B. a'lba (white). 8. White. August. East
cordifo'lia (heart-leaved). 6. Pale purple.
August. East Indies. 1802.
Itfcldn (shining). 6. White. August. East
margina'ta (bordered). 4. July. Mexico.
wf^ro (black). 3. White. August. China.
ramo'sa (branch}'). 6. August.
rtfbra (red). 8. Pink. August. East
tubero'sa (tuberous). 6. Purple. September
South America. 1824.
BASIL. (Ocymum). There are two
kinds, the sweet-scented (0. bastKcum),
and the Dwarf-bush (0. minimum). The
young leaf-tops are the parts made use of
in soups and salads, their flavour resemb-
ling that of cloves.
The supply is never-failing during
summer, as they shoot out rapidly for
Sow on a very gentle hotbed, under
glass, about the end of March or first of
April, to raise plants for the principal or
main crop. The frame should be filled
up with earth to within three or four
inches of the glass, or very shallow
frames may be used, for purposes as
these. When the plants are up, give
a little air by tilting the lights ; and as
they advance, and the weather is warmer,
give them more air, until the lights may
be taken off altogether during the day,
and put on at night. By the above ma-
nagement good hardened plants will be
fit for planting out towards the end of
May, or beginning of June, into warm
borders, or beds of light rich earth. If
the weather be dry at the time of plant-
ing out,, let the beds be well watered
previously to planting, and plant in the
evening. Lift the young plants from
the seed-bed with a small fork or trowel,
and plant them out with care eight or ten
inches from plant to plant each way,
and water them to settle the earth to
the roots. Attend to earth-stirring, and
water when required, until the plants
are well established. If green tops are
required for earlier use, sow in pots,
pans, or boxes, and place in any heated
To obtain seed. Some of the earliest
raised plants must be left ungathered
from. These flower from July to Sep-
tember, and accordingly ripen their seed
in early or late autumn.
BASINING-UP. By this term is meant
raising a small bank of earth entirely
round a plant, so as to retain water im-
mediately about the roots.
BASKETS, employed by the London
gardeners, being made of osier or deal
shavings, vary triflingly in size more
than measures made of less flexible ma-
terials. They are as follows :
Pottle a long tapering basket, made
of deal shavings, holding about a pint
and a half.
Sea kale punnets eight inches diame-
ter at the top, and seven inches and a
half at the bottom, and two inches deep.
Radish punnets eight inches diameter,
and one inch deep, if to hold six hands ;
or nine inches by one inch for twelve
Mushroom punnets seven inches by
Salading punnets five inches by two
Half sieve contains three imperial
gallons and a half. It averages twelve
inches and a half diameter, and six
inches in depth.
Sieve contains seven imperial gallons.
Diameter, fifteen inches; depth, eight
Bushel sieve ten imperial gallons and
a half. Diameter at top seventeen inches
and three quarters; at bottom, seven-
teen inches ; depth, eleven inches and a
Bushel basket ought, when heaped,
to contain an imperial bushel. Diame-
ter at bottom, ten inches ; at top, four-
teen inches and a half ; depth, seventeen
inches. Walnuts, nuts, apples, and po-
tatoes are sold by this measure. A bushel
of the last named, cleaned, weighs fifty-
six pounds, but four pounds additional
are allowed if they are not washed.
BASKETS (RUSTIC). These are often
suitable ornaments for the reception of
flowering plants upon lawns, and other
parts of the pleasure-grounds. These
baskets are easily made. Having fixed
on the sizes you wish for, procure some
inch boards, either of sound oak, which
is the best, or of well-seasoned elm or
deal. Cut them into the proper lengths,
and nail them together the right width :
they will then form a square. Mark
then the desired form (round or octagon)
on this square, and cut it into the desired
figure. When this is done, you have
the groundwork of your basket ; make
the basket ten or eight inches deep, and
if your garden is moderately extensive,
you may have them the largest size to
be manageable, that is, from three to
five feet in diameter. If a small garden,
this size would be inconvenient, and
take up too much room. Yet there is
no reason why you should not have two
or three of these ornaments. For such a
garden, the most proper dimensions
would be two feet ; and for that size,
six inches deep would be proportionate.
