or with matting, supported by hooping,
until the plants make their appearance,
when the covering must be removed
every mild day, but renewed towards
evening, and constantly during frosty
or tempestuous weather.
The bed should have a good water-
ing the morning before that on which
they are taken up, but none afterwards
until subsequent to the drawing.
To draw for Salads whilst with their
seed leaves, sowings must be made
once a week. The management is pre-
cisely that required for rape, mustard,
To obtain Seed, leave in April, or early
May, some of the most perfect plants
of a main crop. When in full vigour,
they must be taken up with as little
injury as possible to the roots and
leaves, and planted in rows, three feet
asunder each way, being inserted by
the dibble completely down to the
leaves. Water must be applied until
they have taken root, and occasionally
throughout their growth, especially
when in flower. If practicable, it is
best to leave some plants where raised.
To obtain seeds of the Black Spanish,
some seeds must be sown in March, or
some of the winter-standing crop left
or transplanted during that month.
The pods must be cut as soon as they
become of a brown hue, and well dried.
Two varieties must never be raised
near each other, and seed of the pre-
vious year's raising should always be
The seeds of the different varieties
are easily distinguished by an expe-
rienced seedsman. Those of the long
white radish are small, flat, and pale ;
of the scarlet and purple long-rooted,
large ; and of the first very light-co-
loured, compared with those of the
latter; of the white turnip, small round,
and brown ; scarlet turnip, rather larger,
and somewhat darker; purple turnip,
larger and brown, being similar to the
long-rooted purple, except in size.
Forcing. A moderate hotbed is re-
quired for this crop, of a length accord-
ing with that of the frame to be em-
ployed; the earth about eight inches
deep, on the surface of Avhich the seed
is to be sown as soon as the violent heat
is abated, and an additional fourth-of-
an-inch sifted over it.
The seedlings are in general up in
less than a week, and in six they will
be ready to draw. Throughout their
growth air must be admitted as freely
as is allowable. The glasses, however,
must be closed on the approach of even-
ing, and mats or other covering put on
in proportion to the severity of the
season. When the earth appears at all
dry, a light watering must be given at
The plants must not stand nearer
than two inches to each other. The
temperature required is from 50 to
70 ; and it must be kept to this heat
by moderate linings as required.
If there be a deficiency of frames,
hoops and mats may be employed, a
frame of boards being formed round
the bed, lig-ht and air being admitted as
freely and as often as possible. If seed i
is sown within a frame without any j
bottom-heat, the plants will be two or
three weeks forwarder than if sown in
the open ground.
KA'FNIA. (Named after C. Rafn, a
Danish botanist. Nat. ord., Leguminous
Plants [Fabacese]. Linn., l(i-Monadel~
phia 6-Decandria. Allied to Hovea.)
Greenhouse yellow-flowered evergreens from
the Cape of Good Hope, except where otherwise
mentioned. Seeds in a hotbed in spring ; cut-
tings of firm side-shoots, at the beginning of
summer, in sand, under a bell-glass ; sandy peat
and fibry loam, kept rough by pieces of char-
coal and broken pots, and drainage well attended
to. Winter temp., 40 to 48.
jR. angu la'ta (angular-branched) . 2. May. 1816.
corda'ta (heart- leaved}. 2. May. 1821.
R. cuneifo'lia (wedge-leaved). 2. Yellow, pur-
ple. June. 1816.
clli'ptica (oval-leaved). 2. June. 181Q.
filifo'lia (thread-leaved). 1. May. 1816.
ta'wcea (spear-head- Jeaoed). 2. June. 1823.
oppo'sita (opposite-leaved). 2. June. 1824.
triflo'ra (three-flowered). 3. June. 1784.
BAGGED EOBIN. Ly'chnis Flo 's-cii'culi.
BAGS. See Veyetdble Manures.
BAILING is of various forms, but all,
if made of wood, are soon decayed if
slight, and are clumsy and inelegant if
strong. Iron railing is at once light,
neat, and enduring, and like the fol-
lowing, may be erected for about 2s.
