fruteto'rum (coppice). 6. Pink. June.
Gu'llica (French). 2, Pink. June. South
A'gatha (Agatha). Purple.
inape'rta (unopened. Vilmorin Rose} .
ine'rmis (unarmed). Purple.
parvifo'liu (small-leaved). 1. Purple.
pv'mila (dwarf. Wild-shop). J. Red.
June. Austria. 1810.
glutino'sa (clammy. Cretan}. 2. Pale
blush. June. Candia. 1821.
gra'cilis (slender). 8. Pale pink. June.
grandifln'ra (large-flowered). 4. White.
May. Siberia. 1818.
Hibe'rnica (Irish). 4. Blush. August. Ire-
Jbe'rica (Iberian). 6. Pink. June. Iberia.
I'ndica (Indian. China or Monthly). 20.
Red. China. 1789.
caryophy'llea (clovz-scented) .
longifo'lia (lonir-TriV/ou'-leaved). 5.
Pink. June. China.
ni'veu (white double-flowered). 3.
White, red). July. Gardens. 1831.
Noisettia'na (Noisette's). 3. Red.
ochroleu'ra (yellowish- white. Chi-
nese). 2. Cream. June. China. 1824.
odorati'ssima (sweetest -scented. Chi'
nese). 3. Pale pink, June. China. 1810.
[ 780 ]
R. 1'ndica pctnno'sa (ragged). Purple, rose.
pu'mila (dwarf).' 1. Pink. July.
involucra'ta (involucrecl). 3. White. July.
East Indies. 1803.
involu'ta (curved-'m-petaled). 2. Pale red.
Kamtschu'tica (Kamtschatka}. 3. Red.
July. Kamtschatka. 1791.
Klu'kii (Kluk's Sweet-briar}. 6. Pink.
July. Tauria. 1810..
Lnwrcncia'na (Miss Lawrence's). 1. Blush.
Li'ndleyi (Dr. Lincllcy's. Carolina}. Red.
July. North America.
lu'cida (bright -leaved). 4. Red. July.
North America. 1/24.
lu'tea (single-yc\\o\v -Eglantine). 3. Yellow.
June. " Germany. l.">)6.
puni'cea (scarlet. Austrian). 3. Yel-
low, scarlet. Jims. Austria. 1506.
subru'bra (petals reddish above). 4.
Yellow, red. June.
lute'scens (yellowish. American}. 4. Pale
yellow. June. North America. 1780.
macrophy'lla (large-leuvcd). 6. Red. Go-
ma j a' Us (May. Hog). 3. Pale red. May.
micru'nthd (small - flowered Sweet-briar).
Pale red. June. Britain.
microca'rpa (small-fruited). 10. White.
July. China. 1822.
mifirophjj'lla (small-leaved). 3. Blush. Sep-
tember. China. 1328.
a'lba(wliitc- i floicered). 3. White.
mo' His (soft). 6. Red. June. Caucasus. 1818.
Montezu'mee (Montezuma's). 3. Pale red.
June. Mexico. 1825.
moscha'ta (musk). 12. White. August.
muttifto'ra (many-flowered). 12. Red. June.
Boursa'ultii (Boursault's). 12.
ca'rnea (flesh). Red. June.
Grem'llei (Grevillc's. Senen-
sisters). 20. Purple. June. China. 1824.
myriaca'ntha (myriad-spined). 1. White.
May. France. 1820.
ni'tid a (glossy, leaned). 2. Red. July.
North America. 1807.
oxyaca'ntha (sharp-spined!. 3. Red. June.
flo're -ple'nn (double -flowered).
Blush. July. North America.
parviflo'ra (small-flowered. Carolina). 2.
Flesh. July. North America. 1/24.
pulche'lla (neat). 2. Red. June. 1824.
ra'pa (Turnip). 4. Red. July. N.America.
rene'rsa (reversed). 5. White, pink. June.
rubifo'lia (Bramble-leaved). 6. Pale red.
August. N. America.
fenestra'lis (windowed). 4. Flesh.
June. N. America.
rubigino'sa (rusty Sweet-briar or Eglan-
tine). 5. Pink. June. Britain. Acufeu-
ti'saima (very-prickly) ; flexuo'm (flexiblg-
branc/ied) ; grandiflu'ra (large flowered).