Then proceed to nail to the circular or
ctagon bottom the sides. If the shape
is round, let the pieces of wood to form
the sides be narrow, bevel inwards the
sides, and shape them so as to form the
circle ; but if of an octagon form, the
pieces will be, of course, of the width of
each of the eight sides, and planed to fit
at each corner. Fasten them firmly to-
gether with nails, and the main founda-
tion and walls of your baskets are com-
plete. On the top of the side put some
split hazel rods of sufficient thickness to
cover it, and hang over the outside edge
about half an inch. Place some of the
same kind close to the bottom ; then, be-
tween the two, cover the plain boards
with some rough oak or elm bark, so
closely fitted as to give the idea that the
basket has been cut out of a solid tree ;
or, which is more expensive and trouble-
some, but certainly more ornamental,
cover the sides with (split or whole, as
you may fancy) hazel rods, formed into
tasteful forms. These should fit so close
as to hide completely the material of
which the sides are formed. The bark
plan will not require anything more
doing to it after it is neatly fitted and
securely nailed to the sides, but the
hazel rods should have a coating of
boiled linseed oil applied.
BASS, or BAST MATS. These are chiefly
made in Russia, from the inner bark of
trees (bast in the Russ language). Their
best use is as a packing envelope, for as
a protection to wall trees they are inferior
to netting, and to standard shrubs struc-
tures made of straw (see Shelters}^ are to
be preferred. They are very serviceable,
however, to place over beds of early
spring radishes, &c., to prevent the night
radiation. This is quite as effectual,
much cleaner, and less troublesome than
a covering of straw. Shreds of these
mats are also useful for many gardening
purposes where a ligature or string is
required. One of the principal of these
is for binding a bud or scion in its place
on the stock after grafting. For this
we prefer the new Cuba bast, but the finest
of the ordinary Russian mats will answer
equally well, perhaps better, provided
the material is very fine and very tough.
In selecting a mat for this purpose, the
best may be distinguished by two or
three qualities : First, whatever colour
the bast be, it must feel silky and some-
what oily to the touch. A full reliance
must not be placed on this alone, how-
ever, but the strength should be tested
by cutting off a fine-looking strand, and
stripping off a narrow piece as fine as
twine. This, if good, should withstand
a considerable amount of tension ; it is
well, however, to try a second piece. As
to colour, such is generally a pale straw.
BA'SSIA. (Named after M. Bassi, cu-
rator of the botanic garden at Boulogne.
Nat. ord., Sapotads [Sapotaceae]. Linn.,
\\-Dodecandria, \-monogynia). The Bas-
sias are trees of some importance in In-
dia. B. butyracea yields a thick oil-like
butter from its fruit or mahva. JS. lati-
folia furnishes a kind of arrack, called
moura, by distilling the leaves. The
fruit of the Illupie-tree, B. longifolia,
yields oil for lamps, soap-making, and
also for food ; andMungo Park's butter-
tree was a species of Bassia. Stove trees.
Cuttings of ripened young shoots in
April, in heat, under a bell-glass ; peat
and loam. Summer temp., 60 to 70 ;
winter, 55 to 60.
B. butyra'cect (buttery). 40. Nepaid. 1823.
latifo'lia (broad-leaved) . 40. Yellow. East
longifo'lia (long-leaved). 40. E. Indies. 1811.
BASTARD ACACIA. Eobinia Pseu'do-
BASTARD ATOCION. Sile'ne Pseu'do-
A.to ' cion.
BASTARD BALM. Mett'tta.
BASTARD Box. Poly gala.
BASTARD CABBAGE TREE.
BASTARD CEDAR. Guazuma, and Ce-
BASTARD CHERRY. Ce'rasus Pseu'do-
BASTARD CINNAMON. Cinnamomum
BASTARD CORK THEE. Que'rcus
BASTARD CRACCA. Vicia Pseudo-
BASTARD DICTAMNTJS. Beringe'ria
Pseu do- Dicta mnus.
BASTARD GROUND - PINE. Teucrium
Pseu do-chamce pitys.
