Hardy deciduous climbers ; seeds when
procurable ; sown in a cold pit, and
pricked off into other pots as soon as up ;
layers in summer and autumn ; cuttings
in spring and summer, under a hand-
light ; common soil.
A. america'na (American), 15. Purple. June.
North America. 1797.
obli'qua (oblique). 15. Purple.
June. North America. 1797.
austri'aca (Austrian). 8, Brown yellow.
July. Austria. 1792.
macrope'tala (larfye-petaled). Russia. 1831.
occidenta' lis (western). 10. July. 1818.
ochotefnsis (Ochotsk). 12. White. June,
siU'rica. (Siberian). 12. Whitish yellow.
July. Siberia. 1753.
A' TRIPLEX. Orache, or Arach. (From
ater, black, and plexus, woven together ;
on account of the dark colour and habit
of some of the species. Nat. ord., Cfano-
nopodiacea?]. Linn., 23-Poly-
gamia, l-Monwcia}. A. Ha'limus is a
hardy evergreen shrub, rather orna-
mental, and A. portulacoi' des is a hardy
under shrub; but the species most de-
serving notice is A. hortensis. Garden
Orach. See ORACH. There are many
other species quite undeserving the no-
tice of the gardener.
A'TROPA. Nightshade. (Named after
Atropos, one of the three fates, in refer-
ence to its poisonous qualities.) We in-
troduce this native weed (Atropa bella-
donna), for the purpose of warning coun-
try people from eating its berries ; fatal
accidents frequently occurring in conse-
quence. The berries are at first green,
but become black and juicy.
ATTALE'A. (From attalus, magnifi-
cent ; in reference to the beauty of these
palms. Nat. ord., Palms [Palmacese].
Linn., Il-Monwcia, 9-Polyandria. Allied
to Cocos). Stove palms. Seeds ; rich
loamy soil. Summer temp., 65 to 80 ;
winter, 55 to 60.
A. co'mpta (decked). 22. Brazil. 1820.
wj'fa (tall). 70. Brazil. 1826,
funi'fera (rope). 40. Brazil. 1824.
hu'milis (humble). 10. Brazil. 1820.
Ro'ssii (Ross's). 20. Brazil. 1825.
specio' sa (showy). 70. Brazil. 1826.
specta'Ulis (remarkable). 70. Brazil. 1824.
AUBRIE'TIA. (Named after M. Aubriet,
a French botanical draughtsman. Nat.
ord., Crucifers [Brassicacese]. Linn.,
\5-Tetradynamia. Allied to ARABIS).
Hardy evergreen trailers. Dividing in
spring or autumn ; cuttings, under a
hand-glass, in sandy soil ; any dry soil.
A. deltoi'dea (three - angled). . Purple.
April. Levant. 1710.
hesperidiflo'ra (Hesperis-flowered). |. Pur-
ple. March. South Europe. 1823.
purpiCrea (purple). \. Purple. April.
AT/CUBA. (The name of the shrub in
Japan. Nat. ord., Cornels [Cornaceac].
Linn., 2l-Moncecia,4-Tetrandria). Cut-
tings in spring and autumn, in any light
soil, without covering ; common soil,
if drained ; stands the smoke of towns
well. It is sometimes called the Varie-
A.japtfnica (Japan-blotch-leaved). 6. Ape-
tal. June. Japan. 1783.
AUDIBE'RTIA. (Named after M. Av-
dibert, a noted nurseryman of Tarascon.
Nat. ord., Labiates [Lamiaceae]. Linn.,
2-Diandria, \-Monogynia. Allied to
MONAKDA). Hardy evergreen. Seeds
in March or April ; common soil.
A, inca'na (mouldy-looking). 1. Pale blue.
August. Columbia. 1827.
ATJDOUI'NIA. (Named after Audouin,
a celebrated entomologist. Nat. ord.,
Bruniads [Bruniaceae]. Linn., 5 - Pen-
tandria, 1 - Monogynia). Greenhouse
evergreen under shrub. Cuttings of half-
ripened wood, in sand, under a bell-
glass ; peat and loam. Winter tempera-
A. capita' ta (headed). 1|. Purple. June.
Cape of Good Hope. 1790.
AU'LAX. (From aulax, a furrow; in
reference to the furrowed under side of
the leaves. Nat. ord., Proteads [Protea-
ceas]. Linn., 22-Dioecia, 4-Tetrandria).
