Morille. Notwithstanding these state-
ments, it is quite certain that, at pre-
sent, the art of cultivating the truffle is
not known in England; and it will
remain unknown, probably, until we
have discovered how its spawn can be
prepared, as for cultivating the mush-
Mr. Gower says he recommended
an old truffle-hunter to bury, at the
proper depth, some of his truffles that
were in a state of decay and unfit for
the table, under one of the unproductive
trees sufficient in stature and in um-
brageous development. At the begin-
ning of next winter, when his visit was
repeated, he sought for Mr. G-., and
told him, with great satisfaction, that
the scheme had answered ; for he had
found two or three pounds of excellent
truffles beneath the hitherto barren
tree. By following this example, pro-
prietors of trees adapted to truffles, and
where the proper trees have been
planted, may, in a short period, do that
which a lapse of years, unassisted,
would not effect. Of all trees the cedar
of Lebanon is the most favourable to
the growth of the truffle.
TRUMPET FLOWER. Bigno'nia.
TRUSS is the florist's name for what
botanists call an umbel of flowers,
[ 894 ]
where several flowers have their stalks
united at one common centre, and thus
spring from the root or branch on one
stem, as in the auricula, polyanthus,
and cowslip. See Pip.
TRYMA'LIUM. (Not explained. Nat.
ord., Rhamnads [Khamnaceae]. Linn.,
Greenhouse evergreen ehrubs, from New
Holland. For culture see Pomade'rris. P.
T. o'culus so'lis (sun's-eye). 1. Red, blue.
April. Italy. 1816.
Pe' rsica (Persian). 1. Scarlet, black,
April. Persia. 1826.
pa' tens (spreading). 1. White, grey. April.
prce'cox (early). 1. Scarlet. April. Italy.
pube'scens (downy). 1. Red. April. 1824.
re 1 pens (creeping. Russian). 1. Yellow.
April. Russia. 181Q.
saxa'tilis (rock). 1. Yellow. April. Crete.
and P. Wendlandia'na belong to i scabri'scupa (rough-stemmed). 2. Red,
T. capsula'ris (capsular).
odorati'ssimum (sweetest - scented). White.
spatula'ta (spatulate). 4. Purple, yellow.
TU'BER CIBA'RIUM. See Truffle.
TUBEROSE. Polya'nthes tubero'sa.
TU'LIPA. The Tulip. (From its
Persian name Ihoulyban. Nat. ord.,
Lily worts [Liliacese]. Linn., 6-Hexan-
Hardy bulbs. Seeds for new varieties ; off-
sets ; a rich loam, made of loam, sand, and
vegetable mould, suits them best ; common
kinds may remain for years in the same place,
if you top-dress them, and do not want to sepa-
rate the bulbs.
T. Alta'ica (Altaian). 1. Yellow. April. Altai.
Biebersteinia'na (Biebersts). 1. Yellow,
purple. June. Siberia. 1820.
Bonarotia'na (Bonaroti's). l. Variegated.
April. Italy. 1827.
Celsia'na (Cels's). !. Yellow. June. Levant.
Clusia'na (Clusius's). 1. White, purple.
July. Sicily. 1636.
cornu'ta (horned). 2. Striped. May. Le-
Gesneria'na (Gesner's). 2. Striped. April.
- lacinia'ta (cut-sepaled). 2. Va-
riegated. April. Levant. 1603.
- - lu'tea (yellow). l. Yellow,
April. Levant. 1603.
- - ple'nti (double). 1. Variegated.
April. Levant. 1603.
hiema'lis (winter). Red. April.
hu'milis (dwarf). Red. April. Russia. 1840.
male'olens (ill-smelling). 1. Red, yellow.
May. Italy. 182/.
- - variega't a (variegated). 1. Varie-
gated. May. Italy. 1827.
me'dia (middle). 1. Scarlet, white. May.
monta'na (mountain). 1. Scarlet. July.
strangula' ta (choked) . l. April.
suave'olens (sweet-scented). . Red, yellow.
April. S. Europe. 1603.
sylve'stris (wild). 1. Yellow. April. Eng-
tri 1 color (three-coloured). 1. Scarlet. April.
Tu'rcica (Turkish). 2. Striped. April.
TULIP AS A FLORISTS' FLOWER.
Florists call tulips seedlings until they
j have bloomed; after this those pre-
j served on account of their good form
j and habit, as well as the offsets they
produce, are called breeders After
some years the petals of these become
striped, and they are then said to be
broken. If the striping is good they
are said to have a good strain, if it be
inferior, they are described as having a
bad strain. A rectified tulip is synony-
i mous with a tulip having a good strain.
