low juice. Nat. ord., Lilyworts [Lilia-
<5eee]. Linn., 6 -Hexandria 1-Monogynia.
Allied to Aphyllanthes.)
Greenhouse, white-flowered plants, from New
Holland. For culture see Aphyllantfa,
X. austra'lis (southern). 3. 1824. Evergreen.
bractea'ta (bracted). 2. 1810. Herbaceous.
ha'stilis (spear). 4. 1803. Evergreen.
hu' milis (dwarf). 2. 1825. Herbaceous.
me' dia (intermediate). 2. 1803. Evergreen.
mi'nor (smaller). 2. 1804. Herbaceous.
XANTHO'SOMA. (From xanthos, yellow,
and soma, a body; the edible roots.
Nat. ord., Arads [Araceae]. Linn., 21-
Moncecia 7-Heptandria. Allied to Ca-
Stove plants. For culture see Caladium.
X. Jacqui'ni (Jacquin's). Yellow. May. South
America. 1816. Evergreen.
sagitteefo'lia (arrow-leaved). White. May.
West Indies. 1710. Herbaceous.
XANTHO'XYLON. Toothache - Tree.
(From xanthos, yellow, and xylon, wood.
Nat, ord., Xanthoxyls [Xanthoxylaceaj].
Linn., '22-Dicecia o-Pentandria.)
Nearly all white-flowered ; cuttings, in sand,
under a bell-glass, in May ; the stove species in
heat ; the hardy species by seed, pieces of the
roots, and cuttings of the ripened shoots, in
sandy soil, under a hand-light; sandy loam
suits any of them.
X.fraxi'neum (Ash-like). 15. March. North
mi'te (mild). 10. Yellowish. March. North
trica'rpum (three-capsuled). 6. July. North
X. affi'ne (related). Mexico. 1826.
Budru'nga (Budrunga). 20. March. East
cla'va-He'rculis (Hercules's-club). 50. West
heterophy' Hum (various-leaved). Bourbon.
hermaphrodi'tum (two-sexed) . 50. Guiana.
juglandifo'lium (Walnut- leaved). West
ni'tidum (shining). 6. China. 1823.
Piperi'tum (Pepper -like). 6. September.
Japan. 1773. Greenhouse.
Ptero'ta (winged - leaf- stalked). August.
sapindoi'des (Sapinda-like). Jamaica.
spino'sum (thorny). 6. Jamaica. 1824.
trago'des (Goat's-tooth). 6. St. Domingo.
triphy'llum (three-leaved). 4. Penang. 1820.
XERA'NTHEMUM. (From zeros, dry,
and anthos, a flower ; everlasting flower.
Nat. ord., Composites [Asteracese]. Linn.,
The flowers, after being dried, may be dyed
of any colour. Hardy annuals. Seeds, in the
open border, in April.
[ 023 ]
X. a'nnuum (annual). 3. Purple. July. S.
ere'ctum (upright). White. June. Persia.
inape'rtum (unopened). 2. Purple. July.
S. Europe. 1620.
longipappo'sum (long - feathered). White.
June. Persia. 1836.
orienta'le (eastern). 2. White. July. Le-
XEROPHY'LLUM. (From zeros, dry,
and phyllon, a leaf ; dry, grassy leaves.
Nat. ord., Melanths [Melanthacece].
Linn., 6-Hexandria 3-Tryginia, Allied
White-flowered, herbaceous perennials, from
North America. Seeds and division of the
plant in spring. A rather moist peaty border
suits them best. Sabadilla requires a stove.
X. asphodeloi'des\( Asphodel-like).!. May. 1760.
grami'neum (grassy). 2. May. 1812.
Sabadi'lla (Sabadilla). 3. Vera Cruz. 1830.
te'nux (tough- leaved). l. May. 1811.
XIMENE'SIA. (Named after J. Xi-
menes, a Spanish apothecary. Nat,
ord., Composites [Asteracese]. Linn.,
19-8yngeneria 2-Superflua. AlUed to
Yellow-flowered, Mexican plants. Annuals
by seeds, in the open border, in April ; peren-
nials, also, by division of the plant in spring,
and these, in general, will want the protection
of a dry, cool pit in winter.