BAKE. This implement is now much
less in use than formerly, when broad-
cast sowing was prevalent. Now the
broad hoe is quite as efficient in cover-
ing drill-sown seed. The head of the
rake is best made of wood, and of this
ash is most desirable. If the head be
of iron, the teeth are continually be-
coming loose. Bakes, with heads about
six inches long, are required for dress-
ing flower-borders, but for open ground-
work the length may be fifteen inches.
The hoe and the rake are sometimes
attached to one handle, but it is a
form liable to constant entanglement
in the flower-garden, for which it is
BAMO'NDIA. (Named after L. Ra-
mond, a French botanist. Nat. ord.,
Gesnenvorts [Gresneraceee], Linn., 5-
Pentandria 1-Monoyynia. Allied to
Hardy herbaceous perennial. Seeds and di-
visions in spring ; sandy loam and a little peat ;
a sheltered place, or kept in a pit, in winter, as
R, Pyrena'ica (Pyrenean).
BAMPION. Phyteu'ma, and Cy'phia
BAMPION. Campa'nula rapu'nculus.
The soil ought to be moderately
moist, but it must be light. A shady
rich border is most favourable.
Sow during March, April, and May,
in drills six inches apart; the plants
from sowings in the two first months
soon run up to seed. The plants are
to remain where sown ; though, in
case of any deficiency, those which are
taken away in thinning the crops may
be transplanted successfully, if removed
to a border similar to the seed-bed, and
inserted with the roots perpendicular,
and without pressing the mould too
close about them. The best time for
the removal is of an evening.
They are fit for thinning when about
two inches in height, and they must be
set at a distance of six inches apart.
The plants of the sowings doiring the
two first-mentioned months will Le tit
for use at the close of August, or early
in September, and continue through
the autumn. Those of the last one
will continue good throughout the
winter, and until the following April.
The soil throughout their growth must
he kept moist by giving frequent water-
The root for which it is cultivated,
either to he sliced together Avith its
leaves in salads, or eaten as the radish,
as well as to he hoiled like asparagus,
is most palatahle when drawn young,
and eaten fresh from the ground.
To obtain Seed, leave a few of the
winter-standing plants. These flower
in July and August, and ripen ahun-
dance of seed in early autumn. Gather
it before it begins to scatter, and dry
on a cloth before thrashing.
RA'NDIA. (Named after J. Rand, a
London botanist. Nat. ord., Cinchonads
[Cinchonacezs]. Linn., o-Pentandrla
\-Monogynia. Allied to Gardenia.)
Stove, evergreen shrubs, and white-flowered,
except where otherwise mentioned. Cuttings
of the young shoots, in spring and swmmer, in
sand, under a bell-glass, in a hotbed. Sandy
fibry loam and fibry peat, with a few nodules of
charcoal. Temp., when at rest in winter, 45 to
50; when growing in spring or summer, 60
R. arma'ta (armed). 7. May. W. Indies. 1813.
Bowiea'na (Bowie's). Pale yellow. Brazil.
fascicula'ta (fascicled). 4. July. E. Indies.
-a floribu'nda (bundle-flowered). 4. July.
E. Indies. 1825.
Jio'rrida (horrid). 8. May. China. 1825.
latifo'lia (broad-leaved). 7- ffuly. W.
longiflo'ra (long-flowered). 4. August. E.
macra'ntha (large-flowered). 6. Cream-
coloured). August. Sierra Leone. 15Q6.
obova'ta (reversed-egg-/eat>ed). 6. May.
New Grenada. 1818.
oxype'tala (sharp-petaled). Yellowish. May.
< parviflo'ra (small-flowered)* 4. August, i
W. Indies. 1818.
pube'scens (downy). 5. July. Peru. 1820.
rotundifo'lia (round-leaved). 6. July. Peru.
sine'nsis (Chirieae). 5. July. China. 1818.
