nurseryman will furnish this.* Next,
some really good matting : we prefer the
new Cuba bast ; but the finest of the or-
dinary Russian mats will answer equally
well, perhaps better, provided the mate-
rial is very fine and very tough.
The bast must be cut into lengths
and adapted to the size of the stocks be
they what they may. A mere novice
may soon determine the length neces-
sary, by twisting a piece round any twig
of similar size, as in the act of budding.
Before describing the process itself,
it will be well to speak of the condition
of tlie stocks or subjects to be operated on.
* The best budding instrument we have
ever seen is made by Mr. Turner, Necpaend,
Sheffield. It has a budding knife at one end
and a grooved hook at the other end. This
hook being inserted in the T cut made -with
the knife keeps it open, and allows tin- hud to
be slipt easily down the groove into its place.
It really supplies the buclder with a third
Budding, as before observed, is per-
formed at various seasons ; and in very
early budding, it is considered in the majo-
rity of cases prudential, if not absolutely
necessary, to insert the whole of the shield
or bud with its own system of wood at-
tached. When the summer is far advanced,
however, and the buds are become indivi-
dually perfect or nearly so, in their or-
ganization, the case alters, and the less
of intervening matter there exists be-
tween the bud and its immediate appur-
tenances of petiole, and bark, the better.
Budding, then, in spring or early
summer, is generally accompanied, it
may be presumed, by a copious current
of sap ; not so, however, late summer
budding on all occasions ; for the season
may have been unusually warm and dry;
the stock or subject may be short of sap,
or, in other words, be beset with a pa-
ralysed root action : all these are impedi-
ments. A copious watering the evening
previous to the process, will, however,
promote the free rising of the bark, on
which so much depends. In addition to
this, a cloudy day is preferable to a
In former days the chief criterion of
the eligibility of a tree for the budding
process was the cessation of growth, or
rather of extension, in point of length in
the stock. Such generally happens in
fruit-trees such as the peach, apricot,
cherry, plum, &c., about the first or se-
cond week in August. The period, of
course, being liable to be modified by
several circumstances, as heat, drought,
&c. Instead, however, of thus waiting
until the eleventh hour, it is better to
make an earlier commencement ; and
there is little occasion to delay after the
middle of July has passed, unless the
stocks or scions are subjects of late
growth and excessive luxuriance.
The exact position of the bud being
determined, the incision is made across
the stock transversely, in length suffi-
cient to create an opening for the bud ;
this slit forms the head of the incision,
which, when the next slit is made, will
form the letter T- I 11 making this slit,
or incision, a somewhat bold cut must
be made, in fact, the point of the knife
must be made to reach the surface of the
wood of the stock.
The perpendicular slit is made from
the bottom upwards, and an experienced
budder gives a peculiar flirt or jerk to
the knife when he approaches the head
of the T : this jerk at once rifts up the
bark better than any slower process could
do it ; and the haft of the budding-knife
is in a moment turned round, and the
point introduced ; and, by pressing it
close to the wood, right and left, the
bark is, as it were, ploughed up, or libe-
rated from the wood.
All is now ready for the reception of
the bud, which is, indeed, by most good
budders prepared first, as follows : The
cutting or shoot of the kind to be inserted
being wood of the current year's growth,
is generally kept in a waterpot, first cut-
ting off all the leaves : care must, how-
ever, be taken to leave most of the
petiole (leaf stalk) to handle the bud by :
this also, doubtless, assists in forming a
The bxid, with its bark and a little of
the wood of the tree, is then cut oif in
the form of a shield ; and the point of
the knife and thumb-nail of the right
hand, by a little nice handling, are made
to remove the portion of woody matter
from the centre. The bud is instantly
introduced beneath the bark in the T i n ~
cision of the stock, where, as before ob-
served, it is found in the same relation
to the stock or stem of its new parent as
existed between it and the shoot whence
it sprang. This done, it is carefully
and closely, but not tightly, bound with
the bast ; the operator generally begin-
ning to bind at the lower end, gives an
extra tug with the mat when he comes
tolerably close to the lower end of the
petiole. This is an old practice, and not
particularly intelligible ; the meaning,
we suppose if meaning it have being,
that the tightness of the ligature in that
precise position impedes slightly the re-
turning sap, thereby concentrating it
about the bud.
