South America. 1814
emargina'ta (single-notched). Yellow. June
West Indies. 1826.
seri'cea (silky). 6. Yellow. July. Brazil.
Soil. A sandy or calcareous soil^with
a dry subsoil, suits it best.
Culture. It requires no other pruning
than such as is necessary to keep it
within bounds. As the fruit is very
tedious to gather, it is well to keep the
middle of the tree open by pruning,
somewhat like gooseberry pruning.
Their spines are so formidable that we
have known the common kinds used
with good effect to stop gaps in hedges,
liable to much trespass.
Fruit. This is fully ripe in October,
and is gathered in entire bunches for
preserving, pickling, and candying.
Diseases. It is liable to be infected
with a parasitical fungus, once believed
to be the same as that which is the
mildew on wheat ; but they are now
known to be different species. That
which preys upon the Barberry is Puc-
cinia, and that which attacks Wheat is
BARBIE' m A. (Named after /. B. G.
Barbier, M.D., a French naturalist.
Nat. ord., Leguminous plants [Fabaceacj.
Linn., \1-Diadelphia^-decandria ; allied
to Cajanus). Stove evergreen shrub.
Cuttings of half ripened wood in sand,
under a glass ; sandy peat. Summer
temp., 68 to 85 ; winter, 50 to 55.
B. polyphff lla (many leaved) . Reddish purple.
Porto Rico. 1818.
BARK. The refuse bark from the
tanner's yard is employed by the gar-
dener as a source of heat, and when
thoroughly broken down by putrefac-
tion, as a manure.
As a source of Jieat, it is much less
used than formerly, flues, steam, and
the hot water system having very gone-
rally and most deservedly superseded it.
Bark for heating requires frequent stir-
ring and renewing, and if too much
moisture be added, is apt to give out an
excessive and irregular heat. In addi-
tion, it is a troublesome harbour for
Bark fresh from the tanyard being
thrown lightly together under a shed,
must be gently moistened if dry, and
turned over twice a-weck, to expose all
its particles to the air. Unless this be
done, the fermentation will not be gene-
ral or regular. This is to be continued
for a month or five weeks, in warm
weather the shorter time being requisite;
and then, having acquired a general and
equal heat, it is ready for use in the
stove. Usually it will continue to afford
heat for a period varying between three
and six months, but sometimes ceases to
ferment without any apparent cause.
Whenever the heat declines, the tan
must be taken out, sifted, the dusty
parts removed, and some fresh tan added.
Sometimes turning the old tan and
moistening it will be sufficient.
It is desirable, on the first formation
of a bed, to mix new and old tan to-
gether, in which case the quantity of
new bark to be brought into the pit will
depend upon the goodness of the bark,
and the bottom heat required. As much
new tan as will fill two third parts of
the bark-pit, with a mixture of old rot-
ten, reduced almost to earth, will pro-
duce a bottom heat of about 85 ; when
old tan with higher remains of strength
is used to modify the new, the same
heat may be produced if the quantity be
not more than half the capacity of the
pit. This refers to a new pit; after a
bark bed has been in action, partial re-
newals of bark to keep up the heat are
frequently sufficient in the reduced pro-
portion of one -third, one -sixth, one-
twelfth, or less. At intermediate stages
between the partial renewals, the bed
requires only to be excited to a brisker
fermentation by forking up. About
five-sevenths of the pit from the bottom
should be occupied by the new and old
tan as a fermenting body; and about
two-sevenths from the top, or a little
more than the depth of the pot, what-
ever that may be, should consist of old
tan incapable of heating, so as to burn
the roots of the plants; at least such
should be the ordinary distribution of
the tan; but where peculiar circum-
stances require a speedy augmentation
of heat without displacing the pots, and
when fruit is to be swelled off in the
last stage, the earthy tan at top may be
taken away, and new tan substituted.
As a manure. See Vegetable Matters.
