FUSCHKI'NIA. (Named after M. \
Pouschkin, a Eussian botanist. Nat. >
ord., Lily worts [Liliaceee], Linn., 0- i
Hexandr'ia l-Monogynia. Allied to
Half-hardy bulb. Offset bulbs ; deep sandy
loam ; requires a little protection, or to be
taken up in winter.
P. scitfoi'cfe* (Scilla-like). . Pale blue. May.
PUTTY is a compound of boiled lin-
seed oil and whiting, but as it may be
bought in London at half-a-guinea per
cwt., it is scarcely worth while to make
it. One hundred weight is enough for
puttying about three hundred square
feet of glass.
Old putty may be softened by apply-
ing to it rags dipped in a saturated
solution of caustic potash, leaving them
on for twelve hours ; or by rubbing a
hot iron along the putty.
If the gardener does make putty, the
whiting should be well dried, and then
pounded and sifted till it becomes a
fine powder, and is quite free from grit.
The whiting, a little warm, should be
gradually added to the oil, and well-
mixed by means of a piece of stick, or
a spatula. When it is sufficiently stiff,
it should be well worked with the hand
on a table, and afterwards beaten on a
stone with a wooden mallet, till it be-
comes a soft, smooth, tenacious mass.
A ball of putty when left some days
becomes somewhat hard, but may be
easily softened by beating.
PYCNO'STACHYS. (Frompyknos, dense,
and stachys, a spike ; dense flower-
spikes. Nat. ord., Labiates [Lamia-
cese]. Linn., l-i-Didynamia l-Gymno-
Stove annual ; for culture see O'cymum ,
P. cceru'lea (blue). 3. Blue. August. Mada-
PYRE'THRUM. Feverfew. (Frompyr,
fire ; alluding to its acrid roots. Nat,
ord., Composites [Asteracea?] . Linn.,
All white-flowered, except where otherwise
mentioned. Hardy kinds, divisions, and seeds,
and common garden soil ; greenhouse kinds, by
cuttings under a hand-light, in sandy light soil ;
sandy fibry loam, and leaf-mould ; half-shrubby
kinds, such as foeniculatitrn, will not only do
well in cold greenhouses, but will probably
answer for the bottom of conservative walls.
P. Broitssone'ti (Broussonet's), 2, July. Ca-
P. coronopifo'lium (Buckhorn -leaved). 2. Ca-
diversifo'lium (variable-leaved). . July.
New Holland. 1823. Herbaceous.
frute'scens (shrubby). 3. Canaries. 1699.;
grandiflo'ruin (large-flowered). 3. Canaries. ;
specio'sum (showy). 3. Canaries. 1815.
P. breviradia'tum (short-rayed). . Yellow, j
c'lcgans (elegant). 1. July. Mount Baldo.
I'ndicum (Indian). Yellow. July. East i
inodo'rum (scentless). 1. August. Britain, j
parviflo'rum (small-flowered). 2J. July, j
pree'cox (early). 1. June. Caucasus. 1818. j
P. achillefo'lium (Milfoil-leaved). 2. Yellow.
August. Caucasus. 1823.
Alpi'num (Alpine). . July. Switzerland.
pube'scens (downy). $. July. Switz-
Barrelie'ri (Barrelier's). . July. South
bipinna'tum (doubly-leafleted). 3- Yellow.
June. Siberia. 1796,
Bocco'ni (Bocconi's). 1. Yellow. July.
Caucu'sicum (Caucasian). . July. Cau-
ceratophylloi' des (Hornwort-like). 1. June.
Piedmont. 181 9.
cinerariaifo'lium (Cineraria-leaved). 2. July.
corymbo'sum (corymbed). 1. July. Ger-
Halle'ri (Haller's). 1. June. Switzerland.
latifo'tium (broad-leaved). 2. June. Py-
leptophy' Hum (fine-leaved). 1. August.
macrophy'llum (large-leaved). 3. July.
