Foustag. Nat.
ord., Terebinths [Anacardiacete]. Linn.,
%%-J)i(ecia 5-Pentandria. Allied to
P. Atlantica and lentiscus yield the useful
resiu called mastich. Seed nuts ; layers and
cuttings; rich deep sandy loam. Those from
Barbary and the South of Europe require the
protection of a greenhouse, or a cold pit in
winter; and even the hardiest kinds, though
they have stood out at Fulham, and the Horti-
cultural Society's Gardens, will generally do
be&t against a wall, when north of London,
unless the place is both sheltered from the cold,
and exposed to the sun.
P. lenti'scus (mastich-tree) . 15. May. S.
angustifo'lia (narrow-leaved). 10.
May. S. Europe. 1667.
Chi' a (Chian). May. Scio.
P. Atla'ntica (Atlantic). 12. Barbary. 1790.
mu'tica (beardless). Russia. 1844.
Terebi'nthus (Turpentine-tree). 20. June.
S. Europe. 1656.
. sphceroca'rpa (round-fruited) .
ve'ra (true). 20. May. Syria. 1770.
Narbone'nsis (Narbonne). 20. April.
trifo'lia (three -leafleted). 20. May.
PI'STIA. (From pistillum, the female
organ ; signifying the appearance of
the spathe inflorescence. Nat. ord.,
Duckweeds [Pistiaceee] . Linn., 22-
Beautiful stove aquatic. Seeds and divisions ;
rich strong loam ; a tub or tank in the plant
stove or aquarium.
P. stratio'tes ( Water-soldier. Water Lettuce) .
J. Greenish. Jamaica. 1843.
PISTORI'NIA. (Derivation not ex-
plained. Nat. ord., Houseleeks [Cras-
sulaceas]. Linn., \Q-Decandria -De-
cagynia. Allied to Cotyledon.)
Hardy biennials. Seeds in any dry soil, in an
exposed place, or a rock-work, in April.
P. Hispa'nica (Spanish). . Red. June. Spain.
PI'SUH. The Pea. (From pis, the
Celtic name. Nat. ord., Leguminous
Plants [Fabaceee]. Linn., 17-Diadel-
Perennials, seeds and divisions ; annuals,
seeds sown according to the time the produce
is wanted; rich deep soil, where they will
neither suifer from damp nor drought. See Pea.
P. America'num (American). 1. Purple. S.
mari'timum (sea). l. Purple. England.
P. arve'nse (field). 3. Red. South Europe.
ela'tum (tall). 6. Dark blue. Iberia. 1820.
Joma'rdi (Jomardi's). 3. White. Egypt.
sati'vum (common-cultivated). 3. White.
hu'mile (humble). 1. White.
macroca'rpum (large-podded). 4.
quadra' turn (squared). 3. White.
P. suti'um sacchara'tum (sugared). 4. White.
umbella'tum (umbelled). 4. Purple.
Theba'icum (Theban). 3. 1825.
PIT in the Stove is the excavation, or
brick enclosure, in which is the tan,
or other material for plunging the pots;
and for Forcing, it is a structure having
a glass roof, and differing from a hot-
Led and frame only in being large, and
with sides fixed to the soil. See Hot-
bed and Melon for examples of various
kinds of Pit. A Cold Pit is one where
no artificial heat is used, the pro-
tection the plants receive being given
solely by coverings. During summer
and spring, these pits, when not covered,
are still a great protection to plants by
their walls. Either a Melon or Cu-
cumber Pit unheated, or an enclosure
made with turf walls, and covered with
the glass lights of a hotbed frame, an-
swer admirably as cold pits.
PITCAI'RNIA. (Named after Dr.
Pit cairn. Nat. ord., Sromet worts
[Bromeliacete]. Linn., 8-Octandria ]-
Monogynla. Allied to Tillandsia.)
Stove herbaceous perennials. Division, and
by suckers, in spring, or when they can best be
obtained ; sandy fibry peat, and good mellow
loam. Winter temp., 50 to 55 ; summer, 60
P. a'lbiflos (white-flowered). 3. White. Sep.
teniber. Brazil. 1824.
angustifo'lia (narrow-leaved). 2. Scarlet.
