with an ochreous tuft; superior wings
bronzed, spotted with purple and
T. porecte'lla. Rocket or Greystreak
Moth, has its habits and forms thus
described by Mr. Curtis :
During the middle and latter end of
April, as the shoots of the rockets
advance, it is found that the leaves
adhere firmly together, and those that
liberate themselves are perforated with
large holes. On forcibly opening a
shoot, for the young leaves are con-
nected by silken threads, a small green
caterpillar of different shades, varying
with its age, is found in or near the
centre, feeding upon the tender leaves,
and sometimes a little family of four or
five inhabit the same head. The head,
feelers, and horns of our little moth
are white, the latter with a few black
spots near the tips ; thd thorax is
cream-coloured, the sides brown, upper
wings lance-shaped, very pale clay
brown, with whitish streaks. Perhaps
the best mode of extirpating them
would be to search for the young cater
pillars between the leaves, on the first
symptoms of their presence, and ex-
tracting them with a small pair of for-
ceps, such as are used for microscopic
objects ; but as some might be too
minute at that early period to be de-
tected on the first search, this operation
must be repeated. Pinching the mag-
gots in the bud is also recommended.
T. cortice'lla. See Apple.
TI'PULA. Crane Fly or Daddy-long-
legs. T. olera'cea, the grubs or "leather
jackets," so injurious to the market
gardener, are its larvee. They attack
the roots of scarlet beans, lettuces,
dahlias, potatoes, &c., from May to Au-
gust. During the last month and Sep-
tember they become pupce. Mr. Curtis
observes, that It is said that lime-
water will not kill them, and suggests
that if quick-lime was scattered on the
ground at night, it would destroy them
when they come to the surface to feed ;
and all the gnats that are found on the
walls, palings, ground, or elsewhere,
should be killed, especially the female,
which would prevent any eggs being
deposite d in the ground. A mixture of
lime and gas-water, distributed by a
watering-pot over grass, has completely
exterminated the larvae where they had
been exceedingly destructive ; and by
sweeping the grass with a bag-net, like
an angler's landing-net, only covered
with canvas, immense numbers of the
gnats might be taken and destroyed.
TITHO'KIA. (From Tithonus, in my-
thology, the favourite of Aurora. Nat.
ord.^ Composites [Asteraceee]. Linn.,
\9-Synrjenesia 3-Fruslranea. Allied to
Stove, yellow - flowered evergreens, from
Mexico. Cuttings of young shoots, a little
firm at their base, in sand, under a bell-glass,
and in a little bottom-heat ; rich, sandy, fibry
loam. Winter temp., 50 to 55 ; summer, 60
T. exce'lsa (tall). August. 1824.
ova'ta (egg-leaved). 4. July. 1828.
tagetiflo'ra (Marigold- flowered). L 10. Au-
TOBACCO. Nicotia'na, whether in the
form of snuff, or its decoction in water,
[ 877 ]
or its smoke whilst burning, is very
destructive to insects.
Tobacco paper is paper saturated with
the decoction of tobacco, and when
burnt emits a fume nearly as strong.
It is an easy mode of generating the
smoke. Whenever plants are smoked
they should be done so on two following
nights, and then be syringed the fol-
lowing morning. Mr. Cameron says :
I have always found tobacco paper the
most efficacious substance to fumigate
with, for destroying the aphis without
doing any injury to the plants ; if the
house is not filled too rapidly with
smoke, and is allowed to reach the
glass, without coming in contact with
any of the plants, it then descends as
it cools, without doing any injury.
Plants fumigated in frames, or under
hand-glasses, are most liable to be in-
jured by the heat of the smoke, if
not done cautiously. There is a spu-
rious kind of tobacco paper sometimes
offered in spring by the tobacconists,
apparently made to meet the increased
demand, and this kind of paper will
bring the leaves off plants, without
killing many of the aphides. It is of a
lighter colour than the genuine sort,
and may be readily detected by the
smell being very different. Foliage
should be perfectly dry when a house
is fumigated, and should not be sy-
ringed till next morning. If plants
are syringed immediately after fumi-
gation, many of the aphides will recover
even when they have dropped off the
plants, a fact which any one may soon
prove after fumigating a house.