Some persons employ a grafting wax
to cover the parts where air may enter ;
the following mixture will make a very
useful kind : Sealing wax, one part ;
mutton fat, one part ; white wax, one
part; honey, one-eighth part. The
white wax and fat are first melted, and
then the scaling wax is to be added, gra-
[ 158 ]
dually, in small pieces : the mixture be-
ing kept constantly stirred; lastly, the
honey must be put in, just before taking
it off the fire. It should be poured into
paper or tin moulds, and kept slightly
agitated till it begins to congeal.
"We before observed, that when the
season is late, and the bark rises some-
what badly, it may be excited to rise.
A liberal watering with liquid manure,
of the temperature of 90, the day before
the operation, will in general facilitate
the proceeding. When the bud or shield,
after the wood is removed, appears hol-
low at the bud part, it is commonly re-
jected. Such are not always barren ; but
they are apt to lie dormant for a year or
When a choice of position offers itself,
we prefer the shady side of the stock ; it
is of more importance, however, to select
a clear portion of the stem, free from
knots ; although some fancy the bud
takes better if placed in a position from
whence a natural bud has been removed.
It should be taken as a maxim, that only
those buds should be selected, the leaves
of which have become fully developed ;
the leaf also should, if possible, be un-
Cloudy weather is in all cases to be
preferred to sunny periods.
For budding Roscs^ and indeed for
all budding, the best time of the day is
either early in the morning, at least as
early as seven o'clock, A.M., or, after
three o'clock in the afternoon ; cloudy,
moist days are most suitable. Cut off
the head of your stocks, and all the side
branches to three, that is, for standards.
For dwarfs, cut off to within six inches
of the ground; then, with the knife,
make an incision on the upper side of
the young side branches, as close to the
main stem as possible. The incision
should be about an inch long, lengthwise
on the branch. Cut a cross just at the
top of this incision, in a direction some-
what more slanting than in the annexed
drawing, (fig. 2). Then take off the bud,
previously cutting off the leaf, leaving
part of the leaf-stalk. Cut away with
the bud a portion of the bark from the
parent stem, which is technically called
the shield of the bud, and a portion of
wood with it. This bud, and the bark
and wood with it, should be, altogether,
rather more than three quarters of an
inch long. Turn the bud over between
your finger and thumb, and dextrously
take out the greater part of the wood,
but be careful to leave the wood full in
the eye of the bud. Then raise one side
of the bark of the incision, in the shape
of a T made in the stock, and, with the
ivory handle of the budding knife, slip
in one side of the bark attached to the
bud, then turn your knife, and lift iip
1. The bud, with the wood taken out, mid
ready to be put into the stock side branches.
2. The branch, or stein, with the incisions
made, previously to raising- the bark.
3. The bark raised for receiving- the shield of
4. The bud fitted into its place.
5. The bandage put over the parts. It is here
represented as done with a shred of bass-
mat, but stout worsted thread is better.
the other side of the incision, and the
bud will drop into its place : press the
bark of the bud to the farther end of the
incision, and, if any projects beyond the
cross incision on the stock, cut it off.
Then tie with worsted neatly, and the
operation is complete. A laurel leaf
fastened at each end by a ligature round
the stock, so as to arch over the bud,
will complete the arrangement, and thus
the sun's rays, the air, and wet, will be
most effectually excluded, the admittance
of any one of which are fatal to the
union of the bud with the stock. "We
feel it almost impossible to give instruc-
tion, to bo understood, in words only, for
such a complex operation. "We have,
therefore, given the preceding woodcuts,
to show all the several parts of this inte-
BU'DDLEA. (Named after A. Buddie,
an English botanist. Nat. ord., Fig worts
[Scrophulariaceee]. Linn., 4- Tetrandria,
\-monogynia). Stove evergreen shrubs,
except where otherwise specified. B.
fflobosa, the only hardy species, requires
a dry sheltered situation in the north of
the island, seeds|are '. sometimes pro-
cured in the south of England, and
should be sown in the spring following.