RANTRY, the Mountain Ash, Py'rus
RANU'NGULUS. Crowfoot. (Yiomrana,
a frog ; some of the species inhabiting
marshy places. Nat. ord., Crowfoots
[Ranunculacero]. Linn., 13-PoIyandria
All yellow-flowered, except where otherwise
specified. Annuals, seeds, in common soil, in
March and April, though few are worth the
trouble, unless in a corner devoted to small
native and Alpine plants. Perennials, by divi-
sion of the plant in spring. Aquatics, mostly
natives, by division, and giving them any soil
in shallow ponds or ditches ; tuberous rooted,
by division of the roots in spring. Asiaticus,
the florists' Ranunculus, and its many varieties,
may be planted in stiff" rich loam, either in
October or March ; if the former, the beds will
require to be protected a little from heavy rains
and from sharp frosts. See treatment as a
R. chi'us (Scio). &. June. Archipelago. 1827.
Philono'tis (moisture- loving). <J. July.
S. Europe. 1800.
sessiliflo'rus (stalkless-flowered). $. June.
tri'lobus (three-lobed). 4. June. Greece.
tubercula' tus (pimpled). 1. June. Tauria.
uligino'sus (marsh). . June. Teneriffe.
ventrico'sus (swollen). ?. July, Brazil.
R. obtusifo'lius (blunt-leaved). 1. White. June.
pa'ntothrix (all-hairy). White. June. Bri-
fluvia'tilis (long-leaved River).
White. June. Britain.
polyphy'llus (many-leaved). $. April. Hun-
gary. 1810,. Annual.
tripa'rtitus (three-parted). White. June.
R. gei-anioi'des (Geranium-like). May. Mexico.
luppa'ceus (Burdock-like). 1. June. N.
plebe'ius (common). 1. June. N.Holland.
R.filifo'rmis (thread-formed). 1. June. N.
America. 1823. Creeper.
Lappo'nicus (Lapland). %. May. Lap-
R, ungula'tus (zngleA-stemmed). 1. Naples.
Asia'ticus (Asiatic. Common-garden'}. $.
Variegated. May. Levant. 159(5.
sangui'neus (blood-coloured). 4.
Scarlet. May. Syria.
tenuifo'lius (tine-leaved). '.
White. May. Greece.
bractea'tus(large-bra.cted). May. Pyrenees.
. ochrolcu'cus (whitish-yellow;.
Pale yellow. August, England.
R. Irevlfo'lius (short-leaved;). |. June. Naples.
lulla'tus flo're-ple'no (blistered- ieaved-
double-flowered). 1. May. S.Europe.
floweredl. 1. May. S. Europe. 1640.
c?i atrophy' Hits (Chervil-leaved), l. May.
cicuta'rius (Cicuta-like). 1. May. Siberia..
cortuscefo'lius (Cortusa-leaved). 1, May.
Cre'ticus (Cretan). 1. May. Candia. 1658.
macrophy'lhis (large -leaved). 2.
May. Teneriffe. 1658.
fumaricefo'lhis (Fumitory-leaved). 1. May.
garga'nicus (Garganian) . . August. Na-
gra'cilis (slender). . May. Archipelago.
grega'rius (flocking) . 1. May. Italy. 1817-
hy'bridus (hybrid). ?. May. Austria. 1820.
Illy'ricus (Illyrian). 1$. May. S. Europe.
millefolia'tiis (thousand-leaved). May.
g. April. Naples. 1833.
monspeli' acus (Montpelier). 1. May. S.
cunea'tus (wedge-?et'ed). 1.
May. S. Europe.
I. May. S. Europe.
oxyspe'rmus (sharp -seeded). 1. Pale yellow.
May. Caucasus. 1822.
peda'tus (doubly-lobed). 1. May. Hun-
scuta' tus (shield-leaved}, jj. May. Hun-
Tho'ra (Thora-kidney-leaved). J. May.
tubero'sus (tuberous). J. June, Pyrenees.
JR. aconitifo'lius (Aconite-leaved). I. White.
