Greenhouse herbaceous perennials. Seeds,
in a slight hotbed, in spring ; dividing the
plants ; cuttings of the young shoots, in sandy
soil, any time, but best in autumn and spring ;
bandy loam, and a little peat or leaf-mould ;
require a greenhouse, or cold pit, in winter.
Lobelia begoni&folia belongs to this genus.
P. corymbo'sa (corymbed). White. June. C.
of Good Hope. 1824. Trailer.
ere'cta (upright). 1. Blue. June. New
PEEFU'SA. (Trom prepousa, comely;
the beauty of the flowers. Nat. ord.,
Gentianworls [Gentianaceee]. Linn.,
5-Pentandria I-Monoyynia. Allied to
Stove herbaceous perennials. Seeds, in hot-
bed, in spring ; division of the plant at the
same time. Winter temp., 48 to 55 ; sum-
mer, 60 to 80.
P. Hookeria'na (Hooker's). 1. White, crim-
son. March. Brazil. 1839.
PEESTO'NIA. (Named after C. Pres-
ton, M.D. Nat, ord., Dogbanes [Apocy-
nacesej. Linn., 5-Pentandria \-Mono-
yynia. Allied to Rynchospermum.)
Stove evergreen, white-flowered, twiners from
Brazil. Cuttings of half-ripened, stubby, side-
shoots, in sand, under a bell-glass, in heat;
sandy loam, and a little fibry peat, or dried
leaf-mould. Winter temp., 48 to 58; sum-
mer, 60 to 85.
P. glabra'ta (smoothed). 8. July. 1823.
tomento'sa (downy). 8. July. 1820.
PRICKLY CEDAR. Cyatho'des oxyce'-
PRICKING-OUT is transplanting seed-
lings from their seed-bed more thinly,
that they may acquire more fibrous
roots and strength previously to their
being finally planted out.
PRICK-WOOD, or Timber. Euo'nymits
Europ&'us and Co' mm sangui'nea.
PRIESTLE'YA. (Named after Dr.
Priestley. Nat, ord.. Leguminous Plants
[Fabaceee]. Linn., \l-Diadelphia 4-
Dccandria. Allied to Liparia.)
Greenhouse, yellow-flowered evergreen shrubs
from New Holland, all about three feet high.
Cuttings of half-ripened short shoots, in sand,
under a bell-glass ; sandy loam and fibry peat,
and thorougly well-drained, to assist which
charcoal, and pieces of broken brick or sand-
stone, may be mixed with the compost. Winter
temp., 40 to 48. Such species as Vestita should
be tried against a wall.
P. axilla' ris (axillary-Cowered). June. 1822.
capita 1 ta (headed-Cowered). July. 1812.
cUi'ptica (oval-leaved). 1825.
ericeefo'lia (Heath-leaved). June. 1812.
l graminifo'lia (Grass-leaved). June. 1800.
j hirsu'ta (hairy -stemmed). August. 1792.
' Iceviga'ta (smooth-tailed). July. 1820.
! myrtlifo'liu (Myrtle-leaved). June. 1823.
! seri'cea (silky-ta/ued). June. 1794.
'? tc'res (round-stemmed), June. 18lti.
tomento'sa (downy). July. 1812.
PBI [ 7
P. umbelli'fera (umbelliferous). July. 1826.
vesti'ta (clothed). May. 1800.
villo'sa (woolly). June. 1//4.
PBI'MULA. Primrose. (From pri-
mus, the first; early flowering. Nat.
ord., Primeworts [Primulaceae]. Linn.,
Seeds in April, in light sandy border ; divi-
sions of the plant in March and April, or when
the plants have done flowering, or in the au-
tumn. Preenitens, or sinensis, and its varie-
ties, generally by seed in a slight hotbed, in
spring or the beginning of autumn, according
as the plants are wanted to bloom early in
winter or the following spring. The Chinese
double varieties (so useful for nosegays in
winter), by cuttings after flowering, in April or
May ; and by repotting the small plants of last
year; sandy loam and peat, enriched with a
little decayed cow- dung, and kept open with
small nodules of charcoal. These should sel-
dom be below 40 in winter, and the nearer
they range from 45 at night, and 50 and 55
during the day, the better they will bloom.