BARK-BOUND. When a tree is affected
with this disease, cracks will appear in
it partially, and in the case of the Cherry,
Apricot, Peach, and Nectarine, gummy
discharge will follow. It is a sure in-
dication that either the soil is too rich,
or not sufficiently drained; the latter is
usually the source of the evil, causing a
repletion of the interior vessels which the
dry outer skin cannot expand sufficiently
quickly to accommodate. Under-drain-
ing, and scrubbing the stem with brine,
speedily effects a cure. Scoring the bark
lengthwise with a knife is a rude mode
of treatment often followed by canker,
more fatal than the disease intended to
be removed. If scoring be adopted it
should be early in spring, and the knife
should not penetrate below the dry outer
BARK STOVE, or Moist Stove, is a hot-
house which, either by having a mass of
fermenting matter, or an open reservoir
of hot water within-side, has its atmos-
phere appropriately supplied with mois-
ture, congenially with the habits of some
tropical plants. It received the name of
Bark Stove, because tanner's bark was
formerly a chief source of the heat em-
ployed. See Stove.
B ARKE' RIA. (After the late Mr. Barker,
of Birmingham, an ardent cultivator of
Orchids. Nat. ord., Orchids. Linn., 20-
Gynandria, \-Monandria. Allied to Lae-
lia). Stove Orchids, divisions ; fibry
peat and sphagnum in shallow baskets.
Summer temp., 60 to 85 ; winter, 55
B. eflegans (elegant), li. Light rose. Mexico.
Lawrcncca' na (Mrs. Lawrence's). 1. Pink.
Lindli'ya'na (Dr. Lindley's). 1. Purple and
White. November. Costa Rica. 1842.
melanoca'ulon (dark-stemmed). 1. Lilac.
June. Costa Rica. 1848.
Skinne'ri (Mr. Skinner's). 1. Pink. Gua-
specta'bilis (showy). 1. Lilac and Purple.
July. Guatemala. 1643.
BARKING IRONS, or Bark Sealers, are
for scraping off the hardy outer bark,
or dry scales, from the stems and
branches of trees.
BARLE'RIA. (After the Mev. J. Bar-
relier, of Paris. Nat. ord., ^Acanthads
[Acanthace]. Linn., \-Didynamia, 2-
Angiospermia}. Stove evergreens, except
B. longifolia. This may be propagated
by seed, the others by cuttings of the
young wood, in heat under a bell-glass ;
rich loam and peat. Summer temp., 60
to 80 ; winter, 50 to 60.
B. a'lba (white). 3. July. New Holland.
buxifo'lia (box-leaved). 2. White. July.
East Indies. 1768.
casrvllea (blue). 2. Blue. July. East
crista'ta (crested). 2. Blue. July. East
dicho'toma (twin-branched). 2. Purple.
July. East Indies. 1823.
fla'va (yellovt -flowered). 3. Yellow. July,
East Indies. 1816.
longifo'lia (long-leaved). 2. White. Au-
gust. East Indies. 1781.
longiflo'ra (long-flowered). 3. July. East
lupuli'na (hop-headed], 2. Yellow. Au-
gust. Mauritius. 1824.
prloni'tis (Prionitis-K&e). 3. Orange. July
East Indies. 1759.
purputrea (purple). 2. Purple. Septem-
ber. East Indies. 1818.
solanifo'lia (nightshade-leaved). 2. Blue.
strigo'sa (bristly). 2. Blue. July. East
BARLEY. Ho'rdeum vulgare* This
genus of grasses being interesting only
to the farmer and botanist, has not been,
included in this work.
BARNADE'SIA. (After Barnaday, a
Spanish botanist. Nat. ord., Composites
[Asteracese]. Linn., \-Syngenesia, 1-
JEqualis. Allied to Mutisia). B. rosea,
a very pretty deciduous shrub, requiring
to be kept nearly dry in a greenhouse in
winter. Seeds in hotbeds, in March ;
cuttings of half-ripened wood, in April,
in sand, under a bell-glass. Summer
temp., 60 to 80 ; winter, 45 to 55.
B. grandiflo'ra (large-flowered). 2. Pale rose.
South America. 1844. An evergreen
requiring a cool stove.
ro'sea (rose coloured). 1. Pink. May.
South America. 1840.
spino'sa (spiny). 4. June. Peru. 1825.
This has been called Bacazia spinosa.
BARNA'RDIA. (Named after E. Bar-
nard, F.L.S. Nat. ord., Lilyworts [Lilia-
ceae]. Linn., &-Hexandria, \-Monogynia).