BASTARD HARE'S EAR. Phyllis.
BASTARD HYSSOP. Teucrium Pseu'do-
BASTARD INDIGO. Amo'rpha.
BASTARD JASMINE. A.ndro'sace cha-
BASTARD LUPINE. Trifo'lium lupind-
BASTARD MANCHINEEL. Camera'ria.
BASTARD MOUSE - EAR. Hiera'cium
Pseu' do-pilose' lla.
BASTARD OLBIA. Lavate'ra o'lbia.
BASTARD TOAD-FLAX. The slum.
BASTARD QUINCE. Py rus-cham&me' s-
BASTARD VERVAIN. Stachyta rpheta.
BASTARD VETCH. Pha'ca.
BASTARD WIND-FLOWER. Gentia'na
Pseid do-pneumona' n the.
BASTARD WOOD - SAGE. Teitcrium
Pserf do-scorodo' ma.
BATA'TAS. (Aboriginal name. Nat. ord.,
Bindweeds [Convolvulacese]. Linn., 5-
Pentandria, \-monogynia). Allied to Phar-
bitis and Ipomoea). All stove deciduous
climbers. Cuttings of stumpy side-shoots,
or young shoots slipped from the tubers,
just as they begin to grow; in sandy
soil in bottom heat, and under a hand-
glass; rich sandy loam and fibry peat,
with manure water when growing. Temp.,
summer, 60 to 85, with moisture ; win-
ter, 48 to 55.
B.beta'cea (beet-like). 6. Pale violet. De-
bignonioi'des (Bignonia-like). Dark purple.
July. Cayenne. 1824.
bonarie'nsis (Buenos Ayres). 10. Purple.
Cavanillefsii (Cavanilles'). White red. Au-
edtflis (eatable-//-MJted). White purple.
East Indies. 1797.
glauciftflia (milky-green-leaved). Purplish.
June. Mexico. 1732.
heterophtf lla (various-leaved). Pale purple.
September. Cuba. 1817.
jala' pa (jalap). Rose. August. Mexico. 1845.
panicula'ta (panicled). Purple. July. East
pentaphi/lla (five-leaved). White. August.
East Indies. 1739.
se negate? nsis (Senegal) . White. July. Gui-
terna'ta (three-leafleted). White. July.
veru/sa (veiny). Purple. July. Mauritius.
Waldeckfii (Waldeck's). White and purple.
South America. 1847.
Willdcm/vii (Willdenow's). Purple. July.
BATEMA'NNIA. (Called after Mr. Bate-
man, a keen collector, and ardent culti-
vator of orchids, and author of a splendid
work on the orchids of Mexico and Gua-
timala. Nat. ord., Orchids [Orchidaceoe].
Linn., ZQ-Gynandria, \-monogynia. Allied
to Maxillaria). Stove orchid; divisions
and offsets; peat, broken crocks, and
sphagnum, plant raised considerably above
the surface of pot, or suspended in shallow
baskets. Summer temp., 70 to 85 ;
winter, 60 to 65\
B. Ctfllcyi (Colley's). \. Purple green. Au-
gust. Demerara. 1834.
BA'TSCHIA. (Named after /. G. Batch,
a German botanist. Nat. ord., Borage-
worts [Boragynaceae]. Linn., 5-Pentan-
dria, \-monogynia). This really shotild
be united to Lithospermum. All hardy
herbaceous perennials ; seeds, or divi-
sions ; common soil.
B. cane'sccns (hoary). 2. Yellow. July. North
Gmeli'ni (Gmelin's). . Yellow. June.
longiflo'ra (long-flowered). . Yellow. June.
seri'cea (silky). . Yellow. July. North
BA'TJERA. (Named after Francis and Fer-
dinand Bauer, Germanbotanical draughts-
men. Nat. ord., Hydrangeads [Hydran-
geacese]. Linn., I3-Polyandria, 1-Digy-
nia}. Bauera is a botanical anomaly
which has puzzled the learned as to its
proper order. Dr. Lindley has placed it
with Hydrangea. Greenhouse evergreen
under shrubs ; cuttings in sandy soil,
under a glass ; sandy loam and peat.