P. pra'nitens (very glossy. Chinese). . Pink.
May. China. 1820.
fimbria'ta a'lba (fringed- white).
2. White. June. 1833.
fimbria'ta ro'sea (fringed-rosy).
1. Rose. June. 1833.
. , flo're a'lbo (white-flowered). f.
White. May. China.
-_- , ple'na a'lba (double - white).
White. March. China.
ple'na ro'sea (double-rosy). Rose.
verticilla'ta (whorled). Yellow. March.
P. Allio'ni (Alliom'a). *. Red. April. France.
Altofica( Altaian). $. Red. April. Altai. 1819.
amae'na (pleasing). $. Purple. April.
auri'cula (Auricula). |. Yellow. April.
calyca'ntha (coloured-calyxed). $.
Yellow. April. Switzerland. 1596.
horte'nsis (garden). . Variegated.
April. Europe. 1596.
intege'rrima (most-entire). . Va-
riegated. April. Switzerland. 1596.
lu'tea (yellow), j. Yellow. May.
lu'tea ple'na (double-yellow), i.
Yellow. April. Gardens.
Balbi'sii (Balbis's). . Yellow. April.
South Europe. 1823.
brevi'styla (short-styled). \, Yellow. June.
versi'color (party-coloured). .
Yellow, red. June. France. 1818.
capita'ta (round-headed-meaty), f. Purple.
October. Himalayah. 1850.
Carnio'lica (Carniolan). . Purple. March.
cilia'ta (hair-fringed. Swiss). $. Red.
April. Switzerland. 1700.
'! ] PR!
P. corttt-sui'des (Cortusa-like). 1. Red. June.
davu'rica (Davurian). $. Red. May. Siberia.
deco'ra (comely). $. Pink. April. South
denticula'ta (toothed-tea^). 1. Purple.
dentiflo'ra (toothed-flowered). 1. Red.
June. Siberia. 1806.
ela'tior (taller. Oxlip). 1. Yellow. May.
calyca'ntha (coloured - calyxed).
Variegated. April. Britain.
flo're-ple'no (double - flowered).
Brown, crimson. April. Britain.
rown, crmson. Apr. Britain.
polya'ntha (many-flowered). $. Va-
riegated. April. Britain.
farino'sa (mealy), $. Red. June. Britain.
Anma'rcAtca(Finmarck). *. Violet. May.
giga'ntea (giant). }. Red. June. Siberia,
glauce'scens (milky- green). Pink. June.
glutino'sa (clammy). \. Red. June. South
Helve 1 tica (Helvetian), l. Red. June.
- a'lba (white). . White. May.
injla'ta (inflated). 4. Yellow. May. Hun-
integrifo'lia (entire-leaved). 4. Pink. June.
involucra'ta (ruffed). . White. April. N.
latifo'lia (broad-leaved). \. Red. April.
longiflo'ra (long-flowered). . Red. June.
longifo'lia (long-leaved), j. Red. April.
longisca'pa (long -flower -stalked). Lilac.
April. Altai. 1837.
mar gina'ta (silver-edged). $. Pink, April.
- ma'jor (larger). Pink. April.
microcu'lyx (small-calyxed). Red. May.
mi'nima (least). 4. Bed. April. S. Europe.
Mistassl'nica (Lake Mistassins). . Red.
June. N.America. 1818.
Munro'i (Capt. Munro's). f . White. May.
N. India. 1845.
niva'lis (snowy), ^. Purple. April. Dahuria.
ni'vea (snow-white). . White. April.
Palinu'ri (Palinur's). 4. Yellow. April.
Palla'sii (Pallas's). 4. Yellow. June. Altai.
Perrinia'na (Perreip's). 4. Yellow. June.
Piedmonta'na (Piedmont). %, Pink. May.
pube'scens (downy). .}. Red. April. S.
pvsi'lla (weak). ^. Purple. June. N.Ame-
Sco'tica (Scotch)/ ^. Red. June, Scotland.
[ 747 ]
P. Sibi'rica (Siberian). , Red. May. Siberia.
intcge'rrima (very-entire). $. Rose,
lilac. April. Altai. 1833. Half-hardy.
Sikkime'nsis (Sikkim). 1. Yellow. May.