May. Alps. Europe. 1596.
1. White. May. Europe.
hu'milis (lowly). . White.
a'cris-ple'nus (double-flowered). 2. June.
Alpes'tris (Alpine). $. White. July. Scot-
amplexicau'lis (stem-clasping). 1. White.
May. Pyrenees. 1633.
angustifo'lius (narrow-leaved). 1. White.
May. Grenada. 1822.
apiifo'lius (Apium-leaved). 2. White, red.
June. Bonaria. 1815.
a'rticus (northern). July. N.America. 1827.
uuri'comus (golden-haired). 1$. May. Bri-
Bonarie'nsis (Buenos Ayres). . June.
North America. 1817.
brevicuu'lis (short-stalked). May. North
Breynia'nus (Breynius's), June. Switzer-
. Bru'this (Brutian). 14. May. Italy. 1823.
bupleuroi'des (Hare's-ear-/<?ai>erf). 1. May.
cnrdiophy'llus (heart-leaved). May. Canada,
Cussu'bicus (Cassubian). 2. June. Siberia.
Cauca'sicus (Caucasian). 1$. June. Cau-
crassicau'lis (thick-stemmed). 1. June.
wena'tus (scolloped). . White. June.
Cymbala'ria (boat-shaped). ^. June. Siberia.
disse'ctus (cut-leaved'). . June. Caucasus.
Eschscho'ltzii (Eschscholtz's). May. N.
fascicula'ris (bundled). 1. June. N.Ame-
fri'gidus (cold). 3- Pale yellow. May.
S. Europe. 1827.
glabe'rrimus (smoothest). May. N. Ame-
glacia'lis (icy). . White. July, Lapland.
aconitoi'des (Aconitum-leaved). $.
White. July. Switzerland. 1819-
Goua'ni (Gouan's). 1. June. Pyrenees.
grami'neus (grassy). 1. May. Wales.
flo 're - pie' no (double-flowering) .
phoenicifo'lius (Phcene - leaved) .
1 . May. Europe.
grandiflo'rus (large-flowered). J. May,
hi'rtus (hairy). 1. June. N. Zealand. 1820.
hi'spidus (bristly). 1$, June. N.America.
hyperbo'reus (northern). $. June. North
isopyroi'des (Isopyrum-like). $, White.
June, Siberia. 1818.
la'cerus (torn), g. White. May. South
lanugino'sus (woolly 'leaved], 1. June,
South Europe. 1683.
li'ngua (tongue-/eatJ0rf), 2. July. Britain.
monta'nus (mountain). A. June. Lapland,
napellifo'lius (Napellus-leaved). 1. July.
nemoro'stis (grove). 1. June. Switzerland.
pauciflo'ms (few-flowered). 1,
June. Switzerland. 181 9.
niva'lis (snowy). $. July. Lapland. 1775.
Parnassifo'lius (Parnassian - leaved). J.
White. June. S. Europe. 1769.
pedati'fidus (doubly-lobe-cut). 1. April.
plantagi'neus (Plantain-leaved). 1, White.
May. Piedmont. 181Q,
platunifo'lius (Plane-tree-leaved). 3. White.
June. Germany. 1769.
1. White. May. Alps. 1596.
Pu'rsJiii (Pursh's). July. N.America. 1827.
pygmee'us (pygmy). $. April. Lapland,
[ 766 ]
R. Pyrendtu (Pyrenean). 1. White. May.
- bupleurifo'lius (Bupleurum-
leaved). i. White. June. Pyrenees.
recurva'tus (curled-back-seedecZ). June.
re'pens flo're - ple'nn (creeping . double-
flowered). |. July.
rhomboi'deus (diamond-feared). April. N.
ru'fulus (reddish-haired). July. Portugal.
rutvfo'lius (Rue-leaved). . White. June,
Sabi'ni (Sabine's). July. N.America. 1827.
salsugino'sus (salt). 1. April. Siberia. 1822.
Seguie'ri (Seguier's). . White. June.
