R. luna'ria (Moonwort-like). Lilac, purple.
June. Egypt. 1757.
RIDDLING, another name for sifting.
RIDGING is digging tlie soil into
parallel ridges in this form so as to
A A A ex P ose *t thoroughly to the ac-
*** tion either of the atmosphere
or of frost.
RIDGING-OUT. Planting out Cucum-
bers and Pumpkins in the open-ground
beds. Eidging, however, should not be
confined to the winter, for in summer
the extra exposure to the air and heat is
highly promotive of vegetation it im-
pregnates the soil with oxygen, pro-
motes the decay of stubborn vegetable
remains, and disturbs predatory vermin.
Mr. Barnes says, " I keep all ground,
as soon as a crop is done with, well
trenched, burying all the refuse T pos-
sibly can in a green state, casting the
earth into rough ridges, tumbling those
ridges over with a strong fork on frosty
mornings in winter and spring, and
during hot sunny days in summer, con-
tinually changing the crops. Keeping
the hoe at work at all seasons in suit-
able weather, forking up all odd cor-
ners and spare ground without loss of
time. By this management, I find the
ground is always in good condition and
never tired by cropping, some judg-
ment only being exercised in applying
such properties again to the soil that
have been taken from it, or that are
likely to be required by the succeeding
The most effectual mode of ridging
is thus described by Mr. Parkins :
Let a, 6, c, rf, represent a section of
the ground to be trenched two feet
deep. In the first place the ground is
measured out in longitudinal beds four
feet wide ; this done, the top spit of the
bed c, is laid on the bed g, and the
second spit of the bed c, is laid on h.
The first or top spit of the bed/, is
then laid on h, so that the top soil and
subsoil are kept on separate and alter-
nate beds, and may be. mixed, reversed,
or returned as taken out, at the will of
the operator. By this method the ad-
vantages are much greater exposure
of surface to the action of the weather;
the opportunity of incorporating with
the soil any desirable or obtainable ma-
nures, and at any desired depth; a
thorough blending of the soil to the
depth of two or three feet ; and it also
facilitates the operation of draining
where necessary. It is needless to add,
that when the first thrown-out beds are
sufficiently pulverised, they are levelled
down, and others thrown out in the
same manner; g, h, ?", represent the
ridges thrown out and left as rough as
RIGIDE'LLA. (From rigidus, stiff;
the stiffness of the flower-stalk. Nat.
ord., Irlds [Iridacese]. Linn., 3-Trian-
dria I-Monogynia. Allied to Tigridia.)
Half -hardy bulbs. Offsets in spring; also by
seeds, in a hotbed ; rich sandy loam and peat ;
bulbs require to be kept from frost and damp
during the winter.
R.fla'mmea (flame-coloured). 5. France. May.
immacula'ta (unspotted). 1. Crimson. June.
ortha'ntha (straight-flowered) . ]$. Crimson.
June. Mexico. 1846.
RINGING is cutting away a belt of
bark quite down to the wood, entirely
round a branch. This checks the
return of the sap, and aids to make
that branch more fruitful, and the fruit
on it finer. We have seen it done with
the best effect upon the pear and grape
vine. It should be done just previously
to the blossoms opening. When first
suggested it was called the Ring of
Pomona. See Ligatures.
RIPENING WOOD is one of the princi-
pal objects to be aimed at for the
production of either flowers or fruit
the following year. To effect this, at
the end of August, or early in Sep-
tember, superfluous branches should
be removed, and shoots stopped, to
concentrate the sap and expose those
retained to the full influence of the
RIPO'GONUM. (From ripos, flexible,
and gonos, a shoot. Nat. ord., Sarsa-
parillas [Smilacacete], Linn., G-Hcx-
Greenhouse, white - flowered, evergreen
climbers, from New Holland. Cuttings of side-
shoots, when three inches in length, taken off
close to the stem, in sand, under a bell-glass,
in May; fibry loam, a little peat, sand, and
charcoal, and well-drained. Winter temp., 40
JR. a'lbum (white). 3. June. 1820.
parviflo'rum (small-flowered). 2. June. 1820.