Mundia'num (Mundiana). l. July. France.
mari'timum (sea). 1. August. Britain.
ma'ximum (largest). 1. July. South Eu-
millef olia 1 turn (thousand-leaved). 2. Yellow.
July. Siberia. 1/31.
palu'stre (marsh). 1. June. Armenia. 1820.
Parthenifo'lium (Parthenium- leaved). 2.
July. Caucasus. 1804.
Parthe'nium (cowwio?i-Pellitory). 2. July.
flo're-ple'no (double -flowered).
pinnati'fidum (deeply-cut-/eaed). 2. July.
uligino'swn (marsh). l.J. August. Hun-
LVjROLA. "Winter-green. (From pyrus,
a pear-tree ; resemblance of the leaves.
Nat. ord., Wintcrgreens [Pyrolacece].
Linn., W-Decandria \-Monogynia. Al-
lied to Galax.)
Hardy herbaceous perennials. Seeds and
divisions, in a shady sandy peat border.
P. Asarifo'lla (Asarium-leaved) . Green,
yellow. N. America. 1822. "
chlora'ntha (greenish-yellow-flowered). Yel-
low. N. America. 1822.
convolu'ta (rolled-together). ^. Green,
white. N. America. 1818.
denta'ta (toothed-teaued) . Yellow. North
elli'ptica (oval-leaved). . White. N.Ame-
me'dia (intermediate). . White, red.
mi 1 nor (smaller). J. Red. Britain.
occidenta'lis (western). Yellow. N. Ame-
rotundifo'lia (round - leaved), i. White.
secu'nda (sifa-Jiowering). $. White. Bri-
uniflo'ra (single-flowered). J. White. Britain.
PYEOLI'EION. Flame Lily. (From
pyr, fire, and lirion, a lily. Nat. ord.,
Amaryllids [Amaryllidaceje] . Linn.,
Q-Hcxandria \-Monogynla. Allied to
Very rare greenhouse bulbs, flowering about
Midsummer, before the leaves are full-grown,
and require rest from December to April.
Offset bulbs ; sandy loam and leaf-mould ; a
greenhouse or a cold pit.
P. au'reum (golden). 1. Gold. June. Peru.
fla'vum (yellow). Yellow. Peru.
PY'HUS. Pear-Tree. (From peren,
the Celtic name of the pear. Nat. ord.j
Applevjorts [Pomaceae]. Linn., 12-Jco-
Hardy deciduous trees, white-flowered except
where otherwise mentioned. Seeds for stocks
and new varieties : as also in the case of the
timber-trees for the continuance of the species ;
but for all particular sorts by budding and
grafting upon wild pears, apples, quinces, and
thorns, according to the future effects required ;
also by suckers ; good garden soil, and deep
loamy soil for the wild varieties. See Pear,
Apple, and Quince.
P. ace'rba (sour). 20. April. Europe.
America'na (American). 15. May. Ca-
amygdalifo'rmis (Almond-shaped). 16. May.
S. Europe. 1810.
angustifo'liu (narrow-leaved). 20. Pink.
May. N.America. 1750.
Arbutifo'lia (Arbutus-leaved). 4. May. N.
interme'dia (intermediate). May.
-pu'mila (dwarf). 1|. May.
sero'tina (late). 4. June.
A'ria (white Beam-tree). 40. May. Britain.
acutifo'lia (sharp-leaved). 40. May.
[ 758 ]
P. A'riabuUa'ta(b\istKte&-leaved). 30. May, S. ;
Cre'tica (Cretan). 30. May. Crete, j
obtusifo'lia (blunt- leaved). 40. May. |
= rugo'sa (wrinkled-teawed). 30. May.
. < undula'ta (wavy -leaved). 30. May.