X. Cavanille'sii (Cavanilles's). 2. August. 1820.
fce'tida (stinking). 2j. August. 1824.
heterophy'lla (variable - leaved). 2. July.
X. corda'ta (heart -leaved). 3. September.
enceloi'des (Encelia-like). 3. August. 1/95.
XIME'NIA. (Named after F. Ximenes,
a Spanish naturalist. Nat. ord., Olacads
[Olacacese]. Linn., 8-Octandria \-Mo-
Stove evergreens. Cuttings of half-ripened
Shoots, in sand, under a glass, in May, and in
bottom-heat ; sandy fibry peat, and lumpy
loam. Winter temp., 55 to 60: summer,
60 to 85.
X. America' 'na (American). 15. Yellowish.
W. Indies. 1759.
ine'rmis (unarmed). 40. White. Jamaica.
lanceoln'ta (spear-leaved). Yellow. April.
oblongifo'lia (oblong-leaved). Green, June.
XIPHI'DIUM. (From xiphos, a sword ;
sword-like leaves. Nat. ord., Lily-
worts [Liliacese]. Linn., 6-Hcxandria
l-Monogynia. Allied to Wachen-
Stove, West Indian, herbaceous perennials.
Divisions of the plant, as fresh growth com-
mences ; rich fibry loam and fibry peat, and a
small portion of charcoal and sand. Winter
temp., 50 to 58 ; summer, 60 to 85.
X. a'lbum (white). !. White. 1787-
cceru'leum (blue). 1?. Blue. 1793.
gigante'um (gigantic). White. October.
XIPHO'PTERIS. Sword Fern. (From
xyphos, a sword, and pteris, a fern. Nat.
ord., Ferns [Polypodiacese]. Linn.,
Stove, brown-spored Ferns. See Ferns.
X. heterophy'lla (variable-leaved). . June.
New Holland. 1824.
myosuroi'des (Myosurus-like). June. West
serrula'ta (saw -like). $. June. West
XYLOPHY'LLA. (From xylon, wood,
and phyllon, a leaf; texture of the
leaves. Nat. ord., Spurgeiuorts [Eu-
phorbiacee]. Linn., Ql-Moncccia 10-
Decandria. Allied to Phyllanthus.)
Stove, yellow -and -red -flowered evergreens,
from Jamaica, unless otherwise mentioned.
For culture, see Phyllanthus.
X, angustifo'lia (narrow-leaved). July, 1789.
elonga'ta (elongated-tearerf). August. 1820.
falca'ta (sickle-leaved). July. 1699.
latifo'lia (broad-leaved). August. 1783.
linea'ris (narrow-leaved). August. 1819.
longifo'lia (long -leaved). August. East
me'dia (intermediate). August. 1825,
monta'na (mountain). August. 1819.
obova'ta (obovate-teomO. August. Siberia.
ramiflo'ra (branch-flowered). August. Si-
specio'sa (showy). September. 1818.
XYLO'PIA. (From xylon, wood, and
pieron, bitter ; the wood and fruit of
X. glabra is called Bitterwood in the
W. Indies. Nat. ord., Anonads [Ano-
naceee]. Linn., 13-Polyandria (5-Poly-
Stove evergreens. Cuttings of firm stubby
side-shoots one year old, with most of the leaves
adhering, in sand, under a bell-glass ; sandy
loam and fibry peat. Winter temp., 50 to 55 ;
summer, 60 to 85.
X. frute'scens (shrubby). 4. Guiana. 1823.
gla'bra (smooth -fruited). 20. Jamaica.
murica'ta (rough- fruited), 4. W, Indies,
C 024 ]
YELLOW SULTAN. Ccntaure'a suave'o-
YELLOW-TAILED MOTH. See Por-
YU'CCA. Adam's Needle. (Name
of the plant in Peru. Nat. ord., Lily-
worts [Liliaceee]. Linn., 6-ffexandria
All whitish-flowered evergreens. Sometimes
by seeds sown immediately they are ripe, in a
slight hotbed ; generally by suckers, but also at
times from young shoots that branch from the
stems ; deep, dry, sandy loam is their favourite
soil ; a few require the assistance of a stove or
greenhouse, but most of them stand the open
air in England. Aloifolia is, perhaps, the
tenderest of all the hardy ones. They flourish
near the sea shore. We may add that they
seem quite at home on a knoll, or on rock-work.