Si'msii (Sims's). . White. April. Switz-
stri'cta (erect). ?. Pink. April. Denmark.
Stua'rtii (Stuart's). J. Yellow. June.
suave'olens (sweet-scented). . Yellow.
April. Italy. 1824.
trunca'ta (abrupt-ended-teaued). . Purple.
April. South Europe.
venu'sta (neat). 4> Purple. April. Hun-
ve'ris (spring. Cowslip). . Yellow. May.
ru'bra (red). . Red. May. Britain.
villo'sa (shaggy -leaved). $. Purple. April.
visco'sa (clammy). . Purple. April.
wtlga'ris (common. Primrose). $. Yellow.
a'lba (single-white). $. White.
a'lba (double-white). \.
White. April. Britain.
ple'na atropurpu'rea (double-dark-
purple). . Purple. April. Britain.
ple'na ca'rnea (double-flesh-co-
loured). $. Flesh. April. Britain.
ple'na cu'prea (double-copper). ^.
Copper. April. Britain.
ple'na ru'bra (double-red) . $ . Red.
ple'na sulphu'rea (double-brim-
stone). $. Pale yellow. April.
ple'na viola 1 cea (double-violet).
i. Violet. April. Britain.
polya'ntka (many-flowered. Poly-
PRI'NOS. Winter Berry. (The an-
cient name of the Holly, which some of
the species resemhle. Nat- ord., Holly-
icorts [Aquifoliacese]. Linn., Q-Hcx-
All hardy and deciduous, except lucidus,
which is a hardy evergreen, and montanus,
which is a stove evergreen. All white-flowered.
Hardy kinds, seeds and layers ; stove kind by
cuttings of firm shoots, in sand, under a bell-
glass ; sandy loam and peat.
P. ambi'guus (ambiguous). 4. Carolina. 1812.
atoma'rius (atomed). 2. July. N. America.
coria'ceus (leather-tea y erf). 3. June. N.
deci'duus (deciduous). 4. June. Virginia.
du'bius (doubtful). 12. July. N.America.
gla'ber (smooth). l. July. Canada. 1759.
leeviga'tus (smooth). 4. June. N. America.
P. ianceola'tus (spear-head-teauerf). 4. July.
j lu'cidus (shining). 3. June. N. America.
; monta'nus (mountain). 3. W. Indies. 1820.
| verticilla'tus (whorled). 6. N. America.
PRIVET. Li-guf strum.
PRO'CKIA. (Probably a commemo-
rative name. Nat. ord., Bixads [Fla-
courtiacese]. Linn., 13-Polyandria 1-
Stove yellow-flowered evergreen shrubs.
Cuttings of half-ripened shoots, in sand, under
a glass, in heat ; sandy fibry loam, and a little
fibry peat. Winter temp., 55 to 60 ; summer,
60 to 85.
P. Cnt'efc(St.Cnu). 4. July. W.Indies. 1822.
serra'ta (saw-leaved). 6. July. Montserrat.
thecefo'rmis (Tea-shaped). 6. July. Bour-
PROLIFEROUS. See Double- Flower.
The term is also applied to plants pro-
ducing many suckers.
PROMEN^'A. (Nat. ord., Orchids
[Orchidacese]. Linn., %Q-Gynandria l-
Monandria. Allied to Maxillaria.)
Stove orchids from Brazil, cultivated in
baskets. See Orchids.
P. citri'na (citron-flowered). Yellow. May.
lentigino'sa (freckled). Green, purple. July.
floWisao'nu(Rollisson's). Pale yellow. Au-
stapelioi'des (Stapelia-like). Green> yellow.
ni'gra (black). Green, black.
ru'bra (red). Green, red.
xanthi'na (yellow-flowered). Yellow. Au-
PRONA'YA. (Named after M. Pronay,
a French naturalist. Nat. ord., Pltto-
sporads [Pittosporacese], Linn., 5-Pent-
andria l-Monoyynia. Allied to Sollya.)
Greenhouse evergreen twiner. Cuttings of
young shoots, in sand, under a glass ; sandy
loam and peat. Winter temp., 40 to 48.