Summer temp., 50 to 65 ; winter, 38
B. hit 'mills (dwarf). 1. Red. September.
New South Wales. 1804.
mbicefo'lia (madder-leaved). 1J. Pink.
September. New South Wales. 1793.
BATJHI'NIA. Mountain Ebony. (Named
after the brothers John and Caspar Bau-
hin, botanists in the 16th century. Nat.
ord., Leguminous plants [Fabaccre]. Linn.,
lQ-l)ecandria, \-monogynia). One of the
tribes of Cocsalpinia. All stove evergreen
shrubs, except where otherwise specified.
Half-ripe cuttings in summer, in sand
? laced under a glsss, and in moist bottom
eat ; light sandy loam, and a little peat.
Summer temp., 60 to 85 ; winter, 55
B. aculca'ta (prickly -stalked} . 6. White. West
acumina'ta (taper-pointed-leaved). 8.
White. July. East Indies. 1808.
arma'ta (armed)." 6. White. Braral, 1824.
auri'ta (long-eared). 6. White. Jamaica.
chinJnsis (Chinese). 6. Red. China. 1800.
corymWsa (corymbed). 6. White. East
Indies. 1818. Climber.
cumanefnins (Cumana). 20. White. July.
Cumana. 1826. Climber.
feiruffi'nca (rnsty-leaved). 10. White. East
Indies. 1820. Climber.
forfica'ta (pincer-teared) . 6. White. Brazil.
B.gla'bra (smooth). 15. White. Carthage.
fflauce' 'scens (milky-green). 6. White. Cu-
grandiflo'ra (large-flowered). 4. White.
i'ndica (Indian). 6. White. East Indies.
inefrmis (unarmed). 6. Yellow red. Aea-
Lamarkia'na (Lamark's). 6. White. South
latlfo'lia (hroad-leaved). 6. White. West
leptopeftala (slender-petaled). 5. Yellow
green. New Spain. 1818.
luna'ria (half-moon-leaved). 6. White.
madagascarie? nsis (Madagascar). 4. Mada-
malaba'rica (Malabar). 15. White. East
Indies. 1810. Climber.
microphi/lla (small-leaved). 6. White.
South America. 1817.
multinefrvia (many-nerved) . 5. White.
Paulc'tia (Pauletia). 4. White. Panama.
pubt! scens (downy). 4. White. Jamaica.
purpu'rea (purple). 6.> Purple. East
racemo'sa (racemed). 20. White. East
Indies. 1790. Stove climber.
reMsa (abruptly blunt). 7. White. East
sca'ndens (small-leaved climbing). 30. White
yellow. East Indies. 1790. Climber.
specio'sa (showy). 10. White. 1820. Stove
subrotundifo'lia (roundish-leaved) . 6. White.
tomento'sa (thickly-haired). 6. Yellow
white. East Indies. 1808.
tria'ndra (three-stamened). 15. White.
East Indies. 1823. Stove climber.
variega'ta (variegated). 6. Striped. June.
East Indies. 1790.
BAY TREE. La'urus ndbilis.
BEAD TREE. M'elia.
BEAM TREE. Pyrus a'ria.
BEAN (Faba vufyaris). There are many
varieties of this vegetable, but we shall
only name those which are clearly dis-
tinct and valuable.
Mazagon. This has whitish seeds,
rather larger than a horse-bean, two to
four feet high. Sown in spring, about ten
weeks occur before beans are fit for table.
Many sub- varieties in seedsmen's cata-
Long-Pod. Sandwich, or Lisbon, has
various names attached to these. Seeds
whitish, about an inch long, and half
that in width, flat. Very productive ;
good for main summer crops. Sown in
spring, about twelve weeks elapse before
the beans are fit for table. Three to five
Johnson's Wonderful.^ This is a long-
pod, but even more productive, and wo
consider it the best of all the varieties ;
pods very numerous ; many with six or
even eight beans in them ; and bearing
a succession of pods ; seeds rather more
broad in proportion to length.
Dutch Long-Pod has seeds still broader
in proportion to length.