Astraca'nica (Astracan apple). 20. June.
aucupa'ria (fowler's, Mountain Ash). 30.
fastigia'ta (tapering). May.
fo'liis variega'tis (variegated-
leaved). 30. May. Britain.
fru'ctu lu'teo (yellow-fruited). 30.
auricula 1 ta (eared). 20. May. Egypt. 1800.
bacca'ta (berried). 15. Pink. April. Siberia.
Chameeme'spilus (Bastard Quince). 8. May.
commu'nis (common Pear). 20. April.
' A'chras (Achras entire-leaved), 20.
flo're-ple'no (double-flowered) . 20 .
fo'liis variega'tis (variegated-
leaved). 20. April.
' ' fru'ctu variega'to (variegated-
fruited). 20. April.
jaspi'dea (striped-bark). 20. April.
Pyra'ster (Pyraster, saw-leaved).
sanguinole'nta (bloody). 20. April.
sati/va (cultivated). 20. April.
corona'ria (crown. Sweet-scented crab). 20.
Pink. May. Virginia. 1724.
crena'ta (scolloped). 15. May. Nepaul. 1820.
depre'ssa (depressed). May.
dioi'ca (dioecious). 10. April. 1818.
edu'lis (eatable). 10. April. France. 1816.
El&agnifo'lia (Elaeagnus-leaved). 20. April.
floribu'nda (bundle-flowered). 8. April.
grandifo'lia (large-leaved). 5. April. N.
interme'dia (intermediate). 40. May. Swe-
. angustifo'lia (narrow- leaved). 10.
latifo'lia (broad - leaved). 40.
May. Denmark. 178Q.
lana'ta (woolly). 15. April. Nepaul. 1818.
lanugino'sa (woollyish). 25. April. Hungary.
- Ma'lus (Apple-tree). 20. April. Britain.
melanoca'rpa (black-fruited) . 4. May. N.
microca'rpa (small- fruited). 10. April.
niva'lis (snowy -leaved). 6. April. Austria.
pinnati'fida (deeply-cut-leaved). 40. May.
arbu'scula (little-tree). May.
. ^ lanugino'sa (woollyish - leaved).
40. May. England.
pinnuti'Jida pe'ndula (drooping). May.
Pollve'ria (Polver's). 15. Mav. Germany.
pree'cox (early. Paradise). 10. Blush. April.
prunifo'lia (Plum-leaved. Siberian-crab). 20 .
Pink. May. Siberia. 1758.
pu'bens (downy). 5. May.
salicifo'lia (Willow-leaved). 20. May.
salvifo'lia (Sage-leaved. Aurelian). 15. May.
Sinai'ca (Mount Sinai Medlar). 20. May.
sine'mis (Chinese). May. China.
so'rbus (tfme-Service). 30. May. England.
malifo'rmis (Apple- shaped). 30. May.
pyrifo'rtnis (Pear-shaped). 30. May.
specta'bilis (showy. Chinese-apjjle). 20.
May. China. 1780.
spu'ria (spurious). 20. May. 1800.
pe'ndula (drooping). May.
sambucifo 1 lia (Elder-leaved). 20.
tomento'sa (downy). 20. May. Europe. 1810.
tormina'lis (griping. Wild-service), 50.
triloba'ta (three-lobed). 20. May. S.
variola 1 sa (variable-feared)- 50. May.
vesti'ta (clothed). April. Nepaul. 1820.
QUAKING G-KASS. Brl'za.
QUA 'LEA. (The name in Guiana.
Nat.ord,, Vochyads [Vochyacese]. Linn.,
1-Monandria 1-Monoyynia. Allied to
Stove evergreen tree. By seeds, in a hotbed,
and cuttings of half-ripened shoots, in sandy
soil, under a bell-glass, and in bottom heat ;
peat and loam. Winter temp., 50 to 60;
summer, 60 to 85.
Q. viola'cea (violet). Violet. Brazil. 1824.
QUAMO'CLIT. (From kyamos, a kid-
ney-bean, and Iditos, dwarf; resem-
blance of habit. Nat. ord., Bindweeds
[Coirvolvulacese]. Linn., 5-Pentandria
I-Monoyynia, Allied to Iponicea.)