Another very simple mode of fumi-
gating plants in frames, and under
hand-glasses turned over them for the
purpose, is as follows : " Dissolve a
table spoonful of saltpetre in a pint of
water; take pieces of the coarsest
brown paper, six inches wide, and ten
inches long, steep them thoroughly in
the solution, dry them and keep till
wanted. To fumigate, roll one of the
pieces into a pipe like a cigar, leaving
the hollow half-an-inch in diameter,
which fill with tobacco, twist one end
and stick it into the soil, light the
other, and it will burn gradually away
for an hour or more."
Tobacco smoke should not be ad-
mitted to fruit trees when in bloom,
nor when the fruit is ripening, as it
imparts to them a flavour. See Fumi-
gating and Fumigator.
Tobacco Water is usually made from
what is known as Tobacconists' Liquor,
being a liquor expressed by them, and
full of ammonia and the acrid oil of
the plant. To every gallon of this add
five gallons of water. This mixture
with Read's garden syringe may bo
sprinkled over the trees, putting it on
with the finest rose, and being careful
to wet all the leaves. This operation
is to be performed only in the hottest
sunshine, as the effect is then much
greater than when the weather is dull ;
five gallons of liquor reduced as above
stated, cleanses seventeen peach and
nectarine trees, averaging seventeen
feet in length, and twelve in height.
The black glutinous aphis, provincially
called blight, so destructive to the
cherry trees, and, in fact, every species
of aphis, is destroyed in the same way
with equal facility; the grubs which
attack the apricot, may be destroyed
almost instantly by immersing the
leaves infested in this liquor.
As the tobacconist's liquor cannot be
obtained always, tobacco water may be,
in such case, made by pouring half-a-
gallon of boiling water upon one ounce
of strong tobacco, and allowing it to
remain until cold, and then strained.
TOCOYE'NA. (Name in Guiana. Nat.
ord., Cinchonads [Cincbonacese]. Linn.,
b-Pentandria l-Monogynia. Allied to
Stove evergreen shrub. Cuttings of half-
ripened shoots, in sandy soil, under a glass, in
heat, in May ; fibry peat, a little lumpy loam,
sand, and charcoal. Winter temp., 50 to 60;
summer, 60 to 85.
j T. longiflo'ra (long- flowered). 6. Yellow.
TO'DEA. (Named after H. J. Tode,
a German student of ferns. Nat. ord.,
Ferns [ Polypodiacese ] . Linn., 24-
Cryptogamia I-Filices. Allied to Os-
Greenhouse, brown-spored Ferns. See Ferns.
T. Africa'na (African). 2. June. Cape of
Good Hope. 1805.
Austra'lis (southern). 2. New Holland. 1831.
pellu'cida (transparent). New Zealand, 1842.
TODDA'LIA. (Toddfdi, the Malabar
name of T. aciilaata. Nat. ord., Xan-
thoxijls [Xanthoxylacece]. Linn., 21-
MoncKcla 5 -.Penlandria. Allied to
kept, and only a small sum so collected,
her ladyship trebles the amount. I
add my own mite, and each foreman
theirs, as a sort of compound for any
matter that may have slipped our
memories, c. ; the amount is then
placed in the Savint/s Bank, as a re-
serve sum in case oi' illness, &c. We
have the same order and regulation
kept in each tool-shed that is to say,
the tool-shed of each department that;
I need here describe only one. The
tool- shed of the hothouse and flower-
garden department is a lean-to shed at
the back of a hothouse, substantially
built, and covered with slate : length,
fifty -four feet; width, thirteen feet;
height at back, fifteen feet ; and height
in front, nine feet ; paved all through
with Yorkshire flag-stones, which are
neatly swept up every night, the last
thing, and washed every Saturday,
thoroughly. There is a door at each
end, and one in the centre of the front
wall, and a window on each side of the
centre door. Strong beams are thrown
Seeds, in flower-beds or > across from front to back, and strong
j planks laid on them, which form a
i useful loft for placing mats, stakes,
I laths for tally making, brooms, nets,
I canvass for covering and shading, etc.,
<fcc. Within two feet of the roof, against
1 the back wall, is placed a row of pegs
the whole length of the shed, for hang-
j ing the long-handled tools, such as
I grass and leaf rakes, long-handled
I Dutch hoes and iron rakes, &c. ; on
i the next row of pegs, the whole length
| of the shed, are placed the various
I kinds of draw hoes, tan forks, dung
forks and prongs, strong forks for
digging and surface-stirring, spades
and shovels of various kinds, pickaxes,
mattocks and bills, dung drags, edging
shears, &c. ; on a third row of pegs,
still lower, are placed the water pots,
all numbered, with initials as well,
thus B, G 45, or 60, whatever the
number may run to; underneath those
is a row more of pegs, for placing the
noses of the water pots thus the back
wall is furnished. The front wall,
half-way, is furnished with shelves for
placing shreds and nails, rope yarn,
tallies, flower pegs, whetstones, rubber
or scythe-stones, and many other smll
Stove, white-flowered evergreens. Cuttings
of young, stubby side-shoots, in sand, under a
glass, in April, in a sweet bottom-heat ; fihry
loam, and a little peat or leaf-mould. Winter
temp., 50 to 60; summer, 60 to 80.