Greenhouse evergreen shrubs. Ripe cut-
tings, in sandy soil, under a bell-glass ;
loam and peat. Winter temp., 45 to
A.pinifo'lia (pine-leaved). 2. Yellow. Au-
gust. Cape of Good Hope. 1780.
uiribella'ta (umbelled). 2. Yellow. July.
Cape of Good Hope. 1774.
AURICULA (Primula auri'cula). The
Bear's Ear, or Mountain Cowslip.
The varieties of this flower are very
numerous, and their numbers are annu-
ally increased. They are divided into
five classes. 1. Green-edged. 2. Grey-
edged. 3. White-edged. 4. Selfs, or one-
coloured, and 5. Alpines, which have the
outer edge of the petals shaded by a mix-
ture of two colours, not separated into
distinct bands of colour, as in the edged
varieties, and the paste round the tube is
yellow instead of white, as it is in the
edged and selfs.
" As florists have several terms relative
to the Auricula, which may be not under-
stood by every amateur, we may as well
explain that the thrum is a collective
name for the stamens in the very centre
or tube of each flower. Paste in the
edged and self varieties is the white
colour next round the edge of the tube,
or eye, of the flower ; it is yellow in
the Alpines. Ground colour is the next
colour to this on the petal, being the
distinctive colour of the variety. Edge
is the outer colour of all, forming the
border of the flower. A Pip is the single
flower, and a Truss is several pips, with
their several footstalks springing from
one stem common to them all.
" The properties of the Auricula may
be divided into two series namely, those
of the single pip, and those of the single
' ' TJie Pip. 1 . Should be circular, large,
with petals equal, firm, fleshy, smooth at
the edges, without notch or serrature,
and perfectly flat.
"2. The centre, .or tube, should not ex-
ceed one-fourth of the diameter of the
pip ; it should be of a fine yellow or lemon
colour, perfectly round, well filled with
the anthers, or thrum, and the edge
rising a trifle above the paste, or eye.
" 3. The paste, or eye, should be per-
fectly circular, smooth, and of a dense pure
white, without crack or blemish, forming
a band not less than half the width of the
tube, and encircling it.
"4. The ground colour should be dense,
whole, and form a perfect circle next the
eye ; the brighter, darker, or richer the
colour, the better the flower ; but if it be
paler at the edges (where they are parted
into five) or have two colours or shades,
it is a fatal defect.
" 5. The margin or outer edge should
be a clear unchangeable green, grey, or
white ; and be about the same width as
the ground colour, which must in no part
go through to the edge. From the edge
of the paste to the outer edge of the
flower should be as wide as from the
centre of the tube to the outer edge of the
paste. In other words, the proportions
of the flowers may be described by draw-
ing four circles round a given point at
equal distances ; the first circle forming
the tube, the second the white eye, the
third the ground colour, and the fourth
the outer edge of the flower, and the
nearer they approximate to this (except
that the ground colour, which may be a
little broader than the other bands, and
the green or grey edge may run into each
other in feathery points) the better the
flower. The colours should not be liable
to fly, as is the defect of Stretch's Alex-
ander, the colours of which fade in three
or four days.
" Of the Plant. 1. The stem should be
strong, round, upright, elastic, bearing
the truss upright without support, and
from four to seven inches high, so as to
carry the truss well, but not too high
ahove the leaves.
"2. The length and strength of the foot-
stalks of the pips should be so propor-
tioned to the number and size of these
that all the pips may have room to show
themselves, and to form a compact semi-
globular truss of flowers, not less than
five, though we prefer seven in number,
without lapping over each other. The
pips should be all alike in colour, size,
and form, so as not to be easily distin-
guished from one another ; for, other-
wise, the unity and harmony of the truss
will be destroyed, and although ever so
beautifully formed, would appear as if
taken from different sorts of Auricula.
An Auricula ought to blow freely, and
expand all its pips at the same time ; for
by this means the colours in them all
will appear equally fresh and lively ;
whereas, in those trusses that do not open
some of the pips till others have passed
their prime, the whole appearance of the
truss is impaired.
"3. The truss is improved if one or
more leaves grow, and stand up well be-
hind the bloom ; for it assists the truss,
and adds much to the beauty of the
bloom by forming a green background.
" 4. The foliage, or grass, should be
healthy, well-grown, and almost cover
the pot." Gard. and Florist, i. 45.