Steve'nii (Steven's). !. June. Volhima.
tomento'sus (woolly). 1. June. N.America.
Villa'rsii (Villars's). 1. June. S.Europe.
BANUNCULUS (R. Asid'ticus} AS A
Varieties. These are very numerous
and annually increased.
Soil. This should be of a fine tex-
ture, easily broken and moderately light.
It should feel soft to the hand, and
have a little but a little sand amongst
it The best is generally found near
to rivers. Let it be laid on a long heap,
not too thick, and turned over once a
month for a year. It will then be in
good condition for use. Bemove the
old soil away from the bed you intend
for ranunculuses to the depth, if the
situation is dry, of fifteen inches ; if
wet, ten inches will do. Put in a layer
of very rotten cowdung, two inches
thick ; then bring the soil, put in a
layer of four inches, upon that put a
layer of rotten hotbed dung one inch
thick, and so proceed till the bed is full
and raised two or three inches above
the surface. Let the bed be edged
with boards or slates. Hoop it over to
protect it from heavy rain, snows, and
hailstones. Turn it over, mixing the
materials together well, only take care
not to disturb the layer of cowdung at
the bottom. Let this turning opera-
tion be performed two or three times,
at the intervals of three or four weeks
between ; finishing the last about the
end of January, so as to allow the
bed to settle by the planting time in
j Planting. The best time for doing
| this is between the 8th and 20th of
I February. The soil of the bed ought
j to be neither wet nor dry. To prove
its state, take up a handful, gently
i squeeze it, and let it fall about half-a-
1 yard : if it is in a right condition, it
will fall in pieces. "With a rake level
! the soil ; then, with a triangular-shaped
i and rather small hoe, or with the corner
j of a common hand hoe, draw a drill
i across the bed, two inches deep ; draw
I the next five inches distant from the
I first, and so on till the whole bed is
I finished. Commence this some fine
morning, when there is a prospect of
the day continuing fine. When the
drills are all finished, sprinkle, at the
bottom of each drill, some fine sand ;
then bring out your ranunculus roots,
with a numbered label, made either of
lead, with the number stamped upon it,
or of wood, with each number written
upon it with a black-lead-pencil, upon a
coating of white-lead. Begin then to
plant the variety written in your book
opposite No. 1 : take each root between
your finger and thumb, and place it at
the bottom of the drill, very gently
pressing it down in the sand to about
half the length of the claws of each root.
Having placed the first to your mind,
put the next at four inches distance
from it, and so proceed till you have
planted all the first kind ; then thrust
in the numbered label, either with the
number facing the kind, or with its
back to it. Both ways are practised by
florists, but we prefer the number to
face the variety it belongs to. If our
plan is followed the number should
be always put in first, the whole of
the variety planted, and then the
second number put in, and the
second kind planted. Follow on in this
manner till the bed is filled. As soon
as that is completed, cover the roots
just over the crowns with some more of
the fine sand : this sand prevents the
roots from getting too wet, or moulding.
Then, with a rake carefully level down
the soil into the drills. If your bed is
not edged with boards or slates (as re-
commended before), stretch a line on
one side of the bed, about four inches
from the roots, and with the back of
[ 767 ]
the spade pat the soil on the side of
the bed gently, to make it firm ; then
chop down the edge of the bed nearly
After-culture. It is essential to
the success of this flower that the soil
about them should be close and firm,
almost approaching to hardness. If
the bed has been rightly prepared, and
the flower planted according to the in-
structions given, all will be well. When
the tops begin to push through the soil,
it will be of the greatest importance to
tread the soil down very firm between
the rows, and if any symptoms of crack-
ing in the soil appear, the surface
should be stirred to prevent it. Pro-
tection from sharp late frosts should
be given, by covering whenever such
weather is likely to take place, and it is
equally beneficial to protect from heavy
rains. Both are best excluded by hoops
extended across the bed to support a
covering of tarpaulin or oil-cloth.