A. feathered tulip has a dark-coloured
j edge round its petals, gradually be-
i coming lighter on the margin next the
j centre of the petal ; the feathering is
| said to be light, if narrow; heavy, if
j broad ; and irregular, if its inner edge
has a broken outline.
K flamed tulip is one that has a dark-
! pointed spot, somewhat in shape like
j the flame of a candle, in the centre of
! each petal.
Sometimes a tulip is both feathered
A Bizard tulip has a yellow ground,
and coloured marks on its petals.
A Byblomen is white, marked with
black, lilac, or purple.
A Hose is white, with marks of crim-
son, pink, or scarlet.
The end of September is a good time
for preparing the tulip-bed.
Situation. rThe aspect should be
open to the south and south-east, but
[ 895 ]
well sheltered from the north, north-
east, and north-west winds. We prefer
a perfectly level surface, because the
advantage of rain falling upon the bed,
and sinking into the earth, is more
certain than on a slope. The elevation
of the site is also a consideration worth
serious attention. Wherever it is in
the power of the cultivator of tulips,
intended for exhibition, to choose the
site, let him choose the happy medium,
neither too high nor two low. If there
are no shelters already on the spot to
defend and protect those choice flowers
from the untoward blasts of the
northern quarter, there ought to be
some prepared. A close wooden paling
is the one most ready and effectual,
and if made of deal, or oak, and well-
painted, will last several years. Beech,
hornbeam, yew, or arbor vitre hedges,
are very excellent, but they require
several years' growth before they are
high enough to screen the flowers
effectually. They might be planted
behind the paling, to be advancing in
growth; so that when the paling de-
cays, the hedges would be high and
thick enough to answer the purpose-
Whatever shelter is made use of, it
should be placed at a sufficient distance
from the beds not to draw up the
flowers, or prevent a full exposure to
light. On these accounts, or for these
reasons, the wind-shelters should never
exceed six or eight feet high.
Draining, The tulip loves a deep
soil, and a dry subsoil. Where there
is a good depth of good loam, with a
dry gravelly or sandy bottom, no more
draining is required than one or two
formed with drain-pipes and tiles, to
carry off the water that may fall in
wet seasons on the surface. An up-
right shaft, with a grating on the top
to catch this surface-water, will be ne-
cessary. When the natural soil is
shallow and the subsoil clay, or any
other water-retaining substance, set out
the bed the desired length and breadth,
and cast on one side all the good soil,
shovelling the small crumbs; then dig,
or hack and shovel out the subsoil, till
the bed is eighteen jnches deep. After
that is finished, dig a drain in the
centre of the bed six inches deep, and
wide enough to allow the operator to
lay down first the flat tiles, and then
the circular pipes, with holes in the
latter to admit the water to escape into
them, and then be carried clean away.
When the pipes, &c., are laid down,
cover them with rubble, and then lay
all over the bottom of the bed three or
four inches of either small stones,
broken clinkers, or brick ends. Upon
this drainage, lay a stratum of short
straw or small brushwood ; make this
smooth, and you may consider the
Manure and Soil. Procure some one-
year-old cow-dung; spread over and
upon the drains a stratum of this cow-
dung two inches thick ; then mix about
one-sixth of very well-decomposed hot-
bed dung Avith the loam thrown out, and
laid on one side on commencing the
operation of draining. If there is not
enough soil to make the bed up level
as before, procure some good loam for
the purpose, mixing it with the same
proportion of well-decomposed dung.
If the situation is low and damp, it will
be advisable to place an edging round
the bed six or eight inches deep, of
sufficient strength to bear up the soil
when it is raised to that height. The
best material for an edging of this kind
is blue slate, which may now be had
very reasonably; the next best is
common flags of slate ; and the next,
slabs of wood nailed to strong uprights
driven into the ground at proper in-
tervals. Mix the top surface with a
considerable mixture of river sand;
this will cause the bulbs to come out
of the soil at taking-up time, clean and
of a bright brown colour. Should the
collection be large, there should be two
parallel beds, with a walk between them.
Planting. The best season is about
the beginning of the second week in
November, as near the tenth of that
month as the weather and the state
of the ground will permit. This rule
applies to all the country north of
London ; perhaps, in the milder cli-
mate of the southern counties a week
later would be better. Too early plant-
ing is injurious, inasmuch as that the
leaves will be pushing through before
the severe weather has passed away,
[ 896 ]
and would then be in danger, however
well-protected, of being frost-nipped,
and, consequently, injured not only for
that year, but also for years to come.
