is poor and light, especially if sandy, is
suitable to it. In rich 'manured soil it
grows much larger, but not so sweet
To obtain Seed in February or March,
some of the finest roots are trans-
planted to two feet asunder; but it
would, perhaps, be a better practice to
leave them where grown. The seed
must be cut as soon as ripe, and treated
as directed for turnips, &o.
RAPHA'NUS. Radish. (From ra,
quickly, and^/iflmomai,to appear; rapid
germination of the seeds. Nat. ord.,
Crucifers [Brassicacece]. Linn., 15-
Hardy annuals. Seeds; rich sandy soil, but
for standing the winter it should be dry and
poor, See Radish,
X. cauda'tus (tailed). l$. White, purple.
July. Java. 1815.
La'ndra (Landra). 3. Yellow. June. Italy.
sati'vus (cultivated). 3. White, purple.
May. China. 1548.
RAPHIO'LEPIS. Indian Hawthorn.
(From raphis, a needle, and lepis, a
scale ; formation of the bracts. Nat.
ord., Appleworts [Pomacese]. Linn.,
12-Icosandria 2-Di-pcntayynia. Allied
Half-hardy, white-flowered, evergreen shrubs
from China. Cuttings of half-ripened shoots,
i in sandy loam, in a sheltered place, under a
j hand-light ; sandy loam and peat ; a sheltered
I place against a wall, or protected in very cold
j places by a cold pit ; most of them have stood
I at least several seasons protected by a wall in
I the vicinity of London.
R. I'ndica (Indian). June. 1806.
pheeoste'mon (brown-stamened). 4. June.
ni'bra (red). 15. Reddish. June. 1806.
salicifo'lia (Willow-leaved). 3. June. 1820.
RASPA'ILIA. (Named after M. Ras-
pail, a French botanist. Nat. ord.,
Bruniads [Bruniaceee] . Linn., 5-Pent-
andria 1-Monoyynia. Allied to Brunia.)
Greenhouse evergreen. Cuttings of young
stubby shoots, in sand, under a bell-glass, and
in a cold frame; sandy fibry peat. Winter
temp., 40 to 48.
R.microphy'lla (small-leaved). 1. White.
July. Cape of Good Hope. 1804.
RASPBERRY. JRu'bus idee' us. *
Varieties. The most useful are as
follows:!. Red Antwerp; 2. Yellow
Antwerp; 3. Fastolff or Filby; 4.
Double-bearing. Of these, Nos. 1 and
2 have been for many years highly
esteemed, but 3 has of late, in a great
degree, superseded them, being larger
and of at least equal flavour ; a great
bearer, and possessing that desirable
property in the summer Raspberries, of
producing, occasionally, fine autumnal
fruit, which is superior to that of the
double - bearing kinds. No. 4 is a
decided autumn Raspberry. Mr.
Rivers, of Sawbridgeworth, has a new
variety of this from America, which
is said to be very superior. Another
variety is a hybrid between the Rasp-
berry and Blackberry; this Mr. Rivers
calls "the Black," and states is good
Propagation : By Suckers. Those
who desire to make a new plantation of
i Raspberries, will do well to obtain their
suckers from a healthy stock. We have
known new plantations made in cases
of emergency from a stock which had
stood too long in the ground, and of
course were lean, if not diseased. This
leanness was evidently transmitted to
their progeny, and, despite high ma-
nuring, a year or two was lost before
they could recover. Suckers, then,
may be planted any time between
October and the middle of February,
and they are drawn away from the old
plants by hand ; a slight pull will soon
show which are those disposed to colo-
nise. Deeply-dug ground is requisite,
and it should have a liberal amount of
half -rotten manure. Strong suckers
(drawn with a ball of soil, if possible,)
may -be planted three in a group, at
the end of September, four feet apart
from centre to centre ; and the rows,
if side by side, six feet apart. As soon
as the leaf drops, say the beginning
of November, we would prune one
strong cane to three feet, a second to
two feet, and a third to within a couple
or three inches of the soil. By these
means a nice little crop may be taken
the rirst year, and good shoots reserved
for the next.