Green Long-Pod, Nonpareil, or Genoa.
Differs chiefly from other long-pods by its
seeds being green.
Toker has white, broad, oval seeds.
Height five feet. Sown in spring, its
beans are ready in twelve weeks ; rather
Windsor, Seeds whitish, flat, circular,
an inch in diameter ; only two or three
in a pod. Produces a succession of pods ;
four feet. Many other names prefixed.
Green Windsor differs chiefly from the
preceding in the colour of its seed.
The Red Seeded, white Blossomed, Red
Blossomed, and some others, have no merits
equal to the preceding. The Fan not
being more than one foot high, is useful
in small gardens to grow among other
crops, but it is not productive, and its
beans come all at once.
Soil and situation. The soil should
vary with the season. For the winter-
standing and early crops, a moderately
rich and dry soil is best adapted to them,
since, if too moist, the seed is apt to
decay; whilst a cool-bottomed more tena-
cious soil, is best for the spring and
summer sowings. The situation cannot
be too unshaded, but a protection from
violent winds is very beneficial.
Times and modes of sowing. For the
first production, in the following year, a
large sowing of long-pods may be made
during the middle of November, and
plantations may be continued to be made
from the beginning of January to the
end of June, once every three weeks.
Not later than the 1st of July a last sow-
ing may be made. The early Mazagon
is best for the earliest and latest plantings,
to produce the same year.
Sowing for transplantation. If the sea-
son has been lost for sowing at proper
time in the natural soil for the early
crops, or ground could not be spared or
made ready, then sow for transplant-
ing, either in small pots, turf-sods, on
gentle hotbed, and of such extent as can
be covered with a frame. If frames and
hand-glasses are deficient, matting or
litter, kept from injuring the plants by
means of hooping, &c., are sometimes
employed. Care must be taken that the
beans are not weakened by a deficiency
of air and light ; to guard against it the
lights should be taken entirely oif every
day that excessive wet or cold does not
forbid their removal. The usual time for
removing them into the open ground, in
a south border, is February, in mild and
Sowing to remain. When sown to
remain the seed may be inserted in
double rows, in drills, drawn by the
hoe, from two and a-half to three feet
apart, from double row to double row,
the double rows four inches apart, and
two deep. Previous to sowing, in sum-
mer, if dry weather, the seed should
be soaked for two or three hours in water,
cr if sown in drills, these should be well
watered immediately before the insertion.
When advanced to a height of two
inches, hoeing between the stems of the
plants may commence. This should be
often repeated. As soon as the various
crops come into full blossom, two or three
inches length of each stem is broken oif ;
this, by preventing its increase in height,
causes more sap to be aiforded to the
blossom, consequently causing it to ad-
vance with more rapidity, and to set
For seed. No two varieties should be
grown near to each other ; and in order
to preserve the early ones as uncontami-
nated as possible, those plants only which
blossom and produce their pods the first
should be preserved. None of the pods
ought to be gathered for the table from
them ; the after production of seed is
never so fine, and the plants raised from
it are always deficient in vigour. They
are fit for harvesting when the leaves
have become blackish, which occurs at
the end of August, or early in September.
The pods may be gathered from the stems
when ripe enough, ;and spread out thin
upon a dry airy boarded floor to dry.
Those only should be preserved that are
fine and perfect. They are best stored
in the pods until required. Seed beans
will sometimes vegetate after being kept
for eight or ten years, but are seldom
good for anything when more than two
Insects. See APHIS FAB^E.
BEATO'NIA. (Named by Dr. Herbert,
after D. Beaton, a Scotch gardener ; one
of the contributors to the Cottage Gar-
dener, and to this Dictionary. Nat. ord.,
Irids [Iridaceae]. Linn., 16-Monadelphia,
\-Triandria. Allied to Tigridia). Green-
house perennial bulbs. Offsets and seeds ;
the latter to be sown in a slight hotbed
in March ; light rich soil. To be taken
up before frost, or covered up where they
have grown, so as to preserve them both
from frost and wet.
B. atra'ta (dark-flowered). 2. Dark purple.
August. Mexico. 1843.
curvctta (curved-stalked). Purple. April.