Seeds in a hotbed, and cuttings of the points
and side-shoots from growing stems ; the former
plan being adopted chiefly with annuals, and
the latter with perennials ; the annnuals being
generally grown out-of-doors, after the end of
May, and the perennials in the plant stove.
STOVE PERENNIAL TWINEKS.
Q. globo'sa (globular). 6. Scarlet. Mexico.
grandiflo'ra (large-flowered). 6. Scarlet.
Mexico. 1826. Evergreen.
longiflo'ra (long-flowered). 6. White. June.
Cuba. J803. Herbaceous.
[ 759 ]
Q. pit' tula (spreading). 6. Scarlet. Mexico.
sangui'nea (bloody). 10. Crimson. July.
Santa Cruz. 1812. Evergreen,
STOVE ANNUAL TWINEKS.
Q. cocci'nea (scarlet). 10. Scarlet. August.
S. America. 1818.
digita'ta (hand-team*)- 10. Purple. Sep.
tember. W. Indies.
hederifo'lia (Ivy-leaved). 10. Violet. July.
W. Indies. 1773.
lutc'ola (yellowish). 10. Orange, yellow.
August. Guatemala. 1759-
phaeni'cea (crimson). Crimson. June. E.
sero'tinu (la.te-blooming) . Orange. July.
tri'loba (three-lobed). 10. Violet. July.
S. America. 1752.
vulga'ris (common). Scarlet. September.
E. Indies. 1629.
albifto'ra (white-flowered). White.
September. E. Indies. 1629.
QUA'SSIA. (From the name of a
slave [Quassi] who first used the bark
as a febrifuge. Nat. ord., Quassiads
[Simarubaceee]. Linn., W-Decandria
Stove evergreen tree, the source of the well-
known Quassia chips, used for poisoning flies ;
the bitter has also been substituted for hops.
Cuttings of ripe shoots, in sand, under a bell-
glass, in heat ; sandy rich loam, and fibry peat.
Winter temp., 55 to 65 ; summer, 65 to 90.
Q, ama'ra (bitter). 20. Red. June. Gui-
QUENOUILLE is a fruit tree, with a
central stem, and its branches trained
in horizontal tiers, the lowest being the
longest, and the others gradually les-
sening in length as they do in age ; so
that the tree, like a spruce fir, acquires
a pyramidal form.
QUEECITEON. Que'rcw tincto'ria.
QUE 'ECUS. The Oak. (From the
Celtic quer, fine, and cuez, a tree. Nat.
ord,, Mastworts [Corylaceae]. Linn.,
By acorns, sown as they drop from the tree ;
or collected, dried, and kept packed in sand, in
a dry place, until the following March, when
they may be sown in rows, and covered half-an-
inch deep ; deep loamy soil they like best. Par-
ticular varieties are kept up by grafting.
Q. M'gilops(2Es&ovs. Velonia). 20. Levant
agrifo'lia (scabby-leaved). May. Mexico.
a'lba (white). 60. May. N.America. 1724
pinnati'fida (deeply-cuWeaued). 60
May. W. America. 1724.
Q. a'lba repa'nda (wavy./eawed). 60. May. N.
ambi'gua (ambiguous). 60. May. N. Ame-
Apenni'na (Apennine). 40. May. South
aqua' tica man' tima (sea.). 40. N.America.
na'na (dwarf). 12. May. N.
austra'lis (southern). May. Portugal. 1835.
Ballo'tta (Ballotta. Barbary). 60. May.
twyci'na (/ar?e-calyxed). May. Europe.
castaneeefo' lia (Chestnut-leaved). 60, Cri-
Castell'ana (Castile), May. Europe.
Catesba'i (Catesby's). 15. May. N.Ame-
Ce'rris (Bitter Oak). 50. May. S.Europe.