From Seed. This is practiced chiefly
with a view of raising new kinds; and
the seed collected from superior berries,
when thoroughly ripe, is washed from
the pulp and dried, then packed in
papers until spring. In the beginning
of February it must be sown, and a
gentle hotbed would hurry the process
much. The seedlings must be pricked
out when three inches high, and gene-
rous treatment must be continued ; and
towards the middle of May, having
been hardened off, they may be planted
at once in their final destination. All
that is requisite now is careful training,
the keeping down suckers and watery
spray; and when the shoots are five
feet long, the top may be pinched, to
consolidate the wood.
Soil. When wild, being an inhabit-
ant of woods, a damp soil, somewhat
retentive of moisture, is found to suit
it best. We have generally known it
most successful in a darkish soil of an
alluvium character; any of our loams,
however, of sound texture, will grow it
in perfection, but the soil should be
tolerably deep. A hot and loose sand,
short of depth, is the least suitable.
To meet the increased amount of per-
spiration from the leaf to which the
cultivated plant is liable in sunny situa-
tions, extra provision in the way of top-
dressing and mulching are highly to be
Culture during the growing period.
Soon after the canes begin to shoot
in spring, a slight thinning-out is very
beneficial ; this may take place about
the beginning of May. In a few weeks'
time a thinning of the suckers may
take place, for in general they produce
a profusion, and such draw on the re-
sources of the plant, and exhaust the
soil. About four or five may be left on
each stool ; if they are very gross,
the moderate ones may be left ; if
weak, the strongest.
If they have not been mulched, it
should be done immediately. As soon
as the last fruit is gathered, the old-
bearing shoots may be cut clean away,
and the young canes drawn a little
closer together. When over five feet
in height, the tops may be pinched ;
this, however, should not be done be-
fore the end of August.
Culture during the Rest Period. As
soon as the leaves have all fallen,
pruning may take place, and our prac-
tice is to leave four canes. These we
cut at different heights, the tallest
about four feet, the next about nine
inches lower, and so on with the rest.
By these means, the young spray is
nicely divided, and the plants fruit
from bottom to top. The canes
are now neatly fastened, and a top-
dressing completes the rest period.
All useless suckers or canes are drawn
earliest and finest
are obtained from
canes planted be-
neath a south wall,
and trained against
it in this form.
But in the open
ground the best
mode of training
is round small
Itoops, thus. The worst form is plait-
ing the canes toge-
ther; and training
in arches or other
compact forms, ex-
cluding the light
and warmth of the
sun, is little hetter.
Forcing. 11 asp -
berries may be
either in pots or in
the borders of the
house. They may
be also planted on the outside of a pit,
the bearing canes being introduced
withinside and trained to a trellis,
whilst the present year's shoots are left
BATTLE SNAKE FERN. Sotry'chium
EAUWO'LFIA. (Named after L. Rau-
wolf, M.D., a botanical traveller. Nat.
ord., Dogbanes [Apocynacese]. Linn.,
ft-Pentandria \-Monogynia. Allied to
Stove evergreen shrubs. Cuttings of the
points of shoots, or stubby side-shoots, in sand,
under a bell-glass, in the beginning of summer,
and in bottom-heat ; sandy fibry loam, fibry
peat, a little dried leaf-mould, and pieces of i
charcoal. Winter temp,. 50 to 60 ; summer:
60 to 88,
R. cane'sccns (hoary). 7. Pink. Jamaica. 1759.
ni'tida (shining). 12. White. August.
spino'sa (thorny), Yellow, June, Peru.
ternifo'lia (three-leaved). 3. White, May.
tomento'sa (woolly). 3. White. July. W.
REAUMU'RIA. (Named after A. Reau-
mur, the French entomologist. Nat.
ord., Reaitmuriads [Keaumuriaceoe].
Linn., 13-Polyandria 5-Pentayynia.)
Half-hardy evergreens. Cuttings from young
shoots, in sand, under a glass ; sandy fibry
loam, fibry peat, and leaf-mould ; dry soil in
sheltered places ; but generally requires a cold
pit in winter.
li.Jtypericoi'des (St. John's Wort-like). 2.
Purple. August. Syria. 1800.
vermicula'ta (worm-like-leaved). i. Pink.
June. Sicily. 1828.
RED BAY. La'urus Caroline' mis.
RED CEDAR. Jitni'perits.yiryinia'na.
..RED GUM-TEEE. Eucuhj'ptus rcsi-
RED NIGHT SHADE. Eri'ca Hali-
RED SPIDER. See A' cants.