4. Lyfi'tiii (Lyon's) ; inn fur (greater^ ;
nemoru'lis (grove) ; parvifo'lia (small-leat-
leted) ; pu'bera (downy) ; rotundifii'liu
(round - leaved). Germany. Spinulifo'liu
(leaflets-spinuled) ; ttmbella'ta (umbelled) ;
Germany. Vaillantia'na (Vaillant's). White.
rubrifo'liu (red-leaved). 6. Red. June.
S. Europe. 1814.
: hiftpi'dula (hnitly^diver-sf diked).
Red. June. 1822.
ine'rmis (unarmed). Purple.
pinnati'Jida (leaflet- like- cut-se-
paled). Purple. June. Switzerland.
Redout e' a (Redoute's). 3. Pale
Subi'ni (Sabine's). 8. Red. June. Britain.
gra'cilis (slender). White, red.
sanguisorbifu'lia (Burnet-lcaved). 3. White.
sarmenta'cea (twiggy). 6. Pink. June.
semperfio'renst (ever-blowing). 10. Crimson.
All. China. 1789.
sempervi'rens (evergreen). 20. White.
June. S. Europe. 1629.
nault's). 60. Violet. June. Neelgherry.
se'pium (hedge). Pink. June. Britain.
Sheru'rdi (Sherard's). 6. Pink. June.
ti'nlca (three-leavcd-Chm*). 5. White.
June. China. 1/59.
spinosisfiima (spiniest- Scotch). 2. White,
red. June. Britain.
suave' olens (sweet-scented American-Sweet-
briar}. Pink. June. N.America. 1800.
sua'vis (sweet). 4. Purple. June. 1818.
sulphu'rea (sulphur). 4. Yellow. July.
ftyloe'stris (wood). 7. Red. June. England.
sy'styla (clustered-styled). 6. Pink. June.
Tau'rica (Taurian). 6. Red. June.
tomento'na (Aowny-lcavcd-Dog), 6. Red,
white. June. Britain.
scabriu'sciila (rather- rough). 6.
Pink. June. Britain.
turbina'ta (top-shaped-c///^ed. Frankfort).
5. Red. June. Germany. 1629.
Francofurta'na (Fra'nkfort). 5.
Rose, purple. June. Frankfort.
4. Rose-coloured. June.
villo'sa (shaggy). 6. Red. June. Britain.
pomi'fera (apple - bearing). Red.
resino'sa (resinous). Red.
3. Dark pink. June.
- Wilso'ni (Wilson'
Woo'dnii (Wood's). 3. Pink. May.
KOSCO'EA. (Named after Mr. Eoscoe,
the founder of the Liverpool Botanic
Garden. Nat. ord., Gingerworts [Zin-
ziberacere]. Linn., \-Monandria l-Mo-
Stove herbaceous perennials, all but one
[ 787 ]
purple -flowered, and all natives of Nepaiil,
.Division, in spring; sandy loam and leaf-mould.
Winter temp., 48 to 55; summer, 60 to /5.
R. capita' ta (headed). 1. July. 1S1Q.
elu'tior (taller). 1. July. 1820.
gra'cilis (slender). 1. July. 1821.
lu'tea (yellow). 1. Yellow. May. 183Q.
purpn'rea (purple). 1. July. 1820.
spica'ta (spiked). 1. July. ' 1820.
Propagation. Most kinds of roses
can be propagated by cuttings. By
this method we only obtain dwarfs, yet
as many sorts do best on their own
roots, the China and tea-scented for
instance, for these we must adopt cut-
tings. The best time for making the
cuttings is in April.