-Austri'aca (Austrian). 40. May.
- ca'na ma'jor (larger-hoary-teoved) .
May. S. Europe.
- ca'na mi'nor (lesser - hoary - leaved) .
- Fulhame'nsis (Fulham). 80. May.
-pe'ndula (drooping). 50. May. S.
-Ra'gnal (Ragnal). 50. May. Ragnal.
- variega'ta (variegated-teaued). 50.
May. S. Europe.
-vulga'ris (common). 50. May. 8.
cocci'fera (Hermes-bearing). 10. May.
S. Europe. 1683.
cocci'nea (scarlet). 50. May. N.America.
Coo'kii (Captain Cook's). Gibraltar. 1835.
crena'ta (scalloped). May. Portugal.
dealba'ta (whitened). May. Nepaul. 1828.
digita'ta (hunti-leaved). April. Europe.
e'sculus (eatable. Italian). 40. May. S.
expa'nsa (spreading). May. S.Europe.
fagi'nea (Beech-like). S. Europe. 1824.
-falca'ta (sickle-shaped). 80. May. N.
glau'ca (milky- green). Japan. 1822,
Gramu'ntia (Grammont). 40. June.
haliphle'os (sea-side). April. France.
hemisphe'ricu (half-globe). May. Mexico.
heterophy'lla (various-leaved). 40. May.
1'lex (Holly. Evergreen). 60.
cri'.tpa (cMtleA'leaved) . 60,
S. France. 1581.
~ latifo'lia (broad-leaved). 60.
_ -longifo'lia (long- leaved).
serratifo'lia (saw-leaved). 60.
S. France. 1781.
- variega'ta (variegated-/eaM).
;Holly.leaYed).6. N. America. 1800.
, May. S.
[ TOO ]
Q. imbrica'ta, (tiled). 40. June. N.America.
infecto'riu (dying). Levant. 1812.
insi'gnis (remarkable). 60. Mexico. 1846.
lana'ta (woolly-leaved). Nepaul. 1818.
laurifo'lia (Laurel-leaved). 60. May. N.
hy'brida (hybrid). 60. May.
N. America. 1786.
lau'rina (Laurel-like). 30. Mexico. 1837.
Lezermia'na (Lezermi's). May. S. Europe.
lusita'nica (Portugese). 40. June. For-
lu'tea (yellow). 20. May. Mexico. 1825.
lyra'ta (lyre-leaved). 15. May. N. Ame-
macroca'rpa (large-fruited). 40. N.Ame-
mari'tima (sea). May. N. America. 1811.
monta'na (mountain-chestnut), 15. May.
N. America. 1800.
ni'gra (black). 20. May. N.America. 173Q.
oftfari'/ota (blunt-lobed). 60. May. N.
America. 18 19.
olivafo'rmis (Olive- shaped -fruited). 60.
May. N. America. 1811.
palu'stris (marsh). 60. May. N.America.
peduncula'ta (common, towg - flower-stalked).
fastigia'ta (tapering). 4. May.
S. Europe. 1820.
-fo'liis variega'tis (variegated-
leaved). 40. May. Britain.
-Hodgi'nsii (Hodgin's). May.
pe'ndula (drooping). 70. May.
pube'scens (downy). 60. May.
purpu'rea (purple). May. Bri-
- Phe'llos (Willow. Cork-tree). N.America.
cine'rea (ash-coloured). 10. May.
N. America. 1789.
hu'milis (dwarf). 20. May. N. Ame-
latifo'lia (broad-leaved). 60. May.
mari'tima (sea). 6. May. Virginia.
' seri'cea (silky. Running). 2. May.
N. America. 1724.
sylva'tica (wood). 60. May. N.
prasi'na (light-green). May. Spain. 1824.
Pri'nus (Prinus. Chestnut). 60. June. N.
acumina'ta (pointed - leaved). 80.