The Method of Planting is governed j
by the height of the flower- stems ; for j
as some varieties grow taller than j
others, the tallest should be in the j
centre of the bed. This consideration
renders it necessary to plant them in
rows length-ways of the bed, and not
across it. This being determined upon,
let the soil of the bed be levelled and
made tolerably smooth; then, with a
triangular hoe, draw a drill the length
of the bed, as near two inches deep as
possible. To accomplish this quite
straight, it will be necessary to have
a line stretched very tightly the whole
length of the bed, at such a distance
from the centre as will allow the point
of the hoe, in drawing the drill, to be
exactly in the centre. As soon as the
drill is drawn, bring out all the tall
growers, and plant them, five inches
apart, at the bottom, giving each a
gentle pressure. When the row is
finished, thrust in at each end a strong
stick, this is to mark where the row of
bulbs is when covered up. Of very
choice and expensive varieties, some
florists recommend covering the bulbs
with fine white sand, but if the soil is
mixed with sand, we think the white
sand may be dispensed with. Cover
them up by drawing the soil over them
with a short-toothed rake. After that
let the soil on each side of the planted
row be stirred up with a three-pronged
fork. Then set the line at the right
distance from the centre (we mentioned
that the beds should be four feet wide,
which would allow nine inches between
each of the five rows, and six inches
next the edging), the line then must
be set at such a distance from the
centre, that the next row of bulbs will
be exactly nine inches apart from the
centre one. Draw the drill the same
depth as the first, and plant the next
tallest flowers in it. Then mark the
row with a stick at each end, and so
proceed till the whole is finished, the
lowest growers will then be next the
paths all round the bed. Each variety
must be numbered, and the numbers
put in so securely, that they cannot be
Shelter necessary for the flower before
and when in bloom. Where the col-
lection is small, and the means small
too, this consists merely of hoops,
either of wood or iron, with canvas
covers or mats to be thrown over the
hoops, which should be high enough
to keep the covering clear of the flowers.
This covering should be applied not
only when the plants are in bloom, but
also to shelter them from the late
frosts that sometimes come after the
plants make their appearance ; as well as
from the cutting winds that often visit us
in this country during the early months
of the year. This shelter, however,
must not be used except when abso-
lutely necessary. Too much shelter
only coddles the plants, and makes
them so tender that a too sudden ex-
posure, or the least neglect in applying
the covering, would be equally as in-
jurious as no shelter at all ; therefore,
on all favourable occasions remove the
coverings entirely, and let them have
the benefit of fine weather and gentle
Where the collection is large, and
the means ample, the most convenient
width of each bed would be five feet ;
this will hold five rows, nine inches
apart. A walk between them may be
eithe* three or four feet; the latter
will allow more room for the operator
and the spectator. Three feet beyond
each bed, on the outer sides, place a
row of pillars, four-and-a-half inches
square, to support the shelter; each
pillar may either be let into the ground,
and well rammed, or be inserted into
an iron or stone socket. These pillars
should stand above the surface at least
five feet, and at a distance of five feet
from each other. On the top of each
pillar a rafter should be placed, to
meet a corresponding rafter in the
centre of the space just over the centre
of the walk. Each rafter, at the junc-
tion, must be firmly fastened to a lon-
gitudinal piece of wood running the
whole length of the beds ; the length
of the beds depending, of course, upon
the number of roots, or size of the
collection. There will then be required
[ 897 ]
two rollers of wood, of the length of
the structure. On eacli of these, nail
a sheet of canvass, of sufficient width to
drop clown on each side nearly to the
ground. On the top, at the centre, fix
a pair of weather hoards, projecting
high enough to allow the roller and
canvass to go under them, one on each
side. This will preserve the canvass
from rotting, and so enable it to be
used for several years.
TU'NICA. (From tunica, a coat; the
calyx. Nat.'ord., Cloveworts [Caryophyl-
lacese]. Linn., 10-Decandria 2-Digynia.
Allied to Dianthus.)
Hardy herbaceous plants, blooming in July.
Seeds, in spring, and division of the plants ;
rich light soil.
T. dianthoi'des (Pink-like). Red. Candia. 1838.
Illy'rica (Illyrian). Red. Sicily. 1838.
pachyno'ta (thick-backed). White. Natolia.
Saxifra'ga (Saxifrage). . Pink. Germany.
stri'cta (erect). Pink. Altaia. 1834.
TU'PA. (The name of one of the
species in Chili. Nat. ord., Loleliads
[Lobeliacese]. Linn., 5-Pentandria 1-
Monogynia. Allied to Lobelia.)