Plants are also easily procured from well-
ripened cuttings placed under hand-lights
in September, and slightly protected
during winter frosts. The greenhouse
and stove species may all be propagated
freely from cuttings, and for general
management the latter merely require a
higher temperature than the former.
B. america'na (American). 10. Yellow. Au-
gust. Mexico. 1826.
brazilie'nsis (Brazilian). 10. Orange. Brazil.
- conna'ta (base-joined leaved}. 5. Orange.
May. Peru. 1826.
diversify lia (various leaved). 6. Java. 1823.
fflobo'sa (globe-flowered). 15. Orange. May.
Chili. 1774. Hardy herbaceous.
heterophtf lla (variable leaved). 10. Yellow.
May. South America.
Lindlcyu'na (Lindley's). 6. Violet. Sep-
tember. China. 1844. Greenhousa
Madagascar it? nsis (Madagascar). 10. Or-
ange. Madeira. 1824.
Netfmda (Neemda). 15. White. June. Ne-
occidcnta' Us (western). White. Peru. 1730.
~ panicula' ta (panicled). 14. White. August.
B.salVgna (willow-like). 6. White. August.
Cape of Good Hope. 1810. Greenhouse
salvifo'lia (sage-leaved). 3. Crimson. Au-
gust. Cape of Good Hope. 1760. Green-
thyrsoi'dca (thyrse-floivered). Yellow.
South America. 1823.
BUFF-TIP MOTH. Hcmmato'phora.
BUFFALO CLOVER. Trifo'lium Pennsyl-
BUGAINVILL^E'A. (Named after the
French navigator Bougainville. Nat. ord.,
Nyctagos [Nyctaginaceae]. Linn., 8-Oc-
tandria, \-monogynid]. B. spectabilis is a
scrambling plant, with beautiful rose-
coloured bracts, in cones like those of
the Hop. It flowers freely at Paris, but
no English gardener has yet succeeded in
flowering it: we keep it too hot. Stove
plants. Cuttings in sand, and in bottom
heat; sandy fibry loam. Summer temp.,
60 to 75; winter, 50 to 60.
B.specta'UUs (showy). 15. Pink. South Ame-
spier ndens (shining). South America. 1848.
vitifo'lia (vine leaved). 1848.
Buissox, is a fruit tree on a very low
stem, and with a head closely pruned.
BULB. A bulb is really an underground
bud ; its fibrous or real roots die anmially,
but the bulb remains stored with ela-
borated sap, and retaining the vital
powers of the plant, ready for reproduc-
tion at the appropriate season. Besides
root bulbs, as are the onion, crocus, e.,
there are stem or caulinary bulbs, equally
efficient for propagation.
The stem bulb consists of a number of
small scales closely compacted together
in an ovate or conical form, enclosing
the rudiments of a future plant, and ori-
ginating sometimes in the axil of the
leaves, as in Denta'ria bulbi'fcra and seve-
ral lilyworts, and sometimes at the base
of the umbel of flowers, as in A' Ilium
carindtiim and others, in both which
cases it is nourished by the parent plant
till it has reached maturity, at which
period the bond of connection is dis-
solved, and the bulb falls to the ground,
endowed with the power of striking root
in the soil by sending out fibres from the
base, and so converting itself into a new
Every bulbous - rooted plant has its
management given in its proper place ;
but there are a few rules of general ap-
plicability. They should be moved,
where necessary, whilst in a state of
rest ; this occurs to the summer -flower-
ing bulbs in autumn, and to the autunrn-
nowering in spring. Many require to
be taken up annually, or at farthest
every second or third year, to remove
the accumulated offsets. No bulb should
be kept long out of the ground, and even
during the time it is necessarily so kept,
it should be prevented from drying by
burying it in sand.