May. N. America. 1822.
monti'cola (mountain). 60. May.
N. America. 1730.
palu'stris (marsh). 90. N.America.
' pu'mila (dwarf). 4. May. N.Ame-
rica. 1823. <
tnmento'sn (downy-leaved). /O. N.
f*ctt.' do-cocci* f era, (false-kermes.bcaring).
Q. pseu'do'su'ber (false-Cork- tree). 60. May.
S. America. 1824.
Fontane'sii (Desfontaine's). 30. May.
pu'mila (dwarf). 1. May. S.Europe.
Pyrena'ica (Pyrenean). 4, May. Pyrenees.
Quexi'go (Quexigo). Spain. 1845.
rotundifo'lia (round-leaved). June. Spain.
ru'bra (red. Champion). 40. May. North
sessiliflo'ra (stalkless-flowered). 60. May.
austra'lis (southern). April.
Falkenberge'nsis (Falkenberg) .
. macroca'rpa (large-fruited). 60.
pube'scens (downy). 40. May.
Ski'nneri(Mr. Skinner's). 60. Mexico. 1843.
Su'ber (Cork-tree). 20. May. Spain. 1581.
angustifo'lium (narrow-leaved). 30.
denta' turn (toothed-leaved), 50. June.
lutifo'lium (broad-leaved) . 40. June.
tincto'ria (dyer's). 70. May. N. America.
angulo'sa (angular-/o6ed). 70. May.
sinuo'sa (wayy-edged-/eam). 70.
May. N. America.
Turne'ri (Turner's). Levant. 1812.
vi'rens (green). 40. May. N. America.
QUICKSET, the same as the Haw-
thorn, or Whitethorn, Cratce'gus oxy-
aca'ntha. See Hedge.
QUINCE. Cydo'nia vulga'ris.
Varieties. Common, Apple-shaped,
Pear-shaped, and Portugal. The last
is the best, and very distinct from the
others. C. sinensis, the Chinese Quince,
has been fruited in this country, but it
requires a wall. The fruit is very
different from that of either the com-
| mon or Portugal Quinces ; it is cylin-
| drical, about six inches in length, and
Culture. The trees may be raised
from seed sown in autumn, but there
is no certainty of having the same, or
any good fruit from the seedlings. The
several varieties may be propagated
by cuttings and layers ; also by suckers
from such trees as grow upon their
own roots, and by grafting and budding
upon their own or pear stocks.
Cuttings, layers, and suckers, may be
planted in autumn, winter, or early
spring. Choose young wood for the
cuttings and layers. They will be
rooted by nest autumn; tlieu trans-
plant into nursery rows two feet asun-
der ; plant the suckers also at the
same distance, and train the whole for
the purposes intended ; if for standards
with a stem, to any desired height,
from three to six feet ; then encourage
them to branch out at top, to form a
head; and those designed as dwarfs
must be headed near the ground, and
trained accordingly, for espaliers or
When they have formed tolerable
heads, plant them out finally. Standard
quinces, designed as fruit-trees, may
be stationed in the garden or orchard,
and some by the sides of any water in
bye places, sufieriug the whole to take
their own natural growth. And as es-
paliers, they may be arranged Avith
other moderate-growing trees, about
fifteen feet apart. For other particu-
lars of culture, see Pear.
QUILLA'JA. (From quillai, the Chilian
name. Nat. ord., Roseworts [Rosaces;].
Linn., IQ-Decandria -Pentayynia. Al-
lied to Kageneckia.)
Hardy evergreen shrub, the bark of which is
used instead of soap. Cuttings of ripened
shoots, in sandy loam, under a handlight, and
very likely by layers ; sandy deep loam, and a
Q. sapona'ria (soap). White. April. Chili.
QUINA, QUINQUINA, or QUINO. Cin-
QUINCUNX is the form resulting from
planting in rows, with one plant oppo-
site the centre of each vacancy between
two plants in the row on each side of
it, as in this diagram
QUISQUA'LIS. (From quis, who, and
qualis, what kind; when first named it
was doubtful to which class and order
to refer it. Nat. ord., Myrobalans
[Combretaceas]. Linn., W-Dccandria
\-Monofjynia. Allied to Combretum.)