REEVE'SIA. (Named after J. Reeves,
Esq., of Canton. Nat. ord., Slercultads
[Sterculiaccfc]. Linn., Itt-Monadelphia
8-Polyandria. Allied to Helicteres.)
Greenhouse evergreen shrub. Cuttings of
half-ripened shoots, in sand, under a bell-glass ;
fibry loam, and a little sandy peat. Winter
temp., 40 to 48.
R. thyrsoi'deu (thyrse-like-^ow^reeZ). 4. White.
January. China. 1826.
RELHA'NIA. (Named after R. Relhan,
a botanical author. Nat. ord., Compo-
sites [Asteracese], Linn., l ( J-Syngenesia
Greenhouse evergreen shrubs. Cuttings of
firm young side-shoots, in sand, under a bell-
glass, in a cool frame, in June ; sandy loam and
fibry peat. Winter temp., 40 to 48. There
are several species beside the following.
R, squarro'sa (spreading). 1^. Yellow. May.
Cape of Good Hope. 1774.
RENANTHE'RA. (From r<?n, a kidney,
and anthera, a pollen bag, or anther ;
shape of anthers. Nat. ord., Orchids
[Orchidacea?]. Linn., 20-Gynandria
Stove orchids, grown in pots. See Orchids.
R. arachni'tes (spider-like). 1. Brown, purple.
cocci'nea (scarlet. Chinese-air-planf). 8.
Scarlet, orange. August, Cochin-
matu'tina (morning). I, Brownish, De-
cember. Java, 1846.
RENDLE'S TANK SYSTEM of heating
was first suggested, we believe, by Mr.
Rendle, nurseryman, of Plymouth. A
tank of iron or wood, twenty feet long,
five feet broad, and six inches deep, is
constructed in the centre of the house,
and surrounded by a walk, except at
the end, where the boiler is fixed for
heating it. The top of tbe t tank is co-
vered with large slabs of slate, cemented
together, to prevent the excessive es-
cape of steam. Around this is a frame
sufficiently high to retain the bark, in
which the pots are plunged. The boiler
and tank are filled with water, and this
circulates, when the fire is lighted un-
der the former, by means of two pipes,
one from the top of the boiler, and the
other returning nearer to its bottom.
The expense of pipes, and the danger of
their freezing, is avoided; the fire only
[ 771 ]
requires to be kept lighted for two
hours at night, and again for the same
period in the morning ; the water, when
once heated, retaining its temperature
for a long time. In a small house, the
apparatus can he constructed for 5,
and in all, for less than half the cost of
hot-water pipes. The saving in tan
and lahour is also very great ; in some
places tan costs 19s. per cart-load, and
where it is cheaper, the trouble and
litter incident to its employment, and
the dangers of loss from fungi and in-
sects, of which it is the peculiarly fer-
tile foster-parent, render it objection-
able as a source of heat ; and when-
ever the tan has to be renewed, the
trouble and destruction of plants is
"In my new propagating house,"
says Mr. Rendle, " the tank or cistern
is placed in the centre, with a walk
surrounding it, so as to enable the pro-
pagator with greater ease to attend to
the plants, c.
" On the outside of the house is a
fire-shed, in which the boiler is fixed.
The tank, made of wood, one-and-a-
half or two inches thick, which I find
the cheapest material (it also prevents
the water cooling so fast as it does
either in stone or iron), may be lined
with lead or zinc. Exactly in the cen-
tre of the tank is a partition, serving
the double purpose of causing the
water to circulate, as well as to sup-
port the edges of the slates, an aper-
ture being left in the partition, of about
two inches in breadth, to allow the
water a free passage. The flow-pipe
enters near the appendage of the tank,
at the mouth of which pipe a piece of
perforated copper is placed, as also at
the return-pipe, to prevent dirt and
sediment from finding its way into the
boiler. After everything is properly
fixed, the tank is filled with water,
which, of course, at the same time fills
the boiler The tank is about four
inches deep. Across it, and resting on
its sides, are placed slate stones about
an inch-and-a-half thick, cut square at
the edges. These are fastened to each
other by Roman cement, or Aberthaw
lime, to prevent a superfluity of steam
(torn escaping into the houses, >..