Allied to the Squills. Half-hardy bul-
bous-rooted plant. Offsets; peat and
loam ; only wants a little protection in
B. scilloi'des (squill-like). Pale blue. May.
BARO' METER, or "Weather Glass, so
called from two Greek words signifying
a measurer of weight, because it indi-
cates the weight or pressure of the air.
We only admit a notice of this because
. sinemarie'nsis (Guiana). Yellow. August
teTnuis (slender). Yellow. Buenos Ayres.
tilicefo'lia (lime-leaved). Purple. August.
tomento'sa (soft-haired). 10. Yellow. July.
South America. 1820.
zanziba' rica (Zanzibar). 10. Yellow. Zan-
B.ferruqi'nea (rusty). 10. Yellow. Brazil.
fiflgens (shining-fruited). 6. Yellow. West
Humboldtia'na (Humboldt's). 19. Yellow.
South America. 1824.
lawifo' lia (bay leaved) . 10. Yellow. Ja-
ova'ta (egg-shape-/eare<Z). 6. Yellow. July.
Saint Domingo. 1820.
periploccefo'lia (Periploca-leaved). 10. Yel-
low. July. Porto Rico. 1818.
spldndens (shining). 10. Yellow. South
BANKS (Sloping], are very desirable
in a kitchen garden, not only because
they aid in forwarding the crops on their
south front and retarding those on their
north front, but because they much in-
crease the cultivatable surface. Suppos-
ing the banks to run east and west, the
south side, especially as respects all low-
growing things, such as French beans,
potatoes, &c., will produce eight days
earlier than when cultivated on the level,
while the north side will retain lettuces,
&c., during summer, much longer fit for
the table. The surface of the ground is
also increased, notwithstanding learned
assertions to the contrary. In making
them at first in shallow soils, they should
not be wider than six feet at the base ;
but as the soil becomes improved they
may be from ten to twelve feet in width.
In deep soils, the banks may be formed
by trenching in the usual manner, only
throwing them into shape by a line and
stakes. In thin soils, care should be
taken to have plenty of room in the first
opening to stir the subsoil, and then re-
place again the surface soil on the sur-
face. The accompanying sketch will
give some idea as to how they are
formed, each ridge being twelve feet
wide at the base. A B is the ground
level, c the apex of the ridge, and d d
paths between. Of course they could
not be raised so high at first without
impoverishing the other ground. If
drained beneath the paths all the better
for in heavy land, without drainage
and deep stirring, the moisture will be
long retained. If at c there is a board
fixed, or even a row of dwarf hardy peas,
the south side will be rendered still
warmer, and the north side more cool
and late. Such banks, therefore, may
not only be used for vegetables, but also
for accelerating and retarding fruits,
such as the strawberry. Owing to the
depth of soil thus obtained, if the surface
is kept stirred, you will never need much
of the water-pot, even in the driest
weather. The right hand or south side
should be the longest, and, in a succes-
sion of ridges, the northernmost one
should be the highest.
BA'NKSIA. (Named after Sir Joseph
Banks, a distinguished patron of natural
history. Nat. ord., Proteads [Proteaceas].
Linn., ^-Tetrandria, \-monogynia.} All
interesting greenhouse plants from New
Holland. Seeds, when obtainable, should
be sown in spring or summer, in sandy
peat, and placed in the greenhouse ; seed-
lings potted of? as soon as they can be
handled, otherwise they will shank off.
Some kinds are most easily propagated
by layers, and a few rare ones by graft-
ing ; but most are obtained by cuttings
of the ripened shoots, with most of the
leaves attached, inserted by the sides of
pot, placed under a hand-light, kept
close and shaded from sunshine during
the day, and air given and the glass re-
moved for a time during the night.
Sandy peat, with a little loam to the
more strong growing. Summer temp.,
50 to 65 ; winter, 35 to 4o.
E. attenua'ta (tapering). 6. Yellow. 1794.
austra'lis (southern). 6. Green. 1812.
Brvfwnii (Miss Brown's). 1830.
CalSyi (Caley's). 1830.
cocci' nea (scarlet-./fo?<weZ). 6. Scarlet. 1803.
colli'na (\n\\). 6. Yellow. 1800.
ctfmpar (well-matched). 6. Yellow. 1824.