Half-hardy herbaceous perennials. Cuttings,
but chiefly by division of the suckers that
spring up after the flowering stalks are cut
down ; rich sandy loam. When planted out in
a bed, the surface may be dressed with advan-
tage with rotten dung. Unless in a very shel-
tered place, they require the protection of a
cold pit, or a greenhouse, in winter ; and to
flourish well, they should be divided, and potted,
and assisted with a little heat in a bed, before
planting out in May. Lobelia Cavanillesiana
is united to this genus.
T. argu'ta. Yellow. September. Chili. 1824.
blu'ndu (charming). 3. Pink. Chili.
Feui'llei. Scarlet. September. Chili. 1824.
polyphy'lla (many-leaved). Purple. August.
purpu'rea. Purple. August. Valparaiso. 1825.
salicifo'lia (Willow-leaved). 6. Red. Octo-
ber. Valparaiso. J794.
secu'nda (side-flowering). . White. May.
Cape of Good Hope. 17Q4.
TURF may be obtained either by
sowing grass seeds, or laying turf
obtained from a common or down;
if the latter mode can be adopted, it
is the best, as the turf is obtained at
once, and is more regular than can be
obtained under the best circumstances
from seed. All the preparation of the
soil required is to dig it level, a spade
deep, provided the subsoil is open,
otherwise to have a good drainage
effected (see Draining) ; to have all
large stones removed from the surface,
and to have it brought to a perfect
level by repeated rollings, and filling
up the hollows Avhen necessary, as in-
dicated by the level. The surface being
then loosened by raking is ready for
the seed or turf.
By Seed. See Grass.
By Turf. The season for laying turf
is any time from September till April or
May, though it will grow at almost any
time of the year, even if there is occa-
sion to lay it in summer, and dry weather
succeed ; for although it will open at
the joints, and turn brown, as if dead,
yet after the first rain it will close
again, and resume its verdure. The
turf for this use is cut with an iron
instrument called a turfin'g iron, ob-
serving to cut the pieces all an equal
width, length, and thickness the
proper size is a foot wide, a yard long,
and about an inch thick ; they should
be first marked by line, the proper
width, length, and depth, with a racer
or rutter. Racing them first longwise
a foot wide, then across in yard lengths ;
then proceed to cut them up, having
particular regard to cut them level, and
equal in thickness, otherwise it will be
impossible to lay them level. As you
cut, a man or boy should roll each turf
up close and tight, the grass side
inwards, and pile them up by tens,
especially if they are cut by the hun-
dred. If they are cut by the hundred,
the price is from sixpence to a shilling,
according to the nature of the soil,
whether soft and easy to cut, or hard
or stony; a man will cut from three
to five, six, or seven hundred in a day,
or more, if very soft easy-cutting turf,
and having a person to race them out
and roll them up turf and turf as they
are cut. They are to be laid regularly,
turf and turf, unrolling them as you
lay them, joining them up quite close
edge to edge, making good all defi-
ciency of broken parts as you go on ;
and, as soon as laid, it should be well
beaten with broad heavy wooden beat-
ers, made of flat pieces of elm or oak
plank, two inches thick, fifteen or
eighteen inches long, and a foot broad,
[ 898 ]
having a long handle fixed slanting in
the middle of the upper side ; and with
these heat the grass regularly all over,
and then roll it well with a heavy
roller, observing that the beating and
rolling should he repeated in moist
weather. If very dry hot weather suc-
ceeds, so as to occasion the turf to
shrink and open at the joints, a good
watering will he of much advantage.
By Inoculation. If turf is scare*?,
cut turves into pieces, about three
inches square, and plant these, green
side up, pretty thickly over the space
intended for the lawn. Beat them down
into the soil, and water freely, roll fre-
quently, and water also in dry weather.
The turf will soon be as close, and the
sward as perfect, as if the ground had
been entirely turved.
TUEP ASHES. See Ashes.
These, which are the basis of charred
turf, now becoming so usual a manure,
are, according to M. Sprengel, thus
Alumina . . . . 1.35
Oxide of iron . . . 1.73
manganese . . 0.32
Magnesia . . . . 0.33
Potash, combined with sulphu-
ric acid .... 0.38
Common salt . . . . 0.08
Sulphuric acid, combined with
potash and lime . . 1.70
Phosphoric acid, combined
with lime and magnesia . 0.39
TURF TOOLS are the Racer or Eutter,
for cutting the edges of turf after it has
been laid, and for cutting the outlines
of the turves when first obtained. It
is a thin sharp-edged implement, some-
what resembling a cheese-cutter, fixed
to a handle about four feet long.