BULBI'NE. (From bolbos, a bulb. Nat.
ord., Lilyworts [Liliaceae]. Linn., 6-
Hexandria, \-monogynia). This is now
united to Anthericiim. The name Bul-
bine, also, is a misnomer, for many more
have the herbaceous habit of Anthericiim
than that of true bulbs. Bulb species
by offsets ; herbaceous plants, suckers
and divisions; the shrubby species, by
cuttings under a hand - glass. Sand,
loam. For Greenhouse species, summer
temp., 50 to 70 ; winter, 40 to 45.
B. aloi'des (aloe-like). 1. Yellow. June.
Cape of Good Hope. 1732.
a' nntia ; (annual). ^. Yellow. May. Cape
of Good Hope. 1731.
asphodcloi' dcs (asphodel-like). 2. "White.
July. Cape of Good Hope. 1759.
austra'Us (southern). 1. Yellow. June.
New Holland. 1820.
bisulctfta (two - furrowed). 1. Yellow.
November. Cape of Good Hope. 1823.
cilia' to. (hair-fringed). 2. Yellow. May.
Cape of Good Hope. 1823.
floribtfnda (many-flowered). 1. Yellow
green. September. Cape of Good
frute'scens (shrubby). 2. Yellow. June.
Cape of Good Hope. 1702.
glatifca (milky green). 2. White. Chili.
grami'nea (grass-leaved). 1. Yellow. May.
Cape of Good Hope. 1824.
hi'spida (bristly). 1. White. May. Cape
of Good Hope. 1774.
latifo'lia (broad-leaved). 2. White. July.
Cape of Good Hope. 1812.
longi'scapa (long-flowcr-stemmed). 1. Yel-
low. June. Cape of Good Hope. 1759.
mesem lin/antJioi' de.s ( mesembryanthemum-
like). :?. Yellow. May. Cape of
Good Hope. 1822.
mftans (nodding). 1. Yellow. July. Cape
of Good Hope. 1820.
prccmo'rxa (bitten-off) . 1. Yellow. June.
Cape of Good Hope. 1818.
pnmonifo' rmis (dagger-formed). 1. Yellow.
May. Cape of Good Hope. 1793.
B. rostra' ta (beaked). 2. Yellow. June.
Cape of Good Hope. 1812.
sca'bra (rough). 1. Yellow. June. Cape
of Good Hope. 1825.
semibarba'ta (half-bearded). 1. Yellow.
July. Cape of Good Hope. 1820.
sua'vis (sweet). Yellow. May. New Hol-
triqtfetra (three-sided). 1. Yellow. June.
Cape of Good Hope. 1825.
BTJLBOCO'DIUM. (From bolbos, a bulb,
and kodion, wool ; referring to the woolly
covering of the bulbs. Nat. ord., Me-
lanths (Melanthace]. Linn., 6-Hexan-
dria, \-monogynia). Small hardy bulbs,
having the aspect of Crocus. Offsets;
sandy loam, well drained.
B. ve'rnnm (spring), j. Purple. Febmary.
versi' color (party-coloured). . Purple.
August. Crimea. 1820.
BULBO' STYLES. (From bolbos, a bulb,
and stylos, the style. Nat. ord., Compo-
sites [Asteraceae]. Linn., 19-Syngenesia,
\-cequalis). Stove plants. Cuttings in
sand, with bottom heat, under a bell-
glass ; loam and peat.
B. Cavanille'sii (Cavanille's). 1. Purple.
August. Mexico. 1827. Evergreen
pefndula (hanging-down). Yellow. Au-
gust. Mexico. 1832.
veronica'fo'lia (speedwell-leaved). 1|. Blue.
August. Mexico. 1825.
BTJLLACE TREE. Pru'nus insiti'tia.
BULL GRAPES. Vi'tis rotundifo'lia.
BUNCHO'SIA. [From bunchos, coffee