RI'VEA. (Named after A. de la Rive,
a Geneva botanist. Nat. ord., Bind-
weeds [Convolvulaceee]. Linn., Q-Pen-
tandria \-Monoqynia. Allied to Ipo-
Stove evergreen twiner. Cuttings of side-
shoots, and of the young shoots, several inches
in length, as they ri'se from the roots in spring ;
or grafting on a free-growing Ipomeu; fibry
loam and rough sandy peat. Winter temp.,
55 to 60 ; summer, 60 to 85.
R. tiliatfo'tia (Lime-leaved). White. June. E.
RIVI'NA. (Named after A. Q. Rivi-
nus, a German botanist. Nat. ord.,
Phytolaccads [Phytolaccacese]. Linn.,
4- Tetrandria 1-Monoyyuia. )
Called rouge plants in the West Indies,
where the fruit is used as a cosmetic. Stove
evergreens. Seeds and cuttings. The flowers
are of little beauty, but the racemes of ripe
and ripening fruit are very interesting ; light
soil. Winter temp., 50 to 60 ; summer 60
R. Brazilie'nsls (Brazilian). 2. Green. June.
hu'milis (lowly). 2. White. June. West
cane'scens (hoary). 2. White.
June. West Indies. 1804.
lee 1 vis (smooth). 2. Pink. May.
West Indies. 1/33.
lanceola'ta (spear-head-teawZ). 3. June.
lutifo'lia (broad -leaved). Purple. July.
octa'ndra (eight - stamened) . 2. White
May. West Indies. 1752.
purpura 1 scens (purplish). 2. Pink. June.
West Indies. 1815.
tincto'ria (dying). 4. White. May. Ca-
ROAN TREE. Py'rus aucupa'ria.
Should be added to Connarus, which see.
R. frute'scens (shrubby). 6. White. Guiana.
ROBI'NIA. (Named after J. Robin, a
French botanist. Nat. ord., Leguminous
Plants [Fabacese]. Linn., 17-Diadel-
phia -1-Decandria. Gobbet's Locust-tree
is Robenia pseudo-acacia.}
Deciduous, white-flowered trees, from North
America, where not otherwise stated. For
tender kinds, cuttings of young wood, in sand,
under a glass. The Locust-tree, in all its
varieties, by seed sown in autumn, or preserved
in the pods and sown in the spring ; by cut-
tings of the shoots ; by cuttings of the roots ;
by suckers and layers. The finer varieties are
generally grafted. The Hispida rosea, or Rose-
acacia, is a fine object grafted on the Pseudo-
acacia standard, high in a sheltered place, not
much north of London. The finer varieties of
Hispida rosea, in cold situations, deserve a
place on a conservative wall, and would make
a nrce companion to the Glycine sinensis, &c.
JR. Davu'rica (Dahurian). 30. May. Davuria.
du'bia (doubtful). 30. White, red. May.
Guinee'nsis (Guinea). 6. Guinea. 1822.
hi'spida (bristly. Rose Acacia). 10. Pink,
macrophy'lla (large-leafleted). 10.
- na'na (dwarf). 1. Pink. June.
ro'sea (upright-rose'). 10. Red.
pseu'do-aca'cia (common. Bastard Acacia).
40. May. 1640.
amorphcefo'lia (Amorpha-leaved). 3.
White, red. May.
cri'spa (curled). 40. June.
flo're-lu'teo (yellow -flowered). 40,
ine'rmis (unarmed). 40. May.
latisi'liquia (broad-podded). 30. May.
macrophy'lla (large-leafleted). 30.
microphy'lla (small - leafleted). 30.
monstro'sa (monstrous) . 30. White,
pe'ndula (drooping). 30. Pink. May.
proce'ra (tall). 30. White, red. May.
sophorcefo'lia (Sophora-leaved). 30.
White, red. May.
specta'bilis (showy). 30. May.
stri'cta (upright). 30. White, red.
tortuo'sa (twisted). 40. May.
purpu'rea (purple), 15. Purple. July. 1810.
visco'sa (clammy). 30. Purple. July. 1797.
ROCAMBOLE. A' Ilium Scorodo'prasum.
Sometimes called Spanish Garlic, has
its bulbs or cloves growing in a cluster.