Around the edges of the slates a piece
of inch-board, about nine inches deep,
should be placed to enclose the saw-
dust, sand, moss, or other plunging
In the following sketch, for which, as
well as for the next, we are indebted
to Mr. Rendle, A is a transverse sec-
tion of Roger's conical boiler ; B is the
fireplace ; g, the tank ; c, the flow-pipe ;
(I, the pipe by which the water returns
to the boiler ; c, is the hole for the
smoke, which, joined to a flue, /, can
be made either to ascend the chimney
at once, or to pass round the house.
The next sketch is a Pinery, fitted
up with Mr. Rendle's tank.
It is described as " a very useful and
most desirable structure for the growth
of the Pine Apple, with a hollow wall,
recommended by all garden architects
in preference to a solid wall the heat
or cold being not so readily conducted
as through a solid mass of masonry."
Mr. Rendle might have added, that
hollow walls are also much drier.
Rendle's Treatise on the Tank System.
See Stove and Hotbed.
RENEA'LMIA. The following should
be added to Alpi'nia, instead of forming
R, grandMa'ra (large.flowered), 1$, White,
New Zealand, (823,
It. panicula'ta (panicled). l. White. June.
New Holland. 1823.
pulche'lla (pretty). 1. White, June, New
REQUIE'NIA. (Named after M. Re-
quien, a French botanist. Nat. ord.,
Leguminous Plants [Fabaceffi]. Linn.,
\Q-Monadelphia 6-Decandria. Allied to
Stove evergreen shrubs with yellow flowers.
Cuttings of half- ripened stubby shoots, in sand,
under a bell-glass, in heat ; sandy loam, fibry
peat, and dried leaf-mould. Winter temp.,
50 to 60 ; summer, 60 to 80.
R. obcorda'ta (reversed-heart-teawed). 1, July.
sphasrospe'rma (round-seeded). 1. April.
Cape of Good Hope. 1816.
RESE'DA. Mignonette. (From resedo,
to calm ; supposed virtue for external
bruises. Nat. ord., Weldworts [Reseda-
cese]. Jjinn., \\~Dodecandria 3-Tri-
All by seeds ; the half-shrubby kinds also by
cuttings; seeds must be sown at different
times, according as the bloom is wanted. The
beginning and middle of May is early enough
to sow in the open border. Though treated as
annuals, most of the mignonettes may be treated
as under-shrubs, or perennials, if they are pre-
vented seeding freely, and kept from frost in
winter. We have seen the common mignonette
that had been kept in a pot about eight years,
and flowered freely every season. See Migno-
R. Chine'nsis (China). 2. Yellow, green. June.
odora'ta (scented-Mignonette'). 1. Green,
red. August. Italy. 1752.
tfrute'scens (shrubby). 2. August.
trunca'ta (abrupt-ended- Jeaved). l. Yel-
low. June. Natolia. 1836.
RESERVE GARDEN. See Nursery.
REST. That period when a plant is
RESURRECTION PLANT. Anasta'tica.
RETANI'LLA. (The Peruvian name.
Nat. ord., JRhamnads [Rhamnacese].
Linn., 5-Pentandria \-Monoyynia. Al-
lied to Colletia.)
Evergreen shrubs. Cuttings of young shoots,
in sand, under a glass, in summer ; sandy loam
and fibry peat. The species from Peru requires
a warm greenhouse, and that from Chili the
protection of a cold pit in winter, or a very shel-
tered situation out-of-doors, or against a wall.
R. Ephe'dra (Ephedra-like). 3. Cream. Chili.
obcorda'ta (reversed-heart-leaved). 2. Yel-
low. Peru. 1822.
RETARDING requires as much skill as
forcing, for as the latter requires the
application of all that is suitable to the
promotion of a plant's rapid healthy
growth, so retarding requires the with-
holding from it of those contingencies.
Thus to retard growth, the lowest tem-
perature, and the least degree of light
compatible with healthy growth, must
be secured ; and to this end plants for
succession are often placed on the
north side of a wall. See Screens.
Then again, as in the case of rasp-
berries and strawberries, plants are
often cut down in the spring, compel-
ling them to form fresh foliage and
stems, and thus be productive in the
autumn instead of the summer.