Santa Cruz. 1777.
bractea'ta (large-red-br&cted). 2. Scarlet.
April. West Indies. 1799.
bromeliafo'lia (Pine - Apple - leaved). 2.
Scarlet. June. Jamaica. 178!.
Chile'nsis (Chili). 1. Scarlet. July. Chili.
fla'mmea (flame- coloured}. 2. Flame. No-
vember. Rio Janeiro. 1825.
furfura'cea (scurfy). 2. Red. July. South
hu'milis (low), i. Scarlet. July. South
integrifo'lia (entire-leaved). 2. Red. August.
West Indies. 1800.
interme'dia (intermediate). 2. Scarlet.
July. South America. 1820.
iridiflo'ra (Iris-flowered). 2. Scarlet. July.
South America. 1820.
latifo'lia (broad-leaved). 2. Scarlet. August.
West Indies. 1785.
ri'ngens (gaping). Crimson. Demarara.
stumi'nea (long- stamened). 2. Scarlet.
January. South America. 1823.
suave'olens (sweet-scented). 2. Yellow.
July. Brazil. 1824.
sulphu'rea (sulphur-flowered). 2. Yellow.
August. West Indies. 1797.
undula'ta (wavy). Scarlet. July. Brazil.
P. undiilatifo'lia (waved-leaved), 1$. White.
gigante'a (gigantic). 5. White.
PITCHER-LEAF. Nepe'nthes phyUa'm-
PITCHER-PLANT. Nepe'nthes dhtllla-
PITTOSPO'RUM. (From pltte, to tar
or pitch, and sporos, seed ; seeds
covered with resinous pulp. Nat. ord.,
Pittosporads [Pittosporacere]. Linn.,
5-Pentandria 1 -Monogynla.)
Greenhouse evergreen shrubs. Cuttings of
shoots, in sand, under a bell-glass, in April,
and kept in a close frame, without bottom-heat ;
sandy fibry loam and a few nodules of fibry peat.
Winter temp., 38 to 48 ; summer, 60 to 75.
Tobira and undulatum have delightfully scented
flowers, and both have stood against walls in
the climate of London, with a little protection.
P. Anderso'nii (Anderson's). 4. Yellow. May.
New Holland. 1820.
angustlfo'lium (narrow-leaved). 1. Yellow.
June. New South Wales. 1830.
bi'color (two-coloured). 3. Chocolate. Van
Diemen's Land. 1842.
bracteolu'tum (small-bracted). Norfolk
Cape'nse (Cape). May. 1820.
coria'ceum (leathery-leaved). 8. Blue.
May. Madeira. 1/83.
cornifo'lium (Cornus-leaved). 3. Brown.
May. New Zealand. 1827.
ferrugi'neum (rusty-leaved). 6. Yellow.
March. Guinea. 1787-
fu'lvum (tawny-leaved). 3. Yellow. April.
New Holland. 1820.
glabra'tum (smooth). !. Bright yellow.
May. Hong-kong. 1845.
hi'rtum (h&iry-branched). 4. Yellow.
May. Canaries. 1822.
ligustrifo' Hum (Privet-leaved). 6. Sep-
tember. New Holland. 1823.
Mauritia'num (Mauritius). 8. Yellow.
May. Mauritius. 1825.
Ma'yii (May's). 3. 1845.
oleifo'lium (Olive-leaved). New Holland.
revolu'tum (curled-back-teai'ed). 6. Yellow.
March. New Holland. 1795.
tenuifo'lium (thin-leaved). 4. May. New
Tobi'ra (TobiraX 12. White. May.
tomento'su'n (-woolly-leaved). 6. Yellow.
July. New Holland. 1824.
undula'tum (waved-teatied). 10. White,
green. April. New South Wales.
variega'tum (variegated -leaved).