Cuttings in Pots. The most conve-
nient-sized pots are five -inches across;
fill them with moderately rich, light
earth, press it firmly down, then fill
the pots quite up to the rim with
silver sand, or with finely- sifted river
sand ; give a gentle watering from a
fine-rosed watering-pot, then cut the
cuttings into lengths of about four-
inches, remove all the leaves except
those belonging to the top buds, make
the cut very smooth across, just under
the lowest bud; the cutting is then
ready to be planted. Have a small
stick about as thick as a quill, and
thrust it into the soil just the depth of
the cutting, so as to leave the top bud
out: close the earth firmly to the
bottom of the cutting with the stick;
place the cuttings close to the edge of
the pots, with the leaves of all pointing
inwards, then close up the holes with a
little of the sand, and give a gentle
watering. The best situation to place
the pots in is a pit, with hand-glasses
over them. If you have not that con-
venience, plunge the pots in coal-ashes
on a shady border, covering them with
hand-glasses. Shift into larger pots as
Cuttings in the Open Ground. Choose
a shady border, next a low wall or
hedge the latter to be close-clipped
with the garden-shears. Let the soil
be well dug and chopped small, and the
surface raked very fine; then pour
some water upon it, and let it stand a
day, to become moderately dry again.
Prepare the cuttings as above directed,
and always expose the cuttings as little
as possible to the sun and air: they
may be preserved fresh by having n,
little damp moss or hay at hand to
cover them with as soon as they are
prepared. As soon as a sufficient
number are ready, open a trench with
a small spade at the end of the border.
Chop the side of the trench furthest
from you straight down just a suffi-
cient depth to leave the topmost bud
and leaf out of the soil ; then place the
cuttings against this upright bank
about three inches apart. When the
row is filled with cuttings, with your
spade put the soil against the cuttings,
and with your foot tread it firmly to
them. Take great care that the soil is
quite close and firm around each.
Then fill up level with the top of the
row of cuttings another portion of soil,
until there is a bank of earth six inches
distant from the first row. Chop down
the outermost edge of the soil, so as
to leave another upright bank to set
the second row of cuttings against, and
so proceed from row to row, till you
have filled the space set apart for this
purpose. Examine a few of them
occasionally after about six weeks, and
if they are rooted, lift them carefully
with a trowel or small spade, and either
pot them or plant them out in rows in a
more open situation. By the autumn
following they will be nice plants, and
may be planted in the situation where
they are to grow and flower.
By Suckers. Eoses send up many
suckers annually, which may be taken
up in autumn, winter, or early spring,
with some rootlets attached; and the
strongest may be planted out finally,
and the weakest in the nursery for a
year or two longer. They will readily
grow, and will most of them produce
flowers the following summer. When
rose-trees have grown into large
bunches, with many suckers, the whole
may be taken up and slipped, or divided
into separate plants. The moss, and
some others, furnish suckers but
By Layers. To obtain shoots for
layering, a quantity of rose-trees should
be planted for stools, which, being
headed down low, will throw out shoots
abundantly near the ground, in summer j
[ 788 ]
for layering in autumn or winter follow-
ing. (See Layering}. They will be
rooted by next autumn, and tit for trans-
plantation in nursery rows ; though
sometimes the moss-rose and some
others require two years before they are
tolerably well rooted. But of these
sorts you may also try layers of the
shoots of the year, layered in summer,
any time in June. They will probably
root a little the same season. The
layers of all the sorts, after being pro-
perly rooted, should be taken up in
autumn and planted in the nursery, to
have one or two years' growth.
By Budding. See Buddinq and
Soil and Situation.- The best soil is
a rather strong loam ; the deeper it is
the better. It should be well-drained.
Such, land as will grow good wheat or
good hops will grow fine roses. Next,
it should be rich to grow them fine :
if not already so, it ought to have
thoroughly decayed dung added to it.
A portion of super-phosphate of lime
(bones dissolved in oil of vitriol) will
be of great benefit to them a manure
that may be had of any respectable
manure-dealer. The rose-garden ought
to open to the south and east, but be
sheltered from the north and north-
west winds. Tall beach or hornbeam
hedges are the best shelter against
gales blowing from those points. Roses
should not be planted so near trees as
to be overhung by them, as the drip
from the trees will prevent them from
thriving, and injure the flowers.
Plantiny. The best season is the
early part of November. They will
succeed tolerably even to the middle of
March, but not so well as in the
autumn. If you have to procure them
from a distant nursery, and they are
some time out of the ground, make a
puddle of earth and water of nearly
the consistence of paint. Dip the roots
in this puddle, and plant them imme-
diately. Should the border intended
for the rose be long and narrow, plant
the tallest standards in the back row,
the next size in the second, and the
half-standards in the third, and the
dwarfs in the front row.