The stem bears many bulbs at its sum-
mit, which, as well as those of the root,
are much milder than Garlic.
It is hest propagated by the root
bulbs, those of the stem being slower
in production. Plant either in February,
March, or early in April, as well as
throughout the autumn, in drills, or by
the dibble, in rows six inches apart
each way, and usually two inches within
the ground ; though the plants would
thrive better if grown on the surface as
recommended for the Eschallot. In
other respects they are cultivated as
directed for Garlic. A very small bed
is sufficient for the supply of the
RO'CIIEA. (Named after La Roche,
a botanical author. Nat. ord., House-
leeks [Crassulaceas]. Linn., 5-Pentan-
dria 5-Peritagynid. Allied to Crassula.)
Greenhouse evergreen succulents, from the
Cape of Good Hope. For culture see Crassula.
It. ulbiflo'ra (white - flowered). White. July.
bi' color (two-colored). 1. Yellow, scarlet.
biconve'xa (doubly-convex). . White. July.
capita' ta (headed). White. July. 1822.
cocci'nea (scarlet). 1. Scarlet. July. 1710.
flo're-a'lbo (white- flowering). 1.
White. July. 1811.
cymo'sa (cymed). $. Red. August. 1800.
falca'ta (sickle- leaved). 3, Scarlet. July.
fln'va (yellow). Yellow, June. 1802.
jasmi'nea (Jasmine-like). i ! . White. April.
me'dia (mediate). 1. Red. June. 1810.
perfolia'ta (leaf-steni-pierced). 4. Scarlet.
albiflo'ra (white flowering). 4.
White. July. 1800.
odorati'ssima (sweetest-scented). 1. Pink.
versi'color (changeable-coloured). 2. White,
ROCKET LARKSPUB. Delphinium
ROCK LYCHNIS. Visca'ria.
ROCK ROSE. Ci'stus.
ROCK-WORK is one of the most dim-
cult things to construct tastefully. If
the body of the rock is intended to be
raised much above the ground level, a
quantity of soil and rubbish should be
carried into the centre of the space.
This soil, besides serving to support
the rock-work, will also form a border
for the plants to grow in. Having at j
hand plenty of large rough stones, j
broken bricks, or stony rubbish of any ;
kind or colour, proceed with these to
imitate the form of natural rock as i
nearly as possible. Rough, bold, angu-
lar projections, and deeply-formed
chasms, are the principal features in >
natural scenery which please us most.
A rock, with a. flat unbroken surface, ,
whether horizontal or perpendicular, j
f82 ] ROC
i presents too much sameness to be
| pleasing to the eye : therefore, in iini-
< tating nature, the projections should be
varied and bold, and unless ragged-
ness and intricacy form principal fea-
i tures in its composition, it will lose
i, much of its effect. If the rock-work
j be on a large scale, it should not be
one continued line, but broken at in-
I tervals, in one part lost beneath the
; surface of the earth, and again rising
| in another part and resuming its sinu-
; ous form.
So far there is little difference be-
tween this and the common method of
making artificial rock. When, however,
every stone has been arranged to suit
the eye, the interstices between them
are to be filled up with any kind of
rough mortar. Of course, fissures, and
similar places intended for the plants
which are to cover the rock, must be
left open, so that the roots may pene-
trate to the soil beneath the stones.
The next operation is to daub the whole
mass over with Roman cement. For
this purpose the latter should be
mixed with water until it is of the con-
sistence of thick paint, in which state
it may be applied to the stones with a
large painter's brush. The spaces
between the stones having been filled
with rough mortar prevents the cement
from being wasted. The thickness of
the latter on the stones need not be
more than the eighth-of-an-inch : it will
unite the whole into one mass; and
rock-work, thus constructed, is beyond
all comparison far more natural than
that made in the usual way. It has
none of that disjointed appearance
which usually accompanies rock-work
made without cement. After a few
month's exposure to the weather, rock-
work thus formed (if skilfully made)
cannot, without careful examination, be
distinguished from a natural mass ; it
will soon cover all but the most promi-
nent parts. If the cement be of a
colour too light, which, for some situa-
tions, may be the case, a little lamp-
black, or soot, may be mixed with it.