Cunningha' mii (Cunningham's). 6. Pale
denta'ta (toothed). 4. Yellow. 1822.
dryandroi'des (Dryandra-like). 6. Yellow.
ela'tior (taller). 20. Yellow. 1824.
B. ericifo'lia (heath-leaved). 6. Yellow. 1788.
Goo'dii (Good's). 1830.
gra'ndis (great flowered]. 2. Yellow. 1794.
Huge'lii (Hugel's). Yellow. 1837.
iliclfo'lia (holly-leaved). Scarlet. 1837.
insula'ris (island). 6. Yellow. 1822.
intcqrifo'lm (whole-leaved), 12. Yellow.
latifo'lia (broad-leaved). 30. Green. July.
marcefscens (permanent-leaved). 6. Yel-
margina'ta (bordered). 6. Yellow. July.
me' dia (mediate). 6. Yellow. 1824.
Menziefnsis (Menzies's). YeUow. 1837.
nuta'ns (nociding-flowered). 4. Yellow.
oblongifo'lia (oblong-leaved). 15. Yellow.
paludo'sa (marshy). 2. Yellow. March.
prostra'ta (prostrate). 2. Yellow. 1824.
pulche'llalnesit-Jlmoered). 6. Yellow. 1805.
quercifo'lid (oak-leaved). 5. Yellow. 1805.
Sola'ndra (Solander's) . 6. 1830.
specitf sa (showy). 6. Yellow. July. 1805.
spinulo'sa (small-spined). 6. Yellow. Au-
sphceroca' rpa (round-fruited). 6. Yellow.
verticilla'ta (whorled). 12. Yellow. Au-
gust. 1794. '
BA'OBAB TREE. Adanso'nia,
BA'PHIA. (From baphe, a dye ; the
Camwood or Barwood from which a
brilliant red colour is obtained is from
B. nitida. Nat. ord., Leguminous plants
[Fabaceae]. Linn., lQ-I)ecandria, \-mo-
nogynia ; allied to the Carob Tree.)
Stove tree. Cuttings; sandy peat.
Summer temp., 60 to 85 ; winter, 55
B. ni'tida (shining). 30. White. August.
Sierra Leone. 1793.
BAPTI'SIA. (From bapto, to dye; some
of the species possessing dying properties.
Nat. ord., Leguminous plants [Fabaceae],
Linn., W-Decandria, \-monogynia ; allied
to Podalyria.) Hardy herbaceous plants,
except where otherwise specified. Di-
vision ; common border soil.
B. a'lba (vr\ute-flowered). 2. White. June.
North America. 1724.
auricula' ta (eared). Blue. June. North
austra'lis (southern). 2. Blue. June.
North America. 1758.
conftfsa (confused). Blue. June. North
exalta'ta (exalted). 3. White. June. North
lanceola'ta (lanceolate). 1. Yellow. July.
North America. 1818.
mi' nor (smaller). 1. Blue. June. North
B. mo 1 His (soft). 1J. Blue. June. North
perfolia'ta (perfoliate). 3. Yellow. Au-
gust. Carolina. 1732.
tincto'ria (dyer's). 1. Yellow. July. North
versi' color (various-coloured). 4. Light
purple. July. North America. 1824.
villo'sa (long-haired). 2. Yellow. June.
June. North America. 1811.
BARBACE'NIA. (Named after M. Bar-
bacena, a governor of Minas Geraes. Nat.
ord., Blood-roots [Hasmodoracese]. Linn.,
Q-Hexandria, \-monogynia ; allied to Vel-
lozia). Stove herbaceous perennials. Di-
visions ; sandy loam. Summer temp.,
60 to 80 ; winter, 45 to 55.
B. gra'cilis (slender). Red. March. Brazil.
purpu'rea (purple-^ou-ererf). Purple. July.
Rogiefrii (Rogers's). Purplish violet. 1850.
sangui'nea (blood-coloured). Deep crimson.
squama' ta (scaly-stalked). . Yellow crim-
son. March. Brazil. 1841.
BARBADOES CEDAR. Juni'perus barba-
BARBADOES CHERRY. Malpi'gMa.
BARBADOES GOOSEBERRY. Pere'skia.
BARBADOES LILY. Hipped strum eques'-
BARBA'REA. "Winter Cress. (From
being formerly called the herb of Sta.