1'. acumina'ta (pointed-flowered). 6. August.
aletrifo'rmis (Aletris-like). 2. C. of G.
Hope. 1823. Greenhouse.
aloifo'lia (Aloe-leaved). 2. August. S.
pe'ndula (droop'mg-leaved), 12.
variega'ta (variegated-feared). 2.
angustifo'lia (narrow - leaved). 2. July.
arcua'ta (bowed). 1. July. 1817.
conca'va (hollow-feared). 14. August. 1816.
conspi'cua (conspicuous). 3. 1818. Green-
crenul a 'ta (scolloped). 1818.
draco'nis (Dragon). 8. August. South
America. 1732. Greenhouse.
filamento'sa (thready). 2. September. Vir-
variega'ta (variegated-feared). 2.
fla'ccida (flaccid). 2. 1816.
glauce'scens (milky- green). 2. July. North
glorio'sa (glorious). 4. July. America. 1596. I
fo'liis-variega'iis (variegated-leaved). I
oUi'qua (oblique-feawed). 4. 1808.
ma'jor (larger). 4. 1808.
pube'rula (rather- downy). August.
recu'rva (curled-back-feared). 3. August.
ru'fo-ci'ncta (reddish-edged). l. July. 1816.
serrula'ta(sa.\v-edged). 10. Carolina.
stri'cta (upright). 1. July. Carolina. 1817.
supe'rba (superb). 10. August.
tenuifo'lia (slender-leaved). 1. Malta. 1817.
Y.gra'tilis (slender), July, Mexico, 1829,
Y. graminifo'lia (Grass-leaved). Mexico. 1838,
latevi'rens (pale-green). Mexico. 1838.
longifo'lia (long-leaved). Mexico. 1830.
Pitcairnicefo'lia (Pitcairnia-leaved). Mexico.
serratifo'lia (saw-leaved). Mexico. 1838.
ZALA'CCA ASSA'MICA. Ca'lamus Za-
ZA'MIA. (From zamia, loss; the
! barren appearance of the male flowers.
| Nat. ord., Cycads [Cycadacese]. Linn.,
j 22-Dicecia 12-Icosandria.)
A race of plants intermediate between Ferns
and Palms. Those not otherwise specified are
from the Cape of Good Hope, and will succeed
in a greenhouse, but all do best in a stove.
Suckers; rich, loamy soil. Winter temp..
45^to 55; summer, 60 to 80.
Z. augustifo'lia (narrow-leaved), 2. July.
Ca'ffra (Caffrarian). 4.
cycadifo'lia (Cycas-leaved). 3. 1/75.
cy' cadis (Cycas-like). 3. 1775.
de'bilis (wea.k-long-leaved). 1. July. W.
furfura'cea (scurfy). 3. July. W. Indies,
ho'rrida (horrid). 5. 1SOO.
integrifo'tia (entire-leaved, dwarf}. 2. July.
W. Indies. 1768.
lanugino'sa (woolly). 3. 1812.
latifo'lia (broad-leaved). 6.
longifo'lia (long-leaved). 7, J818.
me'dia (mediate). 2. July. W. Indies. 1768,
pruni'ferm (plum-bearing). 14.
pu'mila (dwarf). l. 1812.
pu'ngens (stinging). 10. 1775.
pygma'a (pygmy). 1. May. W.Indies.
repa'nda (w&\y-leaved) 6.
spino'sa (spiny). 5.
spira'lis (spiral). 3. July. N. S. Wales.
te'nuis (slender). 1. Bahama Islands.
tridenta'ta (three-toothed). 2. 1814.
ZANTHO'XYLUM. See Xantlio'xylon.
ZAUSCHNE'EIA. (Named after J/.
Zauschncr, a German. Nat, ord., Ona-
jrads [Onagracese]. Linn., 8-Oclandriu
\-Monogynia. Allied to Epilobium.)
A hardy plant, with the habit of a Fuchsia.