Autumn-Pruning /Summer Hoses,
Provence, including the Moss Hose.
These require to be pruned to three or
four eyes, according to the strength of
the shoots. Damask. These require
to be pruned according to the strength
of the growth of the different varieties ;
Madam Hard;/, for instance, is a strong
grower, and ought to be left with shoots
of six eyes. White Damask. This
species should be pruned similarly to
the Damask. Gallica, or French. Some
of these are very strong growers, and
must be cut accordingly. Some shoots,
in good soil, will grow three or four
feet long. Those shoots are often pithy
and green, and ought to be cut clean
out, and the rest shortened to one foot
or eighteen inches, according to their
strength. Hybrid, Provence. They
grow naturally in compact heads and
many branches, and should be pruned
by thinning-out about one-third of the
shoots, and shortening the rest to six
or eight eyes. Hybrid, Chinese. The
strong growers, Brennus for instance,
must be cut to eight or nine eyes, whilst
the Beauty of B'tllard is a weak grower,
and should be cut to two or three eyes,
and half the shoots entirely cut away.
Scotch. All that these require is to
have half of the shoots thinned out,
and those that are left cut to half their
length. Climbing. These require a
different mode of pruning to all other
roses. We shall describe it as the spur
system. Train in young shoots during
the summer ; in the autumn shorten
those shoots one-fourth of their length
that is, supposing the shoot is four
feet long, cut one foot of it off, and so
reduce it to three feet, and in the same
proportion for longer shoots. The
shoots will then, during the summer,
produce side-shoots : these are the
spurs. In the month of March fol-
lowing, take the shoots off the trellis
walls or pillars, prune the spurs into
two or three eyes, and then tie or nail
them up again neatly to the supporters.
Autumn-Pruning Autumn Hoses.
Macartney. The Macartney rose itself
requires very little pruning ; but the
Maria Leonidas requires pruning freely,
shortening the strong shoots to eight
or nine eyes, and the weak ones to
three or four. Damask Perpetuals and
C 789 ]
Hybrid Perpetuals are mostly weak
growers, and should be cut into four
or five eyes, and a third of the shoots
cut clean away. Bourbons and Noisettes
are middling growers, and should be
pruned moderately : strong shoots to
be cut to five or six eyes, and the weak
ones to three or four. China and Tea-
scentcd. Most of these are rather
tender, consequently the wood does
not ripen to any length. They should
therefore be pruned close. If they are
planted against a wall they may be
pruned longer, as the wood then be-
comes firmer and better ripened. Prune
those in the open air, both standards
and dwarfs, to two or three eyes, those
on walls to six or seven, in proportion
to their strength.
Snmmer-Pruniny. It often happens,
where the roses are growing in good
ground, that some of them produce
branches that grow so strong and fast
as to rob the rest of their due support.
These branches are what the French
call yourmands, which may be Englished
'jluttons ; only stop these at first, and
wait until the autumn before you cut
them clean off. When the rose-trees
throw out a great number of shoots
equally strong, and they appear to be
crowded, prune away about one-third
of them, but do not shorten any of the
others, as that will cause them to send
out a quantity of small, weak shoots,
which will injure the flowers the fol-
Roses in Pots. Procure some pots
that are well-cleaned, or, what is better
still, quite new ; and ",J4's are a very
convenient size to commence with.
Worked roses are preferable, for pot
purposes, to those grown on their o'npi
roots ; therefore select such as are
dwarf standards only, and worked close
to the collar, so that when the rose is
potted the stem is scarcely visible.