Del Monte. 1843.
purpu'rea (purple-flowered). Purple. April.
BEAUPO'RTIA. (Named after Mary
Duchess of Beaufort. Nat. ord., Myrtle-
blooms [Myrtaceae]. Linn., IS-Polyadel-
phia, 2-Polyandria) . Greenhouse ever-
green shrubs. Cuttings of half-ripened
shoots, under a glass in sand, without
heat ; loam and peat. Summer temp.,
50 to 65 ; winter, 38 to 48.
B. carina'ta (keel-leaved). 3. Scarlet. New
Dampie'ri (Dampier's). 2. Pink. May.
decussa'ta (decussated). 3. Scarlet. May.
New Holland. 1803.
macrostr'mon (long-stamened). Purple.
July. Australia. 1843.
purpu'rea (purple- flowered). Purple. July.
spa'rsa (scattered-leaved). 3. Red. New
sple'ndens (shining). 3. New Holland. 1830.
BEATIMO'NTIA. (Named after Mrs.
Beaumont of Bretton Hall. Nat. ord.
Dogbanes [Apocynaceae]. Linn., 5-Pen-
tandria, \~monogynia). One of our first
stove twiners, with large white trumpet-
shaped flowers, produced in clusters at
the end of the shoots. They succeed best
planted out in the borders of a house,
intermediate between a stove and a green-
house. Cuttings of half-ripened wood ;
rich lumpy loam and peat. Summer
temp., 60 to 70 ; winter, 50 to 60. .
, grandifto'ra (large-flowered). 20. White.
June. East Indies. 1820.
longifo'lia (long-leaved). 20. White. East
BE'CIUM. United to Ocymum.
BED is a comprehensive word, applica-
ble to the detached space on which any
cultivated plants are grown. It is most
correctly confined to small divisions,
purposely restricted in breadth for the
convenience of hand- weeding, or other
requisite culture, and in the flower gar-
den for the promotion of beauty. This
involves the question of form, one the
most difficult that is submitted to the
gardener ; because few tastes agree as to
their estimate of the beautiful. Under
the head FLOWER GARDEN, we shall give
a few general, and only general, obser-
vations upon this subject ; and here will
merely observe that, in making flower-
beds, they should always be proportioned
to the size of the plants which are to be
their tenants ; and that though, for large
masses of shrubs and trees, we have seen
rectangular forms so planted as to look
solid and grand ; yet, that we believe no
arrangement of dwarf-flowers would ever
make a separate square or parallelogram
bed of them, otherwise than decidedly
BEDDING- IN is a mode of sowing seed.
In this method the ground being dug
and formed by alleys into beds, four or
five feet wide, each alley being a spade's
width or more between bed and bed, and
the earth being drawn off" the top of the
bed with a rake or spade, half an inch or
an inch deep into the alleys, the seed is
then sown all over the surface of the
bed ; which being done, the earth in the
alleys is immediately cast over the bed,
again covering the seeds the same depth,
and the surface is raked smooth.
The method of bedding-in sowing by
sifting is sometimes practised for very
small seeds of a more delicate nature, that
require a very light covering of earth when
sown. To bury them as shallow as pos-
sible, they are covered by sifting fine
earth over them out of a wire sieve.
BEDDING-OUT is removing plants from
the pots in which they have been grow-
ing into the beds where they are intended
to remain during the summer and autumn.
The following is a list of flowers for
bedding-out, arranged according to their'
colours, the first-named being the most
dwarf : White. Verbena pulchella,
Lobelia erinus albus, Campanula pumila,
Campanula Carpatica alba, Senccio ele-
gans flore albo, White Ivy-leaved Gera-
nium, "White-flowered horse-shoe Gera-
nium, Phlox omniflora, Double White
Snapdragon, (Enothera taraxifolia, (E.
speciosa, Nierembergia calycina, varie-
gated sweet Alyssum, Calendula hybrida,
White Clarkia, Petunia ny ctaginiflora ; of
Verbenas, the Bride and White Perfec-
tion, and White Salvia patens. Scarlet.