Division of plant in spring; cuttings of the
shoots in spring, summer, and autumn, under
a hand-light. It is a good pot and bedding
plant ; for the latter purpose, as the flowers are
apt to drop too much, mix it with Cuphea
strigillosa; rich light soil.
Z. Califo'rnica (Californian). 3. Bright scar-
let. June. Santa Cruz. 1847.
ZE'A. Maize or Indian Corn. (From
zao, to live ; a food plant. Nat. ord.,
Grasses [Graminacese]. Linn,, 21-
[ 925 ]
Annuals, Seeds, in a slight hot-bed, in early
spring, and the seedlings planted out into good
soil. The heads, when half-grown and green,
make an excellent vegetable when boiled.
Z. Cura'gua (Curagua). 1. June. Chili. 1824.
Ma'ys (Maize). 2. June. America. 1562.
ZEPHYKA'NTHES. (From zephyr, the
west wind, and anthos, a flower. Nat.
ord., Amarylllds [Amaryllidaceae].
Linn., 6-Hexandria \-Monoygnia. Al-
lied to Habranthuj-O
Half-hardy bulbs, with only one flower on a
stalk. For culture, see Habranthus.
Z. Atama'sco (Atamasco Lily). . White.
May. N. America. 1629.
ca'ndida (white). . White. September.
carina'ta (keeled). A. Pink. May. Mexico.
chloroleu'ca (greenish-white). . Pale green.
Drummo'ndii (Drummond's). White, pink.
July. Texas. 1835.
meso'chloa (green - centred). 1. White,
green. June. Buenos Ayres. 1825.
ro'sea (rosy). . Red. May. Havannah.
stria'ta (channelled), g. White. April.
tubispa'tha (tube-spathed). J. White. May.
nerecu'nda (blushing). -J. Pale red. April.
ZI'CHYA. (Named after Countess
Zichy, a German patroness of botany.
Nat. ord., Leyumliwm Plants [Faba-
ceae]. Linn., 17-Diadelphia -Decandria.
Allied to Kennedy a.)
Greenhouse evergreen twiners, from Swan
River. For culture, see Kennedya,
Z. angustifo'lia (narrow - leaved). Crimson.
cocci' nea (scarlet). May.
glabra'ta (smooth). 6. Orange. May. 1834.
heterophy'lla (various-leaved). 4. Purple.
inophy'lla (nerve-leaved). 4. Scarlet. July.
microphy'lla (small-leaved). Crimson. July.
Mo'lly (Molly). Scarlet. July. 1837.
panno'sa (wrinkled-leaved). 6. Crimson,
seri'cea (silky). 4. Scarlet. May. 1825.
tri' color (three-coloured). 1. Red, yellow,
purple. May. 1837.
villo'.ia (shaggy). 3. Vermilion. June. 1841.
ZIE'JUA. (Named after M. Zler, a
Polish botanist. Nat. ord., Eueworts
[Rutacese]. Linn., ^-Tetrandria \-Mo-
noyynia. Allied to Boronia.)
Greenhouse, white-flowered evergreens, from
New Holland. For culture, see Boronia.
Z. arbore'scens (tree-like). 1822.
hirsu'ta (hairy), 4, June.
Z. laniga'ta (smooth-leaved), 3. June. 1822.
lanceola'ta (spear- Jeaved). June. 1808.
macrophy'lla (large-leaved) . 4. June. 1820.
microphy'lla (small-leaved). 3. June. 1822.
obcorda'ta (reversed-ege;- leaved). 4. June,
octa'ndra (8-stamened). 5. Green. 1825.
pauciflo'ra (few-flowered). 1822.
pilo'sa (shaggy). 4. June. 1822.
revolu'ta (curled-back-Jecwed). June. 1824.
ZI'NGIBER. Ginger. (From the
Indian name. Nat. ord., Ginaerworts
[Zingiberacese]. Linn., l-Monandria
Stove, herbaceous perennials, from the East
Indies ; yellow-flowered, where not otherwise
mentioned ; division of the roots ; fibry peat
and sandy loam. Winter temp., 40 to 45;
summer, 60 to 90. See Ginger.