Care must, however, be taken that no
substance which may make the cement
more porous is used, otherwise it will
peel from the stones after a hard frost*
For the benefit of those who are not
accustomed to using cement, we may
mention that no more should he moist-
ened at once than can he used in a
short time. If the cement be good it
will quickly harden, and will then he
in a manner useless.
In making artificial rock for water-
falls, or other constructions, where the
cement may be constantly exposed to
the action of the water, the best water-
cement should be used. Any pre-
paration that does not quickly indurate
under water, will, in a short time, be
washed away, and leave nothing but
the bare stones. Wkateley.
RODRIGUE'ZIA. (Named after E.
Rodriguez, a Spanish botanist. Nat.
ord., Orchids [Orchidacere], Linn., 20-
Stove Brazilian orchids, cultivated in baskets.
R. Ba'rkeri (Barker's). 1. Green. January.
cri'spa (curled). Green.
lanceola'ta (spear- head -leaved). Yellow.
March. Trinidad. 1821.
laxiflo'ra (loose-flowered). . Pale green.
recu'rva (curled-back). . Yellow. June.
secti'nda (side-flowering). . Red. July.
stenochi'la (narrow- lipped). Yellow, red.
suave' olens (sweet-scented), Yellow. Feb.
ROEBUCK BEKBY. Ru'bus chamce-
ROE'LLA. (Named after G. fioelle,
a Dutch botanist. Nat. ord., Bellworts
[CampanulaceseJ. Linn., 5-Pentandria
Greenhouse plants, and all but one from
the Cape of Good Hope. Decurrens from seed
in a gentle hot-bed, in spring, planted out
in early summer ; muscosa by division ; the
rest, being evergreen shrubs, by cuttings of
the points of the shoots, in sand, under a bell-
glass ; sandy peat and fibry loam. Winter
temp., 40 to 48.
R. cilia't a (hair-fringed). 1. White, purple.
decu'rrens (decurrent). 1. Blue. August.
e'legans (elegant). 2. Purple. February.
fruticulo'sa (small-shrubby). Yellow. July.
New Holland. 1820.
musco'sa (mossy). . Blue. August. 1802.
peduncula'ta (to#-flower-stalked), Blue.
- squarro'ta (spreading), 4. White, July, 1787*
R. squarro'sa Be'rgii (Berg's). Blue. August.
spica'tu (spiked). White. August. 1824.
ROLLER. This is best made of cast-
iron, and may be had of four different
sizes, viz., with a diameter of sixteen,
eighteen, twenty-two, or twenty-four
inches. The roller is best used the
day after a fall of rain.
ROME'RIA. ( Named after J. Y.Romer,
a German botanist. Nat. ord., Poppy-
worts [Papaveracese]. Linn., 13-Poly-
andria \-Monogynia, Allied to Glau-
Hardy annuals. Seeds in the open border,
iti March or April.
R. hy'brida (hybrid). 2. Purple. May. Britain.
refru'cta (refracted). 1. Violet. June.
vermicula'ta (worm -like). Red. June.
RONDELE'TIA. (Named after W.
Rondelet, a Frenchman. Nat. ord.,
Cinchonads [Cinchonacese]. Linn., 5-
Stove evergreen shrubs. Cuttings of the
points of the shoots getting slightly firm, in
sand, under a bell-glass, and in bottom-heat ;
the glass being raised at night, and in dull
weather, to prevent damping ; fibry peat and
fibry loam, M'ith enough of sand, broken pots,
and charcoal, to insure openness in the soil.
Winter temp., 48 to 55 ; summer, 60 to 85.
R. America'na (American). 10. White. August.
W, Indies. 1752.
discolor (two-coloured), 6, Red. N. Gre-
Mrsu'ta (hairy). 0. Yellow, July, Jamaica,
hi'rta (hairy). 10, Pink. July, Jamaica.
leeviga'ta (smooth- Jeooed). 12, White.
July, W.Indies, 1790,
laurifo'lia (Laurel-leaved). 5. White, July.
longifln'ra (long-flowered). Blue. August,
odora'ta (scented). 3, Red. July. W.
panicula'ta (panicled). 6. White. July.