The Turfing Iron is for raising or
peeling off the turves from the soil. It
has an arrow-headed fiat blade, with au
A Turf or Daisy Hake consists of a
piece of thin plate iron, cut into teeth,
with two slips of ash, or other tough
wood, between which it is firmly riveted
to form a back, and keep it from bend-
ing. When put together, the back is
an inch and-a- quarter thick. The wood
is bevelled to nothing, half-an-inch
above the interstices of the teeth, at
which point the iron is slightly bent
longitudinally to admit the thickness
of wood underneath, and give a proper
inclination to the handle. The instru-
ment serves both as a grass rake and a
daisy rake, and has the advantage over
the daisy rakes in common use, of being
easier cleaned, from the wideness of the
interstices between the teeth.
TU'RNERA. (Named after Dr. W.
Turner, author of the first English
herbal. Nat. ord., Turnerads [Turnera-
cese]. Linn., b-Pentandria S-Trigynia.)
All yellow-flowered. Annuals and biennials
by seeds, in a hot-bed, in spring, and plants
bloomed in a greenhouse ; shrubs, by seeds, and
also by cuttings, in sand, under a bell-glass, in
spring and summer ; sandy loam, fibry peat,
and a little charcoal. Winter temp., 50 to 60;
summer, 60 to 85.
T. cistoi'des (Cistus-like). . July. America.
Guiane'nsis (Guianan). 1. June. Guiana.
hi'rta (hairy). 1. June. Brazil. 1818.
pumile'a (dwarf). $. August. Jamaica.
racemo'sa (racemed). 2. July. Siberia. 1780.
ulmifo'lia (Elm-leaved). 3. July. Jamaica.
T. Brazilie'nsis (Brazilian). 1. June. Brazil.
cuneifo'rmis (wedge-formed). 1. June. S.
rupe'stris (rock). 2. July. Guiana. 1824.
trioniflo'ra (Trionum-flowered). 2. Brazil.
ulmifo'lia angustifo'lia (narrow-elm-leaved).
3. June. Jamaica. 1733,
TURNIPS. Bra'ssica ra'pa.
Varieties. For the first sowings :
Early white Dutch, early stone.
For the spring sowings : Common
round white, large round white, large
green topped, large red topped, yellow
Dutch, tankard, French, small round
French, Swedish, Moscow, or Narva.
Sowing may commence at the end of
February, a small portion on a warm
border, and some in a moderate hotbed
of the two first varieties mentioned.
These will be fit for use during April.
The sowing on a border to be repeated
in the beginning of March, and these
will produce throughout May.
These sowings are to be repeated in
small proportions, at monthly intervals,
until the beginning of July, when the
main crop for the supply of the winter
may be inserted ; and finally, small
crops at the commencement of August
and September for spring.
Mode. Sow broadcast or in drills
twelve inches apart, and very thin ; and
to enable the seed to be distributed
regularly, mix it well with sand before
sowing. Each sowing should, if pos-
sible, be performed in showery weather;
if otherwise, water at the time of in-
sertion, and three times a week after-
Thin the plants when they have four
or five leaves about two inches in
hreadth, to at least twelve asunder from
Water must be given frequently and
plentifully, as on a regular supply of
moisture their goodness, in a great
In November, or December, before
the setting-in of frost, some of the bulbs
must be taken up, and, the tops and
roots being removed, preserved under
shelter in sand. The young tops are
much in request during spring; they
must be gathered when very young,
otherwise they are strong-flavoured and
To obtain Seed, some of the most
perfect roots of those which will with-
stand the winter may remain where
grown; or they may be transplanted
in November or February ; of the two
earliest varieties, sown on a border early
in March, some of the bulbs being
allowed to remain will produce seed
the same autumn.
Manures. The best manure for tur-
nips is stable-dung ; and next in their
order, guano, super-phosphate of lime,
soot, and salt.
For the injuries to which the turnip
is liable, see Athalia, Ambury, and
Turnip - cabbage (Bra'ssica na'po-
bra'ssica), and turnip-rooted cabbage
(B. caulo-ra'pa). See Knohl-kohl.
TURNIP-FLY. See Black Fly.
TURNSOLE. Heliotro' pium.
TURPENTINE. Si'lphium terebin-
TURPENTINE MOTH. See To'rtrix
TURPENTINE TREE, Pista'cia tere-
TURRJS'A. (Named after G. Tnrra,
professor of botany at Padua. Nat.