The vegetation of many bulbs may
be prevented by merely keeping them
dry, and, indeed, the withholding the
usual supply of Avater, giving it only in
diminished quantities, is necessary in
all retarding treatment. To secure the
entire resting of bulbs, and of such
plants as will bear so low a tempera-
ture, the atmosphere of the ice-house
is effectual ; and to this end it should
have a few shelves for the support of
boxes or flower-pots. Banks of earth
ranging east and Avest, and facing the
north at a very acute angle, are very
useful in retarding the early advance
to seed in hot weather, of spinach, let-
tuces, &c. Espaliers ranging similarly,
and shaded during the Avhole of March
and the two following months, will
blossom later and more unfailingly
than trees more exposed to the sun in
spring. Similar exclusion of heat and
light retards the ripening of picked
fruit, and if the air be excluded from
them, or its oxygen withdrawn, fruit
Avill remain unripened for weeks. To
effect this, put a paste formed of lime,
sulphate of iron, and Avater, at the bot-
tom of a Avide-mouthed glass-bottle,
then a layer of large pebbles to keep
the fruit from the paste, then fill the
bottle with peaches, apricots, or plums,
gathered a few days before they are
ripe, cork the bottle tight, and cover
the cork Avith melted resin. They have
been thus kept for a month, and sum-
mer apples and pears for three months.
They ripen when again exposed to the
[ 773 ]
RETINITHY'LLUM. (From retine, re-
sin, and pkyllon, a leaf. Nat. ord.,
Clnchonads [Cinchonaceffi]. Linn., 5-
Pentandria \-Monogynia. Allied to
Stove evergreen shrub. Cuttings of half-
ripened shoots, in sand, under a bell-glass, and
in a sweet, moist bottom heat ; sandy loam and
fibry peat, with pieces of charcoal. Winter
temp., 55 to 60; summer, 60 to 85.
R. secundiflo'rum (side-flowering). 10. White.
S. America. 183Q.
RHA'MNUS. Buckthorn. (From rham,
a Celtic word, signifying a tuft of
branches. Nat. ord., Rhamnads [Rham-
naceso]. Linn., 5-Pentandria \-Mono-
Greenhouse and stove species, by cuttings, in
sand, under a glass, in summer, and in a cold,
or close warm pit, respectively ; sandy loam
and leaf-mould. Hardy species, by seeds,
layers, and cuttings, and more especially the
latter mode with all the evergreens, which
should be taken off in the autumn, and inserted
in sandy soil, in a shady border, with hand-
lights over them ; good garden soil.
GREENHOUSE EVERGREEN SHRUBS.
R. amygda'linus (Almond - like). 3. Yellow.
June. North Africa.
celtifo'lius (Celtis-leaved). 20. Green, yel-
low. May. Cape of Good Hope.
crenula'tus (scolloped). 8. Green, yellow.
April. " Teneriffe. 1778.
integrifo'lius (entire - leaved). 3. Green.
prinoi'des (Winter-berry-like). 10. Yellow.
June. Cape of Good Hope. 1778.
tetrago'nus (four-angled). 6. Green. Cape
of Good Hope. 1816.
Thee'zans (Theezan-tfea). 2. Green. May.
STOVE EVERGREEN SHRUBS.
R. Suriname'nsis (Surinam). 1. Green, yellow.
wmbella'tw (umbelled). 6. Redih. Mexico.
HARDY DECIDUOUS SHRUBS.
R. ulnifo'lius (Alder-leaved). 4. Green. May.
North America. 1778.
Alpi'nus (Alpine). 3. Green. May. Switzer-
Carolinia'nus (Carolina). 4. Green. May.
North America. 1819.
catha'rticus (purging). 12. Green, yellow.
' hydrie'nsis(njdria.n'). 12. Green,
yellow. June. Cape of Good Hope.
Dahu'ricus (Dahurian). 10. Green, yellow.
May. Dahuria. 1817.
cry thro 1 'a-y Ion (Red - wood). 6. Yellow,
green. July. Siberia. 1823.
fra'ngula (Breaking - Alder). 10. White.
R . fra'ngula angustifo'lia (narrow-leaved) . 10.
White. May. Britain.
~-franguloi'des (Frangula - like). 4. Green.
May. North America. 1810.
hy'bridus (hybrid). 12. Green.
infecto'rius (dyer's). 6. Green, yellow.