P. e'legans (elegant). 4. Blue. August. New
PROPS are the supports required by
plants to sustain them in a desired
position. They must vary in height
and strength accordantly with the plant
to which they are applied, and should
always be as slight as is consistent
with efficiency. Nothing looks worse
than a disproportioned prop ; indeed,
i it should be concealed as much as
possible. The props for peas should
be of the branches of the hazel, or of
frames and strings, which we prefer ;
for runner kidney beans, rods of ash.
For flowers, stout iron-wire painted
brown, or dark green, are to be prefer-
red. Whenever wooden props are used,
the end thrust into the ground should
be previously charred ; if this precau-
tion be taken, and when no longer re-
quired they are stored in a dry shed,
they will last for several seasons. Props
should be placed on the south sides of
the plants, as they incline in that di-
rection, as being most light.
The fewest possible number of props
is one of the evidences of good cultiva- j
tion, and good taste.
PKOSO'PIS. (A name of a plant em- j
ployed by Dioscorides. Nat. ord., Le-
guminous Plants [Fabaceas]. Linn.,
10-Decandria I-Monoyynia, Allied to
Stove evergreen trees. Cuttings of young
shoots, when a little firm, taken off close to the
older stems, in sand, under a bell-glass, and in
a little bottom-heat ; sandy loam, and sandy
fibry peat. Winter temp., 45 to 55, and rather
dry ; summer, 60 to 85, and plenty of mois-
ture at root and top. Siliyuastrum stood several
years against a wall, in the Horticultural So-
P. Cumane'nsis (Cumana). 20. White, green. !
Dominge'nsis (Saint Domingo). 30. Yellow, |
green. St. Domingo. 1818.
du'lcis (sweet). 20. White, green. New i
ho'rrida (horrid). 30. Yellow. Jamaica. 1800.
Juliflo'ra (July-flower). 30. White. South
siligua'strum (Silique-podded). 30. White. 1
PROSTANTHE'EA. (From prostheke, \
appendage, and anthera, anther; con- j
nections of the anthers are spurred. ;
Nat. ord., Labiates [Lamiaceaa]. Linn.,
Greenhouse evergreen shrubs from New Hoi- i
land. Frequently by seeds, in a slight hotbed, ,
in April ; generally by cuttings of the young !
shoots, in sandy soil ; sandy peat, with plenty >
of fibre in it, and a portion of broken pots, and ;
charcoal nodules mixed with it, and good drain- j
age. Winter temp., 38 to 48. Lnsianthos I
stood some years against a wall in the gardens ;
of the Horticultural Society.
P. ccsru'lea (blue-flowered). 3. Blue. May. '
denticula'ta (toothed). 4. July. 1824.
tusia'ntfios (woolly-flowered). 3. Purple,
lilac. June. IbOb.
P. prunellioi'dts( Prunella-like). Purple. April.
viola'cea (violet). 5. Violet. June. 1820.
PRO'TEA. (From Proiem, a sea-god,
who could transform himself into any
shape ; referring to the diversity of the
species. Nat. ord., Protvads [Protea-
ceae] . Linn., 4^-Tetrandria l-Monoyyn la. )
Greenhouse evergreen shrubs from the Cape
of Good Hope. Cuttings of ripened young
shoots, cut close to a joint, and the leaf there,
and perhaps the one above, removed, the rest
allowed to remain, inserted firmly in sand, over
a little sandy loam, the pots being three-parts
filled with drainage ; the pots with their cut-
tings may then be set in a cold pit, and at such
a distance from the glass, that shading will be
little required ; the glasses should also be fre-
quently wedged up at night, to prevent damp-
ing ; fibry loam, with a good portion of sand,
and about a fourth part consisting of a mixture
of charcoal, freestone, broken pots, and a little
peat. Winter temp., 38 to 48. These have
not been tried against a wall, as they should
be, with moveable lights, or reed coverings, to
be taken away in summer.
P. acau'lis (stemless). 1. Purple. July. 1802.
acumina'ta (sharp -pointed). 3. Purple.
amplexicau'lis (stem-clasping). l. Purple.
angusta'ta (narrow- leaved}. 1. Purple.
canalicula'ta (channel-leaved). 3. Pink.
cocci 'nea (scarlet). 5. Scarlet. June. 1824.
corda'ta (heart-leaved). J. Purple. April.
cynaroi'des (Artichoke-like). l. Purple.
elonga'ta (lengthened), 4. Purple. July.
formo'sa (handsome). 6. Red. May. 1789.
grandiflo'ra (large - flowered). 8. White.
margina'ta (bordered). 6. White.
hirsu'ta (hairy). 4. Pale. June. 1819-
latifo'lia (broad-leaved). 7. Purple. August.
cocci' nea (scarlet). 5. Scarlet.
i .i.. viridiflo'ra (green - flowered). /
Green. August. 1806.