T. aciilea'ta (prickly). 6. East Indies. 1790.
angustifo'lia (narrow-leaved. 6. Mauritius.
TOFIE'LDIA. (Named after Mr. To-
ficli/, a botanical patron. Nat. ord.,
Melanlhs [Melanthacece], Linn., 0-
Hardy, North American, herbaceous peren-
nials. Division of the roots, in spring ; sandy
loam, and a little vegetable mould.
2'. ghttino'sa (clammy). . White. 1825.
pu'dens (downy). Green, yellow. July. 1840.
pube'scens (downy). . White. April. 1790.
TO'LPIS. (Meaning not known. Nat.
oi'd., Composites [Asteraceajj. Linn.,
IQ-Syngcnesia l-^qualis. Allied to
Hardy, yellow-flowered annuals, from the
South of Europe,
borders, in April.
T. alti'ssima (tallest). 4. June. 1823.
barba'ta (be&rded-purple-eyed). 2. Yellow,
purple. June. 1620.
coronopifo'lia (Buckhorn-leaved). 1. June.
grandiflo'ra (large-flowered). June. 1830.
umbella'ta (umbelled). 2. Yellow, purple.
virga'ta (twiggy). 2. 1818.
TOLU-BALSAM TREE. Myrospe'mium.
TOMATO. Lycope'rsicon. See Lore-
TONQUIN BEAN. Di'pterix.
TOOL-HOUSE. Upon this too-much-
neglected garden edifice, Mr. Barnes,
of Bicton Gardens, says : " Have a
place for everything, and everything in
its place ; kept in good condition, and
at all times put away clean ; for omis-
sion of which have rules and fines
placed in each of the tool-houses, re-
gularly enforced, and payment de-
manded for each fine on the labourers'
pay-day. At Bicton, a book is kept for
entering each fine, and a separate ac-
count given of each fine, and for what,
or why, it was enforced ; annually,
Lady Kolle doubles the amount so
collected, and if good order has been
articles. Underneath those shelves
are pegs for hanging the hammers,
axes, saws, hatchets, mallets, and stake-
drivers, trowels, hand- forks, reels and
lines, hedge-clipping shears, scythes,
chisels, the various sixes of one-handed
crane-necked hoes, crowbars, mops,
hair-brushes, and brooms, and various
other articles. The scythes are hung
up over the end beam, and on the other
side without shelves the hand-barrows
are placed; birch and heath brooms,
both round and fan-shaped, that are in
daily use ; and various other articles.
The garden rules are hung in a con-
spicuous place ; also in the tool-house.
Every tool is to be put into its proper
or allotted place, every night, thoroughly
cleansed ; any omission of which sub-
jects the defaulter to a fine. Each
tool-house is under the same system.
We have separate wheelbarrow sheds ;
sheds for placing soils in the dry,
arranged in old casks ; varieties of
sand, pebbles, and flints, for potting
purposes, with lofts over for flower pot
stowage ; a shed for the liquid-manure
casks, which is one of the most essential
and valuable of all. A shed for placing
the charred articles of all kinds, equal
to the last; a potting shed ; mushroom
shed; stove shed; fruit rooms, and
onion lofts, &c., &c. Each and all are
kept under the above regulations."