Stove climbers. Cuttings of the young shoots
when several inches in length, after the plant
has been stumped in after-flowering, taking the
cuttings off with a heel, and inserting them in
sand, under a bell-glass, and in bottoin-hcat ;
il ] RAD
peat and loam, but most of the latter. Winter
temp., 43 to 50; summer, 60 to 88.
1 Q. gla'bra (smooth). 20. Java. 1815.
j I'ndica (Indian). 20. Orange, red. June.
: pube'scens (downy). 20. Orange, red. Guinea.
; sine'nsis (Chinese). 10. Rose. July. Can-
i villo'sa (shaggy). Pegu. 1818.
QUIVI'SIA. (Bois de Quivi, of the
! Isle of France. Nat. ord., Meliads
'' [Meliaceaa]. Linn., IQ-Dccandria 1-
| Monogynia. Allied to Melia.)
Stove evergreen tree. Cuttings of ripened
shoots, in sand, under a glass, and in a brisk
bottom-heat ; sandy loam and fibry peat. Win-
j ter temp., 48 to 55 ; summer, 60 5 to 85.
! Q. hetevophy'lla (various-leaved). 16. White.
Isle of France. 1822.
RACEME, a cluster. This is formed
of numerous, rather distant flowers,
each on its own stalk, but growing out
of one central stalk, as in a bunch of
RADISH. Rapha'nus sati'vus.
Spring Varieties. Long-rooted : Long
White ; called also the White Transpa-
rent, White Italian, and Naples Radish.
White Russian. Twisted Radish of
( Mons; Semi-long Scarlet; Rose-co-
i loured Semi-long. Scarlet, or Salmon,
! or Scarlet-transparent Radish. Purple,
formerly called exclusively the Short-
topped. Red-necked White.
Turnip-rooted: White Turnip. Early
White Turnip. Pink, Rose-coloured,
Scarlet and Crimson Turnip. Purple
Turnip. Yellow Turnip. New Yellow-
Autumn and Winter Varieties. These
are all of the turnip-rooted kind, arid
! are in the order they follow in coming
I into use: Yellow Turnip. Round
Brown, White Spanish. Oblong Brown.
Black Spanish. Large Purple, Winter
I or Purple Spanish.
The soil, a light loam, and moderately
fertile, should be dug a full spade deep,
and well pulverized. Manures should
not be applied at the time of sowing.
The situation should always be open,
j but for early and late crops warm and
t Sowing. For the earliest produc-
tions, during December, January, and
February, in a hotbed; and in the open
ground once a month during winter,
and every fortnight during the other
seasons of the year.
In the open ground the seed is gene-
rally sown broadcast, and well raked j
in, but in drills is much the most pre- j
ferable mode; in either case it must I
be inserted thin, and buried a quarter- \
of-an-inch deep ; thick sowing causes
the tops to be large, and the roots
If broadcast, the beds should be laid
out four or five feet wide, divided by
alleys a foot in width, the earth from
which may be thrown out to raise the
beds. If drills are employed for the
long-rooted, they are required to be
three inches asunder, for the turnip-
rooted four or five, and for the Spanish,
&c., six or eight.
When the seedlings are well up, and
advanced to five or six leaves, they are
ready for thinning ; the spindle-rooted
to three inches apart, the turnip -rooted
to four, and the larger varieties to six.
The spaces, however, require to be
rather increased in moist warm wea-
ther. In dry weather, they ought to
be watered regularly every night. The
early and late crops that have to with-
stand the attacks of frost, &c., should be
kept constantly covered with dry straw or
fern, to the depth of about two inches,