June. South Europe. 1683.
lanceola'tus (spear-head-leaved). 12. Green.
May. North America. 1812.
latifo'lius (broad-leaved). 4. Green. July.
macula'tus (spotted). 6. Green.
longifo'lius (long-leaved). 6. Green. 1823.
lycioi'des (Boxthorn-like). 6. Green, yellow.
November. Spain. 1752.
arragone'nsis (Arragon). 6. Green,
yellow. October. Arragon. 1752.
oleoi'des (Olive-like). 4. Green, yellow.
June. Spain. 1752.
Palla'sii (Pallas's). Russia. 1838.
pu'milus (dwarf). 2. Green, yellow. July.
Purshia'nus (Pursh's). 6. Green. May.
North America. 1826.
pu'sillus (weak). 1. May. Naples. 1823.
rupe'stris(rock). 2. Green. May. South
saxa 1 tills (rock). 1. Green, yellow. May*
spattdeefo 1 lius (spatula - leaved). Russia.
tinctn'rius (dyer's). 5. Green, yellow. May.
Valenti'nus (Valentia). 2. Green. May.
South Europe. 1816.
virga'tus (twiggy). 8. Green. June. -Nepaul
Wulfe'nii (Wulfen's). 2. Green. Ju\y
South Europe. 1758.
HARDY EVERGREEN SHRUBS.
R. alate'rnus (bastard-leaved- Alzternns} , 20.
Green. May. South Europe. 1629.
angustifo'lia (narrow-leaved). 20.
Green. May. South Europe. 1629.
balea'rica (Balearic). 20. Green-
May. South Europe.
fo'liis - arge'nteis (silver - edged -
leaved). 20. Green. May. 8. Europe.
fo'liis . au'reis (golden - edged -
leaved). 20. Green. May. S. Europe.
fo'liis - macula'tus (spotted-
leaved). 20. Green. May. S. Europe.
i Hispu'nica (Spanish) ..20. Green.
May. South Europe.
buxifo'lius (Box-leaved). 3. Green, yellow.
May. Numidia. 1820.
cardioca'rpus (heart-podded). 1832.
pube'scens (downy). 4. Pale yellow. May.
Wi'cklius (Wickle's). 6. 1839-
RHAPIDOSPO'RA. (From rhapis, a
needle, and sporos, a seed. Nat. ord.,
Acanthads [Acanthacese]. Linn., 2-
Stove herbaceous perennials, from the East
Indies. For culture, see Justicia.
R. gla'bra (smooth). Rose, yellow. June. 1824;
vesti'ta (clothed). Violet. June. 1827.
RHA'PIS. (From rhapis, a needle ;
the sharp-pointed leaves. Nat. orcl..
Palms [Palmacere]. Linn., 23-PoIy-
yamia L-Moncecia. Allied to Chamae-
Greenhouse Palms. Suckers generally, and
by division at the roots ; rich sandy loam ; most
require the protection of the greenhouse, but
some will probably succeed in warm situations
out of doors.
R. arundina'cca (reed - leaved}. 6. Green,
September. Carolina. 1/65.
a' spent (rough). Green. May. South
corda'ta (heart-leaved), Green. May. South
ftabellifo'rmis (fan-shaped). 6. Green. Au-
gust. China. 1774.
RHAPO'NTICUM. (From rha, rhubarb,
and Ponticus, Pontus. Nat. ord., Com-
posites [Asteraceae]. Linn., 19-Synge-
nesiaS-Frustranea. Allied to Serratula.)
Hardy purple-flowered herbaceous peren-
nials ; seeds, and divisions of the plant, in
spring ; common garden soil.
R. Palla'sii (Pallas's). 2i. July. Switzerland.
pu'lchrum (pretty). Caucasus. 1837.
scario'sum (membranous). 2. July. Switz-
lyra'tum (lyre-leaved). 2. July.
Switzerland. 181 9.
uniflo'rum (one-flowered). l. July. Si-
RHEE'DIA. (Named after JRheede,
author of the Hortus Malabaricus.
Nat. ord., GhUtifers [Clusiacese]. Linn.,
Stove evergreen. Cuttings of shoots rather
ripe, in sand, under a bell-glass, and in a moist
bottom-heat; sandy loam and fibry peat. Winter
temp., 50 to 55; summer, 60 to 85.