E. Indies. 1820.
racemo'sa (racemed). 6. White. July.
specio'sa (showy). 1. Scarlet. April, Ha-
' ma'jor (lArger-flowered) , 3. Scarlet.
thyrsoi'dea (thyrsed). 5. White, July.
tomento'sa (downy). 6. White. July.
ROOTS are either annual, biennial, or
perennial, but in all roots, and under
any mode of management, the fibrous
parts (radiculae) are strictly annual;
they decay as winter approaches, and
are produced with the returning vigour
of their parent in the spring. Hence
the reason that plants are transplanted
with most success during the season of
their decay : for, as the root almost
exclusively imbibes nourishment by the
mouths of these fibres, in proportion
as they are injured by the removal, so
is the plant deprived of the means of
support ; that sap which is employed
in the formation of new fibres, would
have served to increase the *size of
Boots always travel in the direction
where most food is to be obtained;
therefore, for carrots and parsnips let
a little manure be turned in with the
bottom spitwhen the ground is trenched
for them. So, if it be desirable to pre-
vent the roots of any plant travelling
in a certain direction, the soil on that
side should be excavated, and the cavity
refilled with sand, or some other un-
fertile earth, whilst the soil on those
sides of the plant whither the roots
are desired to tend should be made as
fertile as is permissible with its habits.
Whatever causes an excessive de-
velopment of root, prevents the pro-
duction of seed; and vice versd, the
production of seed, especially in tuber-
ous-rooted plants, reduces the amount
of root developed. Thus, frequent
transplanting the young plants of the
lettuce, brocoli, and cauliflower, causes
the production of numerous fibrous
roots, and is found effective in pre-
venting the mature plants advancing
early to seed.
The early varieties of the potato do
not. naturally produce seed ; but if
their tubers are removed as soon as
they are formed, these early varieties
blossom and bear seed as freely as the
latter kinds, a fact suggesting many
experiments to the cultivator of shy-
blooming tuberous - rooted flowers.
Again, if the blossoms of these later
varieties are plucked off as they appear,
the weight of tubers produced will be
very materially increased.
BOOT -PRUNING, first adopted as a
systematic practice by Mr. Errington,
has, for its object, a check to over-luxu-
riance. This it does effectually, for
such excess of growth arises from the
roots imbibing too much food; by
pruning, and thus reducing their num-
ber, therefore, we reduce their imbibing
power, and it is found that such pruning
checks the production of leaf -buds,
and will cause any kind of fruit tree to
j produce blossom - buds, provided the
tree is healthy, and that its barrenness
arises from over-luxuriance. To know
what proportion of the roots to cut
away, we may suppose the trees thrown
into three classes. First, trees of mo-
derate luxuriance ; second, those which
may be termed robust ; t'hird, those of
gross habit. To give a further idea, we
would say that the first class will make
young shoots on an average a foot in
length ; those of the second two feet ;
and the third nearly, or quite, three
feet, the latter, indeed, frequently
burst into lateral or side-shoots, from
the young shoots of the same season.
From the first class, therefore, we
advise the cutting away about a sixth
part of the roots ; from the second class
a fourth part ; and from the third class
a third part. It must be borne in mind,
that the extremities of the roots alone
should be cut off, for, while we advocate
this mutilation, we equally advocate the
preservation of the surface roots by
every possible means ; nay, more than
that, we recommend their encourage-
ment by extra appliances of manure
to the surface-soil.
ROPA'LA. (From roupala, the Guia-
nan name. Nat. ord., Proteads [Pro-
teacese]. Linn., k-Tetrandria 1-Mono-
Greenhouse evergreen shrubs from Guiana.
Cuttings of ripe shoots, in sand, under a bell-
glass, not hurried, but freed from damp, and
placed in bottom-heat after a few weeks ; fibry
loam and sandy peat. Winter temp., 45 to
48 ; a rather sheltered place in summer.
R. denta'ta (tooth-leaved). 10. Green. June.
me'dia (mediate). 10. May. 1823.
monta'na (mountain). Fellow. April. 1828.
ni'tida (shining). Pale yellow. 1821.
I sessilifolia (stalkless-leaved). 10. Green.