" We are of opinion that all these cri-
teria are founded upon the dictates of
correct taste ; but, as these excellencies
are never combined in one variety, and
as some, being equals in many qualities,
are mutually superior in others, the ques-
tion constantly arises at Auricula exhibi-
tions as to which variety has the prepon-
derance of merit. Now, we are clearly
of opinion that/onw, including in this the
relative proportions of the colours on the
pips, the half globular form of the truss,
the number of pips, &c., is by far the
most striking excellence in an Auricula.
Next to this we should place the har-
mony, or, as we should prefer, the agree-
able contrast, or complemental association
of the colours.
" Of the Pairs. Auriculas are usually
exhibited two specimens together, or ' in
pairs.' These should be of equal height
and size in all their parts leaves as well
as blooms for it is offensive to the eye
to see a dwarf by the side of a tall-
growing specimen. It is also desirable
that the colours should differ thus, a
green-edged and a white-edged, a dark
ground colour and a light ground colour,
should go together. But we do not at-
tach so much importance to this diversity
of colour as some judges do. We think
it should have no weight further than
that, if two competing pairs are exactly of
equal merit in other respects, the prize
should be awarded to the pair of best
contrasted colours. But the slightest su-
periority in any characteristic of the pip
or truss, we think, ought to prevail over
this mere matter of taste, for the other
characteristics are evidences of better
cultivation." (The Cottage Gardener,
Propagation is effected by taking slips
from and dividing roots of approved va-
rieties, after the seed has ripened in July
and August, and by the seed itself.
Raising Varieties. The parent plants
should be vigorous, and before the pips
of the mother plant are quite open cut off
the anthers of all of them with a pair of
sharp pointed scissars, cover with a
hand-glass, dust the pistil with pollen
from the father plant, and keep the
hand-glass over as before, until the
flower beginning to fade shows that
there is no danger of any other pollen
being intruded to frustrate your object.
Gather the seed vessels as they become
brown in June and July ; place them in
the sun on a sheet of white paper until
they burst. Rub out the seeds and sow
them early in September, or keep them
in the seed vessels in a dry place until
March, which is better. Sow them in a
warm border of light soil, or in boxes
under glass ; cover them with a quarter
of an inch of the same soil. Keep the
seedlings free from weeds, and when they
have four or five leaves transplant them
from the boxes or from the border into a
similar border in rows eight inches apait
each way, there to remain until they
flower, which will be next spring. Those
that you mark as good must be potted as
soon as the bloom is over, and treated as
we shall direct for established old plants.
Culture of established Plants. We will
suppose that you have bought these while
blooming. Then, at the end of June
when the hlooming is quite over repot
them, in order to have a strong growth
to flower finely next season. Have your
compost of light loam, rotten cowdung,
and decayed vegetable mould, in equal
parts, with a portion of sand, about one-
eighth, well mixed, and in a state neither
wet nor dry, ready in such quantities as
your stock of plants may require. Turn
out of their pots your blooming plants ;
remove nearly all suckers that have
roots to them ; lay them on one side, then
shake off nearly all the old soil ; trim
the roots sparingly, and then your plant
is ready for the new pot. Place a large
crock, or broken piece of pot, or an oyster
shell, over the hole of each pot ; put
upon this a number of smaller crocks to
the depth of three quarters of an inch ;
then place upon them about half an inch
of the fibrous part of the loam, and upon
that a portion of your compost ; then
with one hand hold the plant rather
above the level of the rim of the pot, and
with the other fill in the compost amongst
the roots. Proceed thus until the pot is
filled, and then gently strike the pot upon
the bench to settle the soil, leaving hold
of the plant that it may settle with the
soil. This will bring the soil level with
the rim of the pot ; put a little more
soil around the plant, and press it gently
with your fingers, so as to leave the soil
a quarter of an inch below the edge of the
pot at the sides, and level with it in the
centre. Place them upon a bed of coal-
ashes, in a situation where the sun does
not shine upon them after ten o'clock
in the morning. The proper sized pots for
blooming plants is the size known as 32s;
they are about 5 1 inches in diameter, and
of proportionate depth. The suckers may
either be put singly into small pots, or
three or four in pots of the same size as
those for the blooming plants, and be
treated in a similar manner. The single
pot plan is the best if you have room to
winter them. Water them all in fine
weather, and look out for slugs and
worms which would injure them. Keep
them free from weeds, stir the surface
frequently, and keep them throughout
July, August, and September, beneath a
north wall, with a covering of oiled can-
vas, to draw down in very heavy showers.
So soon as the cold nights and heavy
rains of autumn come on, the plants must
be removed to their winter quarters.