Tea, China, and Bourbon, or their
hybrids, are better suited for forcing
and pet plants than Noisette and
Hybrid perpetuals, the two last named
class of roses growing to greater per-
fection in the open air. Amongst Tea
jRoses select Sajfrano, Devoniensis,
Comptc de Paris t Nephetos, and Prin-
cess Clementine. Mrs. Bosanqiiet,
} Duchess of Kent, with a few others,
j amongst Chinas; Souvenir dc Mal-
| maison, Leveson Gowcr, and Dupct.it
! Thouars, amongst Bourbons. Of the
i above, Souvenir de Jlfalmaison is un-
rivalled as a pot-rose. Having selected
plants lose no time, but before the
roots have got dry, pot them (having
first pruned the strong roots) in a
mixture of half-yellow loam, and the
rest old cow-dung, leaf- mould, and sand,
in equal parts ; but a greater propor-
tion of loam may be added with advan-
| tage, should the rose to be potted be a
Bourbon or Hybrid perpetual. The
; plants being potted in October, place
! them on ashes under a north wall in
i some sheltered part of the garden, until
! the frosts compel to put them in cold
i pits, keeping them, since their being
j repotted, as dry as can be to prevent
! growth, but not sufficiently so to cause
! the plants to flag, or their roots to get
! quite dry. Then, about the commence -
! ment of December, prune all that you
i intend bringing into the greenhouse in
! the early part of January for blooming
i in May and June, and stimulate them
gently by applying water at a temp-
erature a few degrees warmer than
i the atmosphere of the pit where they
| still are, so as when they are introduced
' into the greenhouse at the commence-
ment of January, at a medium temp-
erature of 45, they are just beginning
! to push strongly. About the com-
mencement of February a little more
i heat is to be given, and weak liquid-
manure is applied about twice a-week,
| which is strengthened as the plants
increase in vigour and have their buds
well set. About this time syringing
i over -head with lukewarm water, or
steaming, may occasionally be had
recourse to, as it tends to give strength
to the plants, and keeps away the aphis
1 and other enemies. Lastly ; when the
; shoots are sufficiently long for the
purpose, they are to be gently brought
down to the sides of the pot, or staked
to such places as they are intended to
occupy, so as when the plants are ready
! for the show, these appliances may be
removed, and the plant still preserve a
round and uniform appearance. It is
| necessary at all times, when the temp-
[ 790 ]
erature is at 50 or above, to give as
much air as possible ; and this may
even be done when a gentle fire is
Diseases. See Exlravasaled Sup and
Insects. See Aphis, Anisopia, and
BOSK ACACIA, Hobi'nia hi'spida.
KOSE APPLE. Jambo'sa.
ROSE BAY. Epilo'binmanyiixfijo'iiion.
KOSE CAMPION. Ly'chnls.
ROSEMARY. Rosmari'nus officina'lis.
Varieties. There are three varieties
the green, golden-striped, and silver-
striped. The first is in general culti-
Soil. It thrives best on a poor, light
soil mixed with old mortar, or other
calcareous matters. In such, or -when
the plants are self-raised on an old
wall, they will bea* our severest win-
ters ; but in a rich soil they lose much
of their aromatic nature, and perish in
frost. For the green variety, the situa-
tion may be open, but the other two,
being tender, require to be planted be-
neath a south wall, or in pots to be
sheltered in winter.
Propagation is by cuttings and rooted
slips, during any of the spring months,
or by layers in the summer. But the
finest plants are raised by seed. By
layers, is the best mode of pro-
pagating the gold and silver- striped
varieties. Sowin March or early in April,
in drills half-an-inch deep and six inches
apart. The rooted slips, and the cut-
tings of the young shoots, must be from
five to seven inches long, and planted
in a shady border, in rows eight or ten
inches apart, previously removing the
leaves from the lower two-thirds of
their length. Layers may be formed
by cutting young branches half through
on their under side, and pegging them
down an inch or two below the surface;
they become established plants by au-
tumn. Water must be applied abun-
dantly at the time of planting, and oc-
casionally afterwards until established.
ROSE OF HEAVEN. Ly'chnis Cce'li-
ROSE OF JERICHO. Aiiasta'ticn.
ROSE OF THE WORLD. Came' Ilia
Ro'sa m u'ndi.
ROSE ROOT. Se'dum rhodi'ol</.
ROSE SNOWBALL TKEE. Vibu'rnum
ROSMARI'NUS. Rosemary. (Fromros,
dew, and marinvs, of the sea ; maritime
plants. Nat. ord., Lipirorts [Lamia-
cea?]. Linn., '2-Diandria, \-Mono<jynia.)
See Rosemnry. Hardy evergreens, purple-
flowered, and natives of the south of Europe.