Icpidoca'rpon (scaly - fruited). 6. Purple.
liguleefo'Ha (strap-leaved). 7. Purple. April.
longifo'lia (long-leaved). 2. Purple. May.
macrophy'lla (large leaved). 8. White.
tnagni'fica (magnificent). 6. White. April.
mclaleu'ca (black and white). 6. Purple.
mclli'fcra (honey-bearing). 6. Pale yellow.
f " tt'lbu (white). 0'. White. Sejrttinber.
C 749 ]
P. nntcronifo'Ha (pointed-leaved'
na'na (dwarf). 2. Pink. May. 178".
neriifo'lia (Oleander - leaved). 6. White.
ohtu'sa (blunt-/eaued). 10. Red. March. 1786.
milche'lla (neat). 3. Red. June. 1795.
cilia'ta (hair - fringed). 3. Red.
gla'bra (smooth). 3. Red. June.
specio'sa (showy). 3. Red. June.
i-ewo/w'to (curled-back-/eamf). 14. Purple.
specio'sa (showy). 2. Purple. April. 1/86.
turbiniflo'ra (top-shaped-flowered). 4. Pink.
rilU'fera (hair-bearing). 7- Purple. August.
PROTECTION. See Screens.
PRUNE'LLA. Self -Heal. (Altered
from the German Die breaune, a disease
of the jaws ; supposed medicinal quali-
ties. Nat. ord., Labiates, or Lipworts
[Lamiacese]. Linn., l-Didynamia 1-
All hardy herbaceous perennials, except ovata,
which is annual. Seeds, and divisions of the
plant, in spring; ornamental for rockworks,
and the front of flower-borders.
P. grandiflo'ra (large-flowered). 4. Blue. Au-
gust. Austria. 1596.
Marry a 1 Has (Mrs. Marryatt's). 14. Purple.
ova'ta (egg-/eared). 4- Purple, July.
vulga'ris (common). 4- Pink. July. Britain.
elonga'ta (lengthened). Violet. |
July. North Amenca.
flo're-ple'no (double-flowered). 4.
Pink. July. Britain.
his'pida (bristly). Pale purple.
"pinnati'fida (deep - cut - leaved}.
Purple. July. South Europe.
ru'bra (red). 4- Red. July. Britain.
Webbia'na (Webb's). 1. Lilac. August.
PRUNING, as practised in the garden,
has for its object the regulation of the
hranches to secure the due production
of blossom and maturity of fruit. If
carried to too great an extent that
object is not attained, for every tree
requires a certain amount of leaf-sur-
face for the elaboration of its sap ; and,
therefore, if this be reduced too much,
blossom-buds are produced less abun-
dantly, for leaves are more necessary
for the health of the plant, and by a
wise provision the parts less requisite
for individual vigour are superseded by
the parts more needed. On the other
hand, if the branches are left too thick,
they overshadow those boneath them,
and so exclude the light, as to prevent
that elaboration of the sap, without
which no blossom-buds are formed, but
an excessive production of leaves, in
the vain effort to attain, by an enlarged
surface, that elaboration which a smaller
surface would effect in a more intense
light. The appropriate pruning is given
Avhen considering each species of fruit
trees, and here we must confine our-
selves to a few general remarks. The
season for pruning must be regulated
in some degree by the strength of the
tree ; for although, as a general rule,
the operation should not take place
until the fall of the leaf indicates that
vegetation has ceased, yet if the tree
be weak, it may be often performed
with advantage a little earlier ; but still
so late in the autumn as to prevent the
protrusion of fresh shoots. This re-
duction of the branches before the tree
has finished vegetating, directs a greater
supply of sap to those remaining, and
stores up in them the supply for in-
creased growth next season. If the
production of spurs be the object of
pruning a branch, it should be pruned
so as to leave a stump ; because as the
sap supplied to the branch will be con-
centrated upon those buds remaining
at its extremity, these will be pro-
ductive of shoots, though otherwise
they would have remained dormant, it
being the general habit of plants first to
develope and mature those parts that are
farthest from the roots. It is thus that
the filbert is induced to put forth an
abundance of young bearing wood, fcr
its fruit is borne on the annual shoots,
and similar treatment to a less severe
extent is practised upon wall-fruit.