Wintering. Dr. Horner, one of the
most successful of Auricula cultivators,
has employed for many years a frame
made purposely for protecting this flower
in winter, which he thus has depicted
and described :
"It stands on legs between two and
three feet high ; the top lights slide, and,
as shown n the diagram, may also > >
propped up by means of an iron bar, per-
forated with holes two or three inches
apart ; and which catch on a nail pro-
jecting from the wood on which the light
rests when down. It is permanently
fixed to the sash by means of a small
staple, forming a movable joint, and when
not used lies along its lower edge, and is
there secured. The front lights let down
on hinges ; the ends are also glass ; and
in the back, which is wood, there is a door
for the convenience of getting to the pota
behind, and also for thorough ventilation.
There are five rows of shelves, graduated
to the slope of the glass ; they have a
piece an inch wide sawn outof the middle ;
there is a space also left between them ;
so that the bottom of the frame is quite
open, for the abundant admission of air
to circulate thoroughly around the sides
and bottom of the pots. By letting down
the front light only, the plants may be
left for days together, exposed to all the
advantages of light and air, without care
or notice, and, when it is desirable to
give them the benefit of a shower, the
top lights are removed."
But it is not at all necessary to incur
the expense of a frame thus constructed, as
a common cucumber frame set on bricks,
or cold pit, answer equally well. In either
of these set them upon a stratum of coal
ashes, two or three inches thick or, when
expense is no object, upon a stage of boards
slightly raised. The plants ought to be
within six inches of the glass. Careful
attention is required to two points giv-
ing air, and watering ; very little, if any,
is required of the latter. If the weather
is dry, and a good deal of sunshine occurs,
a little water will be required : this should
be applied in the morning, to allow the
surface of the soil in the pots to become
dry before night. A fine sunny morn-
ing, therefore, should be chosen to water
these plants. Of air, abundance should
be given. On all fine days, the lights
should be drawn entirely off; but should
there be the least appearance of rain, let
the frames be closed instantly, giving air
then either at the back, by propping up
the light, or by propping up the lights in
the centre of each side so as to allow a
full current of air to the plants. Con-
stant search must be made for slugs,
woodlice, and other destructive insects,
and the surface of the soil kept free from
moss by frequent gentle stirring.
Spring culture. At the close of Feb-
ruary top-dress the soil in the pots with
a compost of very rotten cowdung, two
years old at least, and some rotten leaf-
mould and light loam. If these are not
dry, use means to make them so : mix
them with the hand well together, and
add a little sand ; then have your plants
in some convenient place, remove a por-
tion of the old soil, clear away all decayed
leaves, and apply the top-dressing of fresh
compost, very nearly filling the pots;
press it rather closely to the stem of each
plant, give a gentle watering with a fine-
rose watering-pot to settle the new earth,
replace the plants in the frame, and
attend them carefully, as directed pre-
viously. This top-dressing greatly
strengthens the plants, and consequently
the blooms. Continue to give air freely,
as above directed. When the trusses of
flowers show themselves, which will be
about the end of March, give air freely
only during very fine days, and keep
them rather warmer both by night and
by day, giving at night a thick covering
of mats or other warm material. "Water
abundantly now, but only on the soil : do
not wet the leaves. When in flower
shade them from the sun, or remove them
to a cool shady situation, but quite pro-
tected from rain by some kind of glazed
shelter. This will prolong the time of
the blooming. When the bloom is over
place them on coal ashes to keep worms
out of the pots, and in a situation where
the sun does not shine upon them after
ten o'clock in the morning.
Diseases. The auricula is liable to
have its roots ulcerated or cankered if the
pots are not well drained. This is best done
by having the pots deep and one-fourth
filled with rubbly charcoal, and the soil
not too much divested of pebbles. At the
blooming time the aphis or greenfly
sometimes attacks the plants ; these can
only be removed individually by means
of a camel-hair pencil.
Canker. The first symptom of the
disorder having attacked an auricula is
its loss of green colour, and its assuming
a yellowish sickly appearance. Soon
after it decays on one side, and becomes
crooked, or else the main root of the
plant rapidly decays quite through, and
the head drops off; in fact, the juices of
the plant are vitiated at the time the
leaves begin to appear sickly, so that no
time must be lost in cutting away en-
tirely the cankered part, fresh potting it
into proper soil, and removing it to a
cool shaded situation : this is the only
likely method to recover the infected
plant. Some florists have thought the
disease epidemic and contagious, because,
when it does appear, it usually attacks
many plants in the same collection. This,
however, is no such proof, but merely
evinces that the whole have been ren-
dered liable to the disease by being all
equally mismanaged, as by having an.
unsuitable soil, &c.