R. ojftcina'lin (shop). 4. February. 1548.
fo'liis-argt'nleis (silver-leaved). 4.
fo'liis-att'reis (golden-leaved). 12.
latifo'lius (broad-leaved). 12. Fe-
ROTATION OF CROPS. There are three
circumstances to be regarded in regu-
lating the order in which crops should
follow each other: 1. Each crop should
be as dissimilar as possible from its
predecessor. 2. The exuviae of the
preceding crop should not be offensive
to its successor. .'5. A spindle-rooted
crop should succeed a fibrous-rooted
crop, or vice versa.
RO'THIA. (Named after A. W. Rof/i,
a German botanist. Nat. ord., Legu-
minous Plants [Fabacese]. Linn., 1G-
Monadelphia (j-Decandria. )
Hardy trailing annual. Seeds, in a warm
border, in April.
R. trifolia'ta (three-leaflcted). 2. Sulphur. July.
ROUGE PLANT. Bivi'na tincto'ria.
ROXBU'RGHIA. (Named after Dr.
Roxburgh, once director of the Botanic
Garden, Calcutta. Nat. ord., Roxburgh-
worts [Roxburghiacere]. Linn., 8-Oct-
Stove twining plants, with stems one hun-
dred fathoms long in the hottest parts of India,
where the roots are candied with sugar and
taken with tea. Propagated generally by suck-
ers ; sandy fibry loam, and a little leaf-mould,
and the usual plant-stove temperature.
R. gloriosoides (Gloriosa-like). 6. Pink, yel-
low. July. 1803.
viridiflo'ra (green-flowered). Green. August.
ROYAL BAY. La'urus iio'bilis.
ROYE'NA. (Named after A. Van
Royen, a Dutch botanist. Nat. ord.,
Ebunads [Ebenaceae]. Linn., U)-Dcc-
andria 2-ZHgynia. Allied to Diospy-
Greenhouse evergreen shrubs, from the Cape
of Good Hope, all but one white-flowered.
Cuttings of half-ripe shoots, in sand, under a
bell-glass, in April or May? sandy loum and
[ 701 ]
fiury pent. Winter temp., 40 to 48 ; summer,
do "to 75.
R. glu'bra (smooth). 4. September. 1731.
hii'su'ta(\\a.iry-lc'aved). 1. i'urplc. July. \1~>1. ]
latifo'lia broad-leaved). 5. June. 181(5.
itt'cida (shining-team/). 4. May. 1690.
ROY'LEA. (Name;! after Professor j
Royle, King's College, London. Nat. ;
or A., Labiates [Laniiaceaj]. .Linn., 14- |
Didynamia l-dfymriospermia. Allied to \
Greenhouse evergreen shrub. 'Cuttings of '
young shoots, in spring, in sandy soil, with a
bell-glass over them ; sandy loam and leaf-
mould. Winter temp., 40 to 48.
R. e'legans (elegant). 2. Purple. July. Nepaul.
RU'BIA. Madder. (From ruber, red ;
tlie colour of the roots. Nat. ord.,
Stellates [Galiaceffi]. Linn., -Telran-
clria I- Monog i/iiia.)
Half-hardy species, from cuttings in spring,
under a hand-light, and peat and loam ; the
others are herbaceous plants, propagated by
division of the roots, and flourishing in any
good garden soil ; from tinctorum madder is
R. angustifo'lid (narrow-leaved). 2. Pale yel-
low. July. Spain. 1//2.
sple'ndens (shining). 2. Yellow. July.
R. cordiffi'lia (heart-leaved). ^. White. July.
tincto'rum (dyer's). 4. Yellow. July. South
RU'BUS. Bramble. (From the Celtic
rub, red ; colour of the fruit of some of !
the species. Nat. ord., Rose worts [Rosa- j
Generally by suckers ; frequently by cuttings ; ,
also by seeds for species, and obtaining new-
varieties ; also easily obtained by pegging down
the points of the shoots in the soil ; deep, rich,
R. ape'tuhts (petalless). 6. Purple. July. Isle
of France. 1823. Stove.
Jamaice'nsis (Jamaica). 6. Jamaica. 1822.
Molucca' nits (Moluccas). 3. lied. July.
East Indies. 1810.
purvifo'lius (small-leaved). 2. Pink. Au-
gust. China. 1818.