5. White, yellow. April. Gardens.
PLAGIOLO'BIUM. (From playios,
transverse, and lobos, a pod. Nat. ord.,
Leguminous Plants [Fabacece]. Linn.,
17-Diadelphia -Decandria. Allied to
Greenhouse evergreen, purple - flowered
shrubs from New Holland. Cuttings of the
points of young shoots, or the small side-shoots,
when two inches in length, taken off close to
the stem ; sandy fibry peat, with a few pieces
of broken pots, charcoal, and dried leaf-mould.
Winter temp., 40 to 48 ; summer, 60 to 75.
P . chorozemeefo'lium, (Chorozema-leaved). 2.
illicifo'lium (Holly-leaved). 2. March. 1824.
PLA'NKKA. (Named after J. Planer,
a German botanist. Nat. ord., Elm-
irorts [Ulmacese], Linn., -Te,trandrla
'>>-Tetra<jynicti Allied to the Elm.)
Hardy herbaceous trees. Layers and graft-
ing on the elm ; common rich loam.
P. curpinifo'lia (Hornbeam - leaved). Green.
Gmeli'ni (Gmelin's). 12. Brown. April.
North America. 1816.
parvifo'lia (small-leaved). Green. April.
Richa'rdi (Richard's). 12. Brown. April.
North America, 1/60.
PLANE TEEE. Pla'tamis.
PLANK PLANT. Bossicc'a scolope'n-
PLA'NTIA. (Named by Dr. Herbert,
after Mr. Plant, nurseryman at Chea-
dle, in commemoration of his success
in cross-breeding. Nat. ord., Trids
[Iridacese]. Linn., 3-Triandrla l-Mo-
nogynia. Allied to Sisyrinchium.)
Greenhouse bulb. Seeds, in spring, in a
slight hotbed ; offsets ; light rich sandy loam ;
bulbs requiring to be taken up, or protected in
a frame during winter.
P.fla'va (yellow). Yellow. June. Cape of
Good Hope. 1842.
PLANTING. The end of October is
the best time in the whole year to plant
all kinds of trees and bushes which
cast their leaves in winter, whether
fruit-bearing or ornamental; but all
the evergreen American plants, as the
Rhododendron, may be planted in Octo-
ber, as well as in July, August, or Sep-
tember the right months for getting
in most evergreens. For directions as
to planting Fruit-trees, the reader is
referred to the article Stations ,but much
of the following directions relative to
planting ornamental trees and shrubs
is generally applicable. Wherever they
are to be placed, if the soil is at all dry
at the bottom, no matter how poor it
may be, it should be stirred or trenched
three feet deep. lu the case of single
plants, where a pit or hole only is
i required, the narrowest diameter ought
to be four feet, and if the bottom soil
is poor it should be removed and some
good added instead; but loose soil oi'
this description will subside in time,
and if the plants are tied to stakes, as
many need be to keep them firm the
first year or two, the sinking of the soil
from under the roots may cause them
to strain, or otherwise injure them, by
cracking and letting in the dry winds
to them. Another evil is, that when
trees thus planted sink down gradually,
additional soil is placed over the roots
to make the surface level, and this is
equivalent to planting too deep in the
first instance, and deep planting is
always to be avoided. Therefore the
loose or new soil beneath the roots
ought to be gently pressed down, and
the pit filled up to near the surface of
the ground, or to within three or four
inches of it, so that, when the tree or
bush is planted, the surface of the pit
will appear a little mound, several
inches above the surrounding surface.