Z. Ama'ricans (Amaricans). 3. Penang. 1846.
capita' turn (round-headed). 4. February.
Casumu'nar (Casumunar).2. February. 1807.
chrysa'nthum (gold-flowered). 8. July. 1821.
ela'tum (lofty). 6. July. 1820.
ligula'tum (strap-leaved). 2. Pink. June.
Mio'ga (Mioga). 2. Pink. May. Japan.
officina'le (shop). 2. Red. July. 1605.
pandura'tum (fiddle-lipped). 5. Pink. June,
purpu'reum (purple). 2. Purple. Sep-
ro'seum (rosy). 2. Rose, yellow. August.
ru' bens (red). 6. Red. October. 1822.
squarro'sum (spreading). 2. Pink. August.
Zeru'mbet (Zerumbet). 4. August. 1690.
ZI'NNIA. (Named after J. G. Zinn,
a German professor of botany. Nat.
ord., Composites [Asteracese]. Linn.,
Mexican annuals, scarlet-flowered, with one
exception. Seeds, in April, in a hotbed ; seed-
lings hardened off, and then transferred to the
flower-garden, in good, rich, loamy soil. If sown
earlier, they are apt to be drawn and attacked
by insects. We have had them fine, by>owing.
under a hand-light, without bottom-heat, in the
middle of April, and throwing a mat over the
glass at night.
Z. angustifo'lia (narrow-leaved). 2. July. 1824.
e'legans (elegant). 2. July. 1796.
cocci' nea (scarlet-raz/ed). 2. Au-
hy'brida (hybrid). 2. June. 1818.
multiflo'ra (many-flowered). 2. August. 1770
pauciflo'ra (few-flowered). 2. Yellow. July.
revolu'ta (curled-back). 2. July. 1817.
tenuiflo'ra (slender-flowered). 2. July. 1799.
rerticilla'ta (whorl-tea??ed). 2. July. 1789.
Zm'pHOitA. (From zizi, of the In-
dians, and phoreo, to bear. Nat. ord.,
[ 926 ]
Lipworts [Lamiacese]. Linn., 2-Dian-
drla \-Monoijynia. Allied to Monarda.)
Red-flowered, where not otherwise mentioned.
Annuals, by seed in April ; perennials by seeds,
divisions, and cuttings, dry sandy loam, and
elevated places, such as rock-works ; the peren-
nials require a little protection in winter.
Z. acinoi'des (Thyme-like). . July. Siberia.
clinopodioi'des (Basil-like), f. Pink. June.
< cane'scens (hoary). July.
me'dia (mediate). . July.
dasya'ntha (thick-flowered). . July. Si-
Z. capita' ta (headed). . July. Syria. 1752.
Hispa'nica (Spanish). . June. Spain. 1759.
Tau'rica (Taurian). . Red, purple. Au-
gust. Tauria. 1816.
tenu'ior (slenderer). . Purplish. June.
ZI'ZYPHUS. (The Egyptian name
of Z. lotus. Nat. ord., Rhamnads
[Ehamnacese], Linn., 5 - Pentandria
1 -Monogynia. )
Greenish-yellow-flowered, where not other-
wise mentioned. Cuttings of the roots, suckers,
and cuttings of ripened shoots, under a hand-
light or bell-glass, according as the species are
hardy or tender ; deep dry loam for the hardy,
peat and sandy loam for the tender.
HARDY DECIDUOUS, &C.
Z.flexuo'sa (zig-zag). 6. Nepaul. 1820.
incu'rva (curled-in). 5. Nepaul. 1823.
spi'na-Chri'sti (Christ's Thorn). 6. August.
ine'rmis (unarmed). 6, August.
STOVE EVERGREENS, &C.
Z. Caracu'tta (Caracutta). E. Indies. 1820.
lonffifo'lia (long-leaved). India. 1837.
melastomoi'des (Melastoma-like). 6. New
mucrona'ta (pointed-teaed), 30. C. of G.
Hope. 1810. Greenhouse.
Nape'ca (Napeca). 15. Ceylon. 1816.
ni'tida (shining) . 6. June. China. 1822. j
spi'na-Christi trine'rvia (three-nerved). E.