Barbara. Nat. ord., Crucifers (Brassica-
ceas]. Linn., \b-Tetradynamia; allied
to Arabis). All hardy herbaceous peren-
nials, except B. stricta. Division ; com-
B. arena' ta (bowed). 2. Yellow. July. Ger-
orthoce'rus (straight-podded). 1. Yellow.
-prcefcox (earlj-Belleisle-cress). 1. Yellow.
stri'cta (upright). Yellow. Britain. Hardy
biennial. Raised from seed.
vulga'ris (common). 1|. Yellow. July.
BARBERRY (Ber'beris valga'ris}. There
are five varieties of the Common Barberry,
the red, without and with stones ; the
black sweet, which is tender, and requires
a sheltered border ; the purple, and the
white. The seedless (B.vulgaris asperma)
is mostly preferred for preserving pur-
poses. The fruit is acid, and the bark is
Propagation. Suckers, cuttings, and
layers may be employed either in the
spring or autumn. The seed is very
as a guide to approaching changes of
weather it is useful to the gardener.
Mr. P. Christenson, of Cowes, in the
Isle of Wight, Lecturer upon Astrono-
my, &c., has arranged a table, which, no
one having a weather-glass should be
without. Its price is only one shilling,
and it may be had of C. Wilson, 157,
Leadenhall Street. This "Companion
to the Barometer" is the result of thirty-
two years' observation, and the following
is an epitome of the information it gives.
During the first six months of the year,
when the mercury is rising, if the wea-
ther has been bad, and the mercury
reaches to 29.62 inches, there will be a
change ; if to 30.12, the weather will be
fair ; if to 30.29, set fair. If the mer-
cury has been high, and begins fatting,
there will be a change if it declines to
29.90; rain, if it descends to 29.50; and
wind with rain, if it reaches 29.12.
During the last six months of the year,
if the weather has been foul, and the
mercury begins rising, there will be a
change if it reaches to 29.48 ; fair, if to
30.13 ; and set fair, if to 30.45. If the
weather has been fair and the mercury
begins falling, there will be a change if
it sinks to 29.87 ; rain, if to 29.55 ; and
wind with rain, if to 29.28. At any time
of the year, if the mercury fall to 28.10,
or even to 28.20, there will be stormy
weather. These conclusions are from
observations made at thirty feet above
the sea's level, and therefore one one-
hundredth part of an inch must be added
to the height of the mercury for every
additional ten feet above the sea's level,
where the barometer may happen to
BAHO'SMA. (From barys, heavy, and
osme, odour; referring to the powerful
scent of the leaves. Nat. ord., Rueworts
[Rutaceae]. Linn., 5-Pentandria, \~Mo-
nogynia. Allied to Diosma). Green-
house evergreen shrubs, all natives of
the Cape of Good Hope. Cuttings of
half-ripened wood, in June, under a bell-
glass, in sand, without heat; sandy loam
and peat. Summer temp., 60 ; winter,
B. betulfna (birch-leaved). 2. White. June.
crenula' ia (round-notch-Jeaverf) . 3. Bluish.
diof ca (dioecious). 2. White. June. 1816.
B. latifo'lia (broad-leaved). White. July.
ova'ta (egg-shape-leaved). 2. White. May.
pulche'lla (neat). Purple. June. 1787.
BARRED. That part of a plant is said
to be barred which is striped with a
lighter or darker colour than the prevail-
ing colourof that part.
BARREN PLANTS. The male flowers
of the cucumber, melon, and other mo-
noecious plants, are properly known as
barren flowers ; and the plants of the
asparagus, mercury, and other dioecious
plants bearing only male flowers, are
usually termed barren. These are na-
turally unfruitful ; but there is also a
barrenness arising from disease or the
consequences of bad cultivation. If a
tree, or any other plant, does not yield
the desired produce of fruit of which it
is capable, the gardener may be assured
that the soil, or the want of drainage, or
the manuring, or the pruning, is inju-
rious. Even a blind or barren cabbage
may be made productive ; for its barren-
ness arises from the central bud being
abortive, and it will produce lateral buds,
if all but one leaf and the place of the
abortive bud be cut away. When a flower
has no pistil it is incurably barren. Tem-
perature has great influence over the sex
of the flowers produced by a monoecious
dioecious plant. A very high temperature
caused a watermelon to bearmale blossoms
only ; and a very low temperature made
cucumber plants yield female flowers
alone. Mr. Knight had little doubt that
the same fruit-stalks might be made, in the
plants just noticed, to support flowers of
either sex in obedience to external causes.