TOOTH-ACHE TKEE. Zantho'xylum.
TOP-DRESSING. Manure spread over
the surface whilst the crop is growing.
TORE'NIA. (Named after Eev. 0.
Torcn, a Swedish botanist. Nat. prd.,
Figworts [Scrophulariacea?]. Linn.,
T. edenta'ta (toothless). 1. Purple. June.
East Indies. 1845.
hirm'ta (hairy). White. June. East
sca'bra (rough-leaved). 1. Pale blue. June,
Moreton Bay. 1830.
TO'RTRIX. A genus of moths.
T. lusca'na generates a red grub, and
T. cynosbana a black-spotted green grub,
both very destructive of blossom -buds.
T. vitisa'na. Vine Tortrix. Found
on the vine in April and May ; head
yellow ; upper wings marbled with
rusty and grey colours. Caterpillars
appear as the blossom-buds open, which
they unite with white threads.
T. ni'jrica'na. Red Plum Grab Tor-
trix. Moth black, appearing in June.
Eggs deposited on the plum; grub,
small red, pierces the fruit, and is found
near the stone. Mr. Curtis observes,
that, " If the plums that have fallen off
be examined, a small red caterpillar
will be found within it ; the caterpillar
being generally full grown when the
plum falls off, soon creeps out, and
penetrates the loose bark, forming a
case in which it remains during the
winter. Early in the spring it changes
into a light brown pupa, and the moth
emerges about June. The moth is not
so large as a house-fly ; its wings are
almost black, and when the sun is
shining on them they have a remark-
ably metallic lustre ; on the outer edge
of the fore-wings there is an appearance
of fine silver dust. Among the reme-
dies proposed to lessen the ravages of
this insect, it is recommended to shake
the trees, and remove all the fruit that
falls off; and another good method is
to scrape the rough pieces of bark of
the stem under which the cocoons are
concealed ; this must be done late in
Stove evergreens. Cuttings of the points of the autumn, or early in the spring. ^
-:j. -i i_ : j .:i A 2\ Bergmannia'na. Rose Tortnx.
Differs little to a common observer from
the preceding. Where bushes are much
infested with the larvae of these insects,
it is much better to cut them down,
and burn the shoots; this and hand-
picking are the only remedies we are
acquainted with. Care must be taken
not tc disturb the maggots when col-
lecting them, for they will let them-
selves down with threads, and thus
shoots, or small side-shoots, in sandy soil, and
in a little heat ; if far enough from the glass of
the frame or pit, they will want no bell-glass ;
fibry loam and sandy peat, in equal proportions,
with another part made up of dried old cow-
dung, charcoal, and rough sand. Winter temp.,
42 to 50; summer, 60 to 80.
T. Amacane'nsis (Arracan). Deep purple.
Asia'tica (Asiatic). 1$. Purple. June. East
co'ncolor (one-coloured) . H. Purple. July.
cordifa'lia (heart-leaved). . Lilac. July.
'East Indies. 1611,
[ 880 ]
T. ocella'na. This is the parent of
the red-bud caterpillar, which destroys
the buds of the apple and pear. Upper
wings grey, with a white transverse
T. Wceberia'na. Plum-Tree Tortrix.
Its larva feeds on the inner bark of
the plum, apricot, almond, and peach.
The grubs pierce holes through the
bark, which may be detected by small
heaps of red powder upon it. Moth
brown; grub greenish, with a red head.
T. pomona'na. Codling Moth. Its
reddish-white grub is common in apples
and pears. Moth light grey, streaked
with dark grey. Seen of an evening
during May, and the grubs appear soon
after. All fallen apples should be de-
stroyed, because they usually contain
this or other grubs, which will other-
wise produce moths, and multiply the
T. turiona'na, T. hyrcynia'na, T. resi-
ne'lla and T. buolia'na, all infest pine-
trees, injuring them by depositing their
eggs in the buds, which are subse-
quently preyed upon by their cater-
TOEBE'YA. (Named after Dr. Torrey,
a botanical writer. Nat. ord., Taxads
[Taxacese]. Linn., 22-Dlceda \3~Mon-
adelphia. Allied to Taxus.)