AVE'NA. A genus of the nat. ord.
Grasses, of which it is only necessary to
observe here that one of its species, A.vena
sativa, is the Oat.
AVENUE, is a road bordered by trees
on each side, and being, as observed by
Whateley, confined to one termination,
and excluding every view on the sides,
has, when straight, a tedious sameness
throughout ; to be great it must be dull,
and the object to which it is appro-
priated is, after all, seldom shown to
advantage. Buildings in general do not
appear so large, and are not so beautiful
when looked at in. front, as when they
are. seen from an angular situation, which
commands two sides at once, and throws
them both in perspective; but a winding
lateral approach is free from these ob-
jections: it may, besides, be brought up
to the house without disturbing any of
the views from it; but a straight avenue
cuts the scenery directly in two, and
reduces all the prospect to a narrow
vista. A mere line of perspective, be
the extent what it may, will seldom
compensate for the loss of that space
which it divides, and of the parts which
it conceals. These kind of walks were
formerly much more the fashion than
they are at present : where they are to
be made, the common elm answers very
well for the purpose in most grounds,
except such as are very wet and shallow.
The rough Dutch elm is approved by
some, because of its quick growth, and it
is a tree that will not only bear remov-
ing very well, but that is green in the
spring almost as soon as any plant what-
ever, and continues so equally long. It
makes an incomparable hedge, and is
preferable to all other trees for lofty
espaliers. The lime is very useful on
account of its regular growth and fine
shade, and the horse-chesnut is proper
for such places as are not too much ex-
posed to rough winds. The Spanish
chesnut does very well in a good soil, or
on warm gravels, as it rises to a con-
siderable height, when planted somewhat
close ; but when it stands singly it is
rather inclined to spread than grow tall.
The beech naturally grows well with us
in its wild state, but it is less to be
chosen for avenues than others, because
it does not bear transplanting well. The
white poplar may also be employed for this
use, as it is adapted to almost any soil,
and is the quickest grower of any forest
tree. It seldom fails in transplanting,
and succeeds very well in wet soils, in
which the others are apt to suffer. The
oak is but seldom used for avenues, be-
cause of its slow growth.
The best example we know of a noble
avenue, is from the Chester Lodge to
Eaton Hall, in Cheshire; but it is very
deceptive in its apparent length, and the
hall is not seen to advantage throughout.
There is an avenue of limes leading to
the Duke of Devonshire's villa, at Chis-
wick, near London, which has a fine
effect, not being in a straight line.
Another of the best planted avenues we
know, is an approach to Clifden House,
now the property of the Duke of Suther-
land. The trees are planted on raised
platforms, right and left, with an open
intervening space between them and the
carriage drive. This would have been a
better arrangement for the noble avenue
of Deodars, lately planted between the
new conservatory and the old pagoda, in
Kew gardens. When this avenue of
Deodars, and others that are now being
laid out with araucarias, the Douglas
pine, and their allies the Mexican, Ja-
panese, and Chinese cypresses, come to an
age when they will assume the true
characters of these noble cone-bearers,
avenues will again become fashionable.
In every instance possible, we would
recommend the trees to be planted con-
siderably above the level of the road, on
raised platforms, following any inequali-
ties or undulations in the bed of the
road. The celebrated avenue in "Wind-
sor Park would have appeared much
more noble had it been thus planted.
AVERRHO'A. (Named after AverrJwes,
a Spanish physician. Nat. ord., Oxalids
[Oxalidacese]. Linn., \0-Decandria 4-
Pentagynia). The leaves of A. carmnbola,
exhibit that kind of irritability we call
"sensitive." The fruit of both species
is eaten in India, but its acidity is in-
tolerable to Europeans. Stove ever-
green shrubs; half -ripened cuttings in
April, in sand, under a bell-glass, and in
bottom heat ; loam and peat. Summer
temp., 60 to 85 ; winter, 55 to 60.
A. bili'mbi (bilimbi tree). 8. Reddish yellow.
August. East Indies. 1791.
cara'mbola (carambola tree). 10. Greenish
red. Ceylon. 1733.
AVERRUNCATOR (from the Latin aver-
runco, to prune), is a small pair of power-
ful shears on a long handle, for severing
boughs on lofty trees.
AVIARY. This building, devoted to
the preservation of live birds, distin-
guished for the beauty either of their
notes or plumage, is rarely admitted
within a garden, and still more rarely is
it sufficiently ornamental, or sufficiently