ZO'BNIA. (Named of J. Zorn, a
German botanist. Nat. ord., Legu-
minous Plants [FabaceeBJ. Linn., 16-
Annuals, seeds, in a hotbed, and the plants
afterwards bloomed in the greenhouse ; peren-
nials also by seeds, and dividing the plants in
spring, and requiring to be kept from frost, and
rather dry in winter ; rich, light, fibry loam.
Z. angustifo'lia (narrow-leaved). 1. Purple.
July. India. 1733. Annual.
CapeWs(Cape). . Yellow. July. C. of G.
Hope. 1824. Greenhouse perennial.
tetraphy'lla (four-leaved). . Yellow. July.
Carolina. 1824. Greenhouse perennial,
ZYGADE'NUS. (From zygnuo, to join,
and adcn, a gland; double glands on
the perianth. Nat. ord., Melanths [Me-
lantnacea?]. Linn., 6-Hexandria 1-
Monogynla. Allied to Veratrum. )
Hardy, North American, herbaceous peren-
nials. Seeds, and division of the plant, in
spring ; a moist, shady peat border.
Z. bractea'tus (bracted). l. Cream. May. 1811.
commuta'tus (changeable). 1. Cream. June.
e'legans (elegant). 1. White. May. 1828.
glabe'rrimus (smoothest). 1. Cream. June.
hy'bridum (hybrid). . White. June. 1822.
monoi'cum (monoecious). 2. Brown. June.
Virgi'nicum (Virginian). 2. Brown. June.
ZYGOPE'TALUM. (From zygos, a yoke,
and petalon, a petal; the union of
the bases of the petals and sepals.
Nat. ord., Orchids [Orchidacese]. Linn.,
Stove orchids, grown in pots. See Orchids.
Z. Africa' num (African). Violet. January. Gua-
brachype'talum (short- petaled). Green,
blue. October. Brazil. 1844.
coclilea're (spoon-lipped). 1. White, purple.
crini'tum (tressed). Green, blue. November.
grami'neum (grass-leaved). Green, blue.
November. Popayan. 1844.
interme'dium (intermediate). Green, blue.
November. Brazil. 1844.
Macka'yi (Mackay's). 1. Green, lilac.
March. Brazil. 1825.
maxilla're (tooth-like-./fo>eraf). 1. Brown,
green. September. S. America. 1829.
Murraya'num (Murray's). . Green, white.
July. Brazil. 1837.
rostra'tum (beaked). J. White, brown.
September. Demerara. 1827.
stenochi'lum (narrow-lipped). |. White,
yellow. September. Brazil. 1828.
tri 1 color (three-coloured). Green, white.
November. Guayana. 1845.
ZYGOPHY'LLUM. Bean Caper. (From
zygos, a yoke, and phyllon, a leaf: leaves
in pairs. Nat. ord., Sean-capers [Zygo-
phyllaceffi]. Linn., IQ.Decandria 1-
Greenhouse, yellow - flowered, evergreeens,
and from the Cape of Good Hope where not
otherwise mentioned. Annual, seeds in a hot-
bed, in spring; and then the plants hardened
[ 927 ]
off and placed in the open border. Perennials,
by cuttings of half-ripened shoots, in sand,
under a bell-glass, in heat ; sandy peat and
fibryloara, with a little charcoal and freestone.
Z. a'lbum (white). 2. White. October.
atriplicoi 1 des (Orach-like). America. 1837.
cocci'neum (scarlet). 3. Scarlet. Egypt. 1823.
cordifo'lium (heart-leaved) . 6. October. 1774.
fw'tidum (stinking). 4. June. 1790.
insua've (unpleasant). 4. July.
Z. macula 1 turn (spotted). 4. October. 1/82.
ma'jor (larger). 4. July. Syria. 1596.
microphy'llum (small-leaved). . July. 1816.
Morgsa'na (Morgsana). 3. August. 1732.
prostra'tum (prostrate). . July. 1810.
sessilifo'lium (stalkless-leaved). 3. July,
si'mplex (simple). . July. Saint Jago.
spatula'tum (spatulate). June. Cape Verd
Islands. 1824. Stove herbaceous.
apino'sum (spiny). 1. July. 1830.
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