For culture see Taxus. Hardy evergreens.
T. Humbo'ldtii (Humboldt's). Georgia. 1848.
taxifo'lia( Yew-leaved). 30. Florida. 1840.
TOUENEFO'ETIA. (Named after J. P.
Tournefort, a great systematic botanist.
Nat. ord., Ehretiads [Ehretiacese] .
Linn., -Pentandria \-Monogynia. Al-
lied to the Heliotrope.)
Cuttings of young shoots, in April or August,
in sandy soil, under glass, and in a little heat.
Some, such as Heliotropioides, make a fair bed
out of doors ; except for this purpose, they are
not worth house-room, either in a greenhouse
or a plant-stove ; any light common soil suits
them, and they may be planted out in the
middle of May.
T. umbella'ta (umbelled). White. June.
veluti'nu (velvety). 10. White. June.
T, Caracasa'na (Caraccas). Whitd May,
T. gnaphalo'des (Gnaphalium - like). White.
June. West Indies. 1820.
heliotropioi'des (Heliotrope-like). 2. Pale
Jilac. May. Buenos Ayres. 1829.
hirsuti'ssima (hairiest). 10. Green, yellow.
June. West Indies. 1818.
laurifo'lia (Laurel-leaved). 12. Yellow.
July. West Indies. 1829.
macula' ta (spotted-fruited). Yellow. June.
sca'ndens (climbing). 10. Green, yellow.
July. Peru. 1816.
volu'bilis (twining). 10. Green, yellow.
July. Jamaica. 1752.
TOVOMI'TA. (Tovomite, the name in
Cayenne. Nat. ord., Guttifers [Clusia-
cese]. Linn., 1%-Polyandria 5-Penta-
Stove evergreen trees. Cuttings of half-
ripened shoots, in sand, under a bell-glass, in
heat ; sandy peat and fibry loam. Winter
temp., 58 to 65; summer, 65 to 90, and
T. clu&icefo'lia (Clusia-leaved). 10. Yellow.
May. Cayenne. 1823.
Guiane'nsis (Guianan). Green, Guiana.
TEACHE'LIUM. Throatwort. (From
trachelos, the neck; supposed efficacy
in diseases of the trachea. Nat. ord.,
Bellworts [Campanulaceee]. Linn., ft-
Hardy herbaceous perennial. Seeds, in a
slight hotbed, in spring ; also by cuttings of
young shoots in sandy soil, in April, or at the
end of summer; sandy loam, and a little
T. cceru'leum (blue). 2. Blue. August. Italy.
TEACHYME'NE. (From trachys, rough,
and hymen, a membrane ; channels of
the fruit. Nat. ord., Umbellifers [Apia-
ceffi]. Linn., 5-Pentandria \-Mono-
All the following are greenhouse, New Hol-
land, evergreen plants, except Ccerulea. The
annuals never do much good in the open air,
however raised, but if sown in a gentle hot-
bed, in March, pricked out and potted, and
flowered in the greenhouse in summer, they
will reward the trouble ; sandy loam and leaf-
mould ; shrubs, cuttings of young shoots,
under a bell-glass, in sandy soil ; sandy loam
and fibry peat. Winter temp., 40 to 60.
T. cceni'lea (sky-i/we), !. Blue. July. 1827.
compre'ssa (fi&t-stalked). 1. Pale yellow.
linea'ris (narrow-teawed). 2. Yellow. July.
ova'lis (oval-leaved). 1. White. May.
ova' ta (egg-leaved). 1. Pale yellow. May.
TEADESCA'NTIA. Spiderwort. (Named
after J. Tradescant, gardener to Charles
[ 881 ]
I. Nat. ord., Spiderworts [Commeli-
nacese]. Linn., G-Hexandria l-Mono-
All blue-flowered, except where otherwise
mentioned. Annuals, by seed; perennials,
by divisions, in spring ; rich, light loam ; those
requiring the greenhouse and stove, will thrive
better from having a little peat, and they should
be well drained.
T. ere'cta (upright). 2. July. Mexico. 179*.
latifo'Ua (broad-leaved). 1$. October, Lima.