Plant fruit-trees shallow and on hard
bottoms, to prevent their getting too
luxuriant; but in gardening for orna-
mental plants, the more healthy and
vigorous we can grow them the more
i ornamental they will be ; unless, indeed,
j they are rather tender for our climate,
in that case shallow planting on a solid
or unloosed bottom suits them best, as
they cannot grow too strong, and the
wood will therefore ripen better. The
shrub being taken up with long, bare
roots, and a host of small fibres, and
a considerable ball of soil attached
close up to the bole or bottom of the
plant, place this ball in the middle of
the prepared pit, and fill in the loose
soil under the strong roots, so that they
may lie in their natural position, and
in doing it if the small fibres are pressed
down too much, loosen them back
again, and fill in any cavities under the
bole or main roots. When the roots,
great and small, each of them branch-
ing out in straight lines, are as regular
as they can be placed, some of the
lower ones will be out of sight, but the
! majority are still in view ; over these
put a little better soil thus : take a
; spadeful, and thro>v it past the stem of
C 723 ]
the plant on the roots on the opposite -
side to you, so that the soil runs along
in the same direction as the roots. If
you throw it on the roots next to you,
it will run against their direction and
turn back their small points, which
would be nearly as bad as the old way
of shaking the plant up and down at
this stage. When all the roots are
covered an inch or two, the watering-
pot must come, with a large rose to it,
and you must water all over the surface
heartily, even if it is a rainy day. This
watering is to do the business of the
old shaking settle the finer particles
of the soil about the roots : the rest of
the soil, to the depth of four or five
inches, may be thrown on any-how, if
the lumps are broken small, so that
the surface is pretty smooth, and formed
into a shallow basin to hold the future
waterings. A stout stake, or stakes,
according to the size of the plant,
should be driven down before the eartli
is put over the roots, to keep the plant
from wind-waving. When large, bushy
evergreens are to be removed, their
branches must be tied up towards the
stem by passing a rope or strong cord
round them before commencing at the
PLASHING is a mode of repairing or
modifying a hedge by bending down a
portion of the shoots, cutting them half
through near the ground to render
them more pliable, and twisting them
among the upright stems, so as to
render the whole more effective as a
fence, and at the same time preserve
all the branches alive. For this pur-
pose, the branches to be plashed, or
bent down, must not be cut more than
half through, in order that a sufficient
portion of sap may rise up from the
root to keep alive the upper part of the
branches. Where hedges are properly
formed and kept, they can very seldom
require to be thus maimed.
PLASTEE OF PARIS. See Gypsum.
PLATANTHE'RA. (From platys, broad,
and anthem, an anther. Nat. ord.,
Orchids [Orchidaceee]. Linn., 2Q-Gy-
Chiefly hardy orchids. Seeds, chiefly sown
as soon as ripe, in loose, mossy, peaty soil ;
peat and loam, with a little chalk j hardy ones,
kept as Alpines, in a frame, defended from
heavy rains and from severe frosts, and the
atmosphere round them moist, by watering the
ground or moss on which they stand. Several
require the protection of a warm greenhouse.
Habenaria bifoliu and /am have been added to
P. cilia' ris (hair-fringed). Yellow. June. North
crista'ta (crested). Yellow. September.
North America. 1806.
dilata'ta (spread). 1$. White. September.
fimbria'ta (fringed). Purple. June. Canada.
herbi'ola (small-herb). Green. June. North
holope'tala (all - petaled). White. May.
Hooke'ri (Hooker's). Green. June. North
hyperbo'rea (northern). Green. June. North
mci'so (cut). Pale yellow. June. North
psycho'des (Butterfly-like). Yellow. June.
North America. 1826.
Susa'nnee (Susanna). Green, white. East
Indies. 1834. Stove.
PLA'TANUS. Plane -Tree. (From
pluti/s, broad ; the wide-spreading head
of the trees. Nat. ord., Planes [Pla-
tanacese]. Linn., 2l-Moncecia ( J-Poly-
Hardy deciduous, trees, flowering in April.
Seeds, in the autumn, and preserved until spring ;
cuttings also in spring and autumn, but chiefly
and most quickly by layers, in autumn and
spring ; deep mellow loam.
P. occidenta'lis (western). 70. North America.
- au'rea variega'ta (golden-varie-
gated- /eat-erf). 70. 1846.
- - integrifo'lia (entire-leaved). 70.
- - heterophy'lla (various - leaved) .
orienta'lis (eastern). 50. Levant. 1548.
- acerifo'lia (Maple-leaved). 70. Le-
' cunea'ta (wedge-/eaed). 20. Le-
- Hispa'nica (Spanish). 70. Spain.
- lacinia'ta (cut-team*). 70. 1845.
- monstro'sa (monstrous) . /O. 1845.
PLATYCE'RIUM. (From platys, broad,
and keras, a horn ; form of the fertile
ceaa]. Linn., 2-Crypto</amia