During April and May, should dry
weather prevail, water may be cau-
tiously administered at intervals in an
evening, but only just so much as will
prevent the soil of the bed from crack-
ing ; or a little moss, or old spent
tanner's bark, etc., may be neatly placed
between the rows, which will retain the
moisture in the soil. The over abun-
dant application of water is a very com-
mon error, and one of the greatest
The dying of leaves, in some in-
stances, evidently depends on a want of
vigour, or partial rot in the root ; and,
in some few cases, it would appear to
be caused by large earthworms, forming
their wide tracks amid the roots of the
plants, nearly undermining them; but
in the great majority of cases, it is
produced by injudicious watering.
During the expansion of the flower-
buds, and when they are fully blown, an
awning should be erected over the bed,
as in the case of tulips, that rain and
hot sun may be excluded ; and gentle
watering every second or third evening
may be given, which will keep the bed
cool and moist, and promote the size
of the flower. As much air should be
admitted as possible, that the flower-
stems be not drawn and weakened.
Raising tfmZ/wu/s. -Save seed only
from varieties distinguished for excel-
lence of form and colour. Sow in Fe-
bruary, and place the. boxes in a cool
greenhouse or frame. Sow in boxes
eighteen inches by eleven inches, and
four inches deep, full of loamy earth,
and the surface level. Sow the seeds
about an eighth-of-an-inch apart ; cover
them as thinly as possible, and water
with a fine rose ; but place the boxes
under glass, without heat. The plants
usually make their appearance in about
a month. Give air day and night, ex-
cept in severe frost; then cover up
with straw mats. With such protection,
the young plants will endure the se-
verest seasons. Put the boxes in the
open ground up to the second week in
May, and water daily until the leaves
begin to wither ; then suffer the boxes
to become quite dry ; and in the middle
of July take them up, and preserve the
roots in bags until February, and then
plant them as the general stock. In
the following June they flower.
Takiny-up. The roots, in wet sea-
sons, should be taken up as soon as
the leaves turn yellow, as they are apt
to sprout; but in dry seasons they
may remain until the leaves are brown.
Take them up as dry as the season will
permit ; complete the drying in a warm
room, rather than in the sun, and store
them in a dry cool place.
Forcing. Select tubers which have
been kept three or four months, or
even a year, over the season of plant-
ing, these being more easily excited
than those which have been only the
usual time out of the soil ; plant them
in pots about the beginning of August ;
and, by bringing these into the green-
house at different periods, a bloom is
kept up from October to February.
KAPE, on COLESEED. Bra'ssica na'pus.
Like mustard and other small salading,
it may be sown at any period of the
year, when in request, being allowed a
separate bed. It is cultivated as Mus-
tard, which see.
To obtain Seed. Some plants of a
sowing made about the middle of July
must be thinned to eighteen inches
apart : they will survive the winter, and
flower in the May and June of the next
.year. The seed, which is produced in
great abundance, ripens in July and
August, and must be cut as it does so,
and laid upon cloths to dry.
RAPE (EDIBLE-ROOTED). This name
may be applied to a variety of the rape
mentioned by Mr. Dickson, one of the
vice-presidents of the Horticultural
Society. Its root is white and carrot-
shaped, about the size of the middle-
finger. It is much more delicate in
flavour than the turnip, like which root
it is cooked, only that it is not peeled,
but scraped, its skin being remarkably
Sowing. For the main crop, sow
from the middle of July to the end of
August, or even later. These will sup -
ply the table until April ; and if wanted
throughout the year, a little may be
sown in the latter end of October, the
plants from which will be n't for use
during April and May : the last crop to
be sown from the middle of January to
the middle of February, which will
come in at the end of May and during
June. On a north border, and if the
soil is sandy and moist, it is possible to
have them sweet and tender during
the whole summer, to effect which sow
at the close of March and May.
Cultivation. Thin and hoe as tur-
nips. In dry weather the beds must
be watered regularly.
Soil One great advantage attending
the cultivation of this vegetable is, that
it requires no manure. Any soil that