GREENHOUSE HERBACEOUS, &C.
T. crassifo'lia (thick - leaved). 3. August.
panicula'ta (panicled). 1. August. East
Indies. 1816. Biennial.
pulche'llafae&f). 1. July. Mexico. 1825.
tu'mida (swollen). 1. Red. September.
STOVE HEEBACEOUS, &C.
T. cordifo'lia (heart - leaved). . June. Ja-
maica. 1819- Evergreen.
cra'ssula (thick). 1. White. July. Brazil.
di'scolor (various-coloured). 1. June. South
diure'twa (diuretic). . June. Brazil. 1825.
divariru'ta (straggling). . June. Trinidad.
fusca'ta (browned). . September. South
genicula'ta (knotted). 1. July. W.Indies.
Malabu'rica (Malabar). 1. Purple. July.
East Indies. 17/6.
multiflo'ra (many-flowered). . June. Ja-
procu'mbens (trailing). June. Trinidad.
specio'sa (showy). 1. July. Mexico. 1825.
spica'tn (spiked). 2. Purple. Mexico.
tubero'sa (tuberous). 1. July. E. Indies.
undula'ta (waved). 1. June. Trinidad. 1819.
xebri'na (zebra). Reddish-purple. Septem-
T. caricifo'lia (Sedge- leaved). 1. August.
conge'sta (crowded). 2. August. North
pilo'sa (h&iTy-herbaged). 2%. Purple. July.
ro'sea (rosy). 1. Pink. June. Carolina.
Virgi'nica (Virginian). 1&. July. North
a'lba (white). 1. White. July.
North America. 1629.
cceru'lea-a'lba (blue-and- white).
1. Blue, white. July. N.America.
pilo'sa (shaggy). 1. White, July.
North America. 1629.
T. Virgi'nica ple'na (double - flowered). 1.
Blue. July. North America. 1629.
ru'bra (red). 1. Red. July.
North America. 1629.
TRAGOPO'GON. Goat's Beard. (From
tragos, a goat, and. pogon, a beard; long
silky beards of the seed. Nat. ord.,
Composites [ Asteracese] . Linn., 19-
Hardy biennials, yellow - flowered, except
where otherwise mentioned ; seeds in March
and August ; common garden soil. See Salsafy.
T. du'bius (doubtful). 3. May. Podolia. 1818.
flocco'sus (woolly). 3. May. Hungary. 1816.
ma'jor (greater). 6. May. Austria. 1788.
mi'nor (smaller). 2. June. Britain.
muta' bilis (changeable). 3. Pale. May.
Siberia. 181 6.
orienta'lis (eastern). 3. June. Levant. 1787-
porrifo'lius (Leek - leaved. Salsafy). 4.
Purple. May. England.
pusi'llus (small). . June. Iberia. 1820.
ro'seus (rosy). l. Red. May. Siberia. 1826.
TEAGOPY'EUM. Goat's Wheat. (From
tragos, a goat, and pyros, wheat. Nat.
ord., Buckwheats (Polygonacese]. Linn.,
Hardy deciduous shrubs. Generally by
layers, in spring and autumn ; a moist peaty
soil suits them most.
T. buxifo'lium (Box-leaved). l. White. July.
lanceola'tum (spear-head- leaved). 2, Pink.
July. Siberia. 1778.
polyga'mum (polygamous) . 2. Pink. July.
TEAILERS. See Creepers.
TEAIN OIL. See Animal Matters.
TEAINING has for its object the ren-
dering plants more productive either of
flowers or of fruit, by regulating the
number and position of their branches.
If their number be too great, they over-
shadow those below them, and by ex-
cluding the heat and light, prevent
that elaboration of the sap, required
for the production of fructification. If
they are too few, the sap is expended
in the production of more, and in ex-
tending the surface of the leaves re-
quired for the digestion of the juices.
The position of the branches is im-
portant, because, if trained against a
wall, they obtain a higher temperature,
and protection from winds ; and if
trained with their points below the
horizontal, the return of the sap is
checked. Shy-flowering shrubs, as
Diplacus puniceus, are made to blossom
abundantly, and freely- flowering shrubs ,
[ 892 ]
as Cytisits hybridus, are made to blossom