KO'PERA. (Named after J. Roper, a
German botanist. Nat. ord., Beancapers
[ZygopbyllaceaB]. Linn., 8-Octandr'ui
[ 785 ]
Greenhouse, yellow - flowered, evergreen
shrubs, trom New Holland. Cuttings of the
young shoots, in sand, under a bell-glass, in
spring ; also seeds, in a slight hotbed ; sandy
fibry peat, fibry loam, and a little rough char-
coal. Winter temp., 40 to 50.
11. nnranti'aca (orange). August. 183".
fabagifo'lia (Fabago-leaved). June. 1822.
"fruticnlo'sa (sub-shrubby). 3. July. 1820.
EO'SA. Rose. (From the Celtic rhod,
red ; prevailing colour. Nat. ord., Itose-
n-orts [Rosacesc]. Linn., l^-Icosandria
For culture see Rose.
R. acicula'ris (needle-prickled\ 6. Blush. June.
a'lba (single- white). 4. White. June. S.
Alpi'nn (Alpine). 5. Blush. June. S.
globo'sa (globular - berried] ; helle-
bo'rina (Hellebore - like) ; hispide'lla
(slightly - bristly) ; la'vis (smooth) ;
litgenu'ria (flask - shaped - berried);
pilo'sulu (downj> -flower-stalked) ; pirn-
pinellifo'lia (Pimpinella-leaved) ; pyri-
fo'rmis (Pear-shaped-Aem'erf) ; seto'sa
(bristly - calyxed) ; sorbine'lltt (Sorb-
like) ; 'turbina'ttt (top-shaped-Aem'ed).
anemoneeflo'ra (Anemone-flowered). 8. Pale
blush. June. China. 1846.
arne'nsis (field. White-dog). 8. White. July,
Anderso'nii (Anderson's). Pale
flesh. June. Britain.
Ayrshi'rea (Ayrshire). 20. White.
Bu'nkii'HB (Lady Banks's). 20. White. June.
lu'tea (yellow). Pale buff. June.
Bo'rreri (Borrer's). 6. Pale red. June.
bractea'ta (bracted. Macartney's). 2. White.
July. China. 1/95.
scabriti'scula (rough-summed). 2.
White. July. China.
tfffficte'scen* (srnall-bracted). 6. Pink. June.
Bnmo'nii (Brown's). 12. White. June.
ca'sia (grey). 6. Pink, white. July. Scot-
cani'na (dog, orhisp). 8. Pale red. June.
aciphy'lla (needle-leaved). 8. Pink.
JEgypti'uca (Egyptian). 8. Pink.
Borboniti'na (Bourbon). 8. Purple.
fustigia'ta (pyramidal). France.
giauce'scens (milky-green). 8. June.
Merntia'na (Herat's). 8. France.
tnicrocu'rpa (small-fruited). France.
ni'tens (shining-leafleted), 8. June.
nu'du (naked), b'. Pink. June. Britain.
obtusifo'lia (blunt-leafleted). 8, June,
R. cani'na Schottia'na (Schott's). 8. June.
squarro'sa (spreading). Germany.
sitrculo'sa (spriggy). 4. Pink. June.
Caroli'na (Carolina). 6. Crimson. June.
North America. l/2f>.
Cauca'sea (Caucasian). 20. Red. June.
centifo'lia (hundred-leaved. Cabbage), 3.
Pink. June. Caucasus. 1590.
crista'ta (crested-caty.red). 3. Pink.
June. France. 1833.
musco'sa (mossy. Common MOSSJ.
3. White, red. June.
White, red. June. France.
Pompo'nia (Pompone. Provins).
2. White, red. June.
cinnamo'mea (Cinnamon). 6. Pink, May.
Dahu'rica (Dahurian). 6. Red. June.
Damaace'na (Damask). 3. Pink. June.
Dickso ni (Dickson's). ^Vhite. June. Ireland.
Donia'na (Don's). 4. Pink. June. Scotland,
ho'rrida (horrid- pfed). 4. Pink.
dumeto'nim (thicket). 5. Pink. June.
fe'rox (fierce). 3. Red. July. Caucasus. 1596.
ni'tens (shining). 4. Pale crimson.
.For,s/e'n(Forster's). 6. Pink. June. Britain.
fraxinifo'lia (Ash-leaved). 6. Red. June.