Our own observations lead us to the con-
clusion that the cucumber and vegetable
marrow, when grown in too cold a
temperature produce a majority of male
BARREN SOIL, No soil is absolutely
incapable of production ; and when it is
spoken of as being barren, no more is
meant than that, in its present state, it
will not repay the cultivator. The un-
productiveness arises from a deficiency of
some of the earths ; from an excess or de-
ficiency of animal and vegetable matters ;
or from an excess of stagnant water. No
soil can be productive where nineteen
parts out of twenty are of any one earth
or other substance. If either chalk, or
sand, or clay, be in excess, the remedy is
found in adding one or both of the other
two. An excess of organic matter only
occurs in peat soils, and these are reclaim-
ed by draining, paring, and burning, and
the addition of earthy matter ; drainage
is also the cure for an excess of water.
BARREN- WORT. Epime'dium.
BARRINGTO'NIA. (Named after the
Hon. Daines Barrington. Nat. ord.,
Barringtoniads [Barringtoniaceae]. Linn.,
IQ-Monadelphia, 8-polyandria). Stove
evergreen trees and shrubs. B. echinata
and platyphytta were, until lately, sepa-
rated into a genus Commersonia ; cut-
tings of ripe shoots under a glass, in a
strong heat ; lumpy loam and peat. Sum-
mer temp., 70 to 90 ; winter, 60 to 65.
B. echincfta (hedge-hog-/rwite<f). 20. White.
platyphtf Ha (broad-leaved). 3. June. White.
racemo'sa (raceme-cowered). 30. Red.
spccio'sa (showy). 30. Scarlet. Indian
BARTHOLI'NA. (Named after BartJio-
lin, a Danish physiologist. Nat. ord.,
Orchids [Orchidaceae]. Linn., 2Q-Gymn-
dria, \-nwnogynia. Allied to Serapias).
One of those ground orchids from the
Cape which British gardeners have not
yet succeeded in cultivating easily. Green-
house orchid ; division of the root ; sandy
loam. Summer temp., 60 to 70 ; win-
B.pectina'ta (comb-leaved). 1. Lilac. No-
vember. Cape of Good Hope. 1787.
BARTO'NIA. (Named after Dr. Barton,
an American botanist. Nat. ord., Loasads
[Loasaceoe]. Linn., \1-Icosandria, 1-
monogynia). Half-hardy plants ; seeds ;
the biennials should be sown in summer,
and protected in a cold pit during the
winter ; the annuals may be sown in the
open air in April, or in a slight hotbed,
and transplanted ; most of them delight
in a sandy soil, and a little peat ; B. au'rea
does best where the soil is peaty and
B. albersccns (wMte-stalked). 2. White. Chili.
au'rea (golden-flowered). 3. Yellow. June.
B. nu'da (naked-seeded). 2. White. August
orna' ta (ornamented). 2. White. August
BA'RTSIA. (Named after J. Bartch,
M. D. Nat. ord., Figworts [Scrophulari-
aceee]. Linn., l-Didynamia, 2-anffto-
spermia). Allied to Euphrasia. These
require the treatment of choice alpines ;
hardy annuals ; seeds in April, on rock-
B. alptna (Alpine). . Purple. August.
latifo'lia (broad-leaved). 1. Purple. Au-
gust. South of Europe.
odonti'tes (odontites). J. Pink. August
visco'sa (clammy), i. Yellow. July. Britain.
BARYOSMA. See BAROSMA.
BASE'LLA. Malabar Nightshade. Its
Malabar name. (Nat. ord., Basettads [Ba-
sellaceae]. Linn., 5-Pentandria, Z-trigy-
nia). B. alba and rubra are used as
spinach in the East Indies ; and B. rubra
yields a rich purple dye ; not easily fixed,
however. Stove biennials, except where
otherwise specified, and mostly climbers ;
if sown in good heat in February, and
treated as a border annual they will
blow freely the same season ; rich lumpy