The chief guide in pruning consists
in being well acquainted with the mode
of the bearing of the different sorts of
trees, and forming an early judgment
i of the future events of shoots and
branches, and many other circum-
stances, for which some principal rules
may be given ; but there are particular
instances which cannot be judged of
but upon the spot, and depend chiefly
upon practice and observation. Peaches,
nectarines, and apricots, all produce
their fruit principally upon the young
wood of a year old ; that is, the shoots
produced this year hear the year follow-
ing ; so that in all these trees, a gene-
ral supply of the hest shoots of each
year must be everywhere preserved at
regular distances, from the very bottom
to the extremity of the tree on every
side ; but in winter- pruning, or general
shortening, less or more, according to
the strength of the different shoots, is
necessary, in order to promote their
throwing out, more effectually, a supply
of young wood the ensuing summer, in
proper place for training in for the suc-
ceeding year's bearing.
Vines produce their fruit always
upon the young wood-shoots of the
same year, arising from the eyes of the
last year's wood only ; and must, there-
fore, have a general supply of the best
regular shoots of each year trained
in, which, in winter pruning, must be
shortened to a few eyes, in order to
force out shoots from their lower parts,
only properly situated to lay in for bear-
ing the following year.
Figs bear also only upon the young |
wood of a year old, and a general sup-
ply of it is, therefore, necessary every
year ; but these shoots must at no time
be shortened, unless the ends are dead,
because they always bear principally
towards the extreme part of the shoots,
which, if shortened, would take the
bearing or fruitful parts away; besides,
they naturally throw out a sufficient
supply of shoots every year for future
bearing, without the precaution of
Apple, pear, plum, and cherry trees
bear principally on spin's, arising in the
wood of from two or three, to ten or
twenty years old, the same branches
and spurs continuing to bear a great
number of years ; so that, having once
procured a proper set of branches to
form a spreading head, no farther sup-
ply of wood is wanted than some occa-
sional shoots now and then to supply
the place of any worn out or dead
branch. The above-mentioned spurs
or fruit-buds are short robust shoots of
from about half-an-inch to one or two
inches long, arising naturally, first to-
wards the extreme parts of the branches
of two or three years old, and as the
bran oil increases in length, the num-
ber of fruit-buds increase accordingly.
In pruning, always cut quite close,
both in the summer and winter-prun-
ing : In the summer-pinning, if at-
tended to early, while the shoots are
quite young and tender, they may be
readily rubbed off quite close with the
thumb ; but when the shoots become
older and woody, as they will not readily
break, it must be done with a knife,
cutting them as close as possible ; and
all winter-pruning must always be per-
formed with a knife.
Summer-pruning is a most necessary
operation. Young shoots require thin-
ning to preserve the beauty of the trees,
and encourage the fruit; and the sooner
it is performed the better. It is, there-
fore, advisable to begin this work in
May, or early in June, removing all
superfluous growths, and ill-placed
shoots, which may be done with con-
siderably more expedition and exact-
ness than when the trees have shot
a considerable length. Where, how-
ever, a tree is inclined to luxuriancy,
it is proper to retain as many of
the regular shoots as can be commo-
diously trained in with any regularity,
in order to divide and exhaust the
too abundant sap. It will be neces-
sary to review the trees occasionally,
in order to reform such branches or
shoots as may have started from their
places, or taken a wrong direction ; and
according as any fresh irregular shoots
produced after the general dressing
may be displaced ; or as the already
trained ones advance in length, or
project from the wall or espalier, they
should be trained in close.
In the winter-pruning, a general re-
gulation must be observed, both of the
mother branches, and the supply of
young wood laid in the preceding sum-
mer ; and the proper time for this work
is any time in open weather, from the
fall of the leaf in November, until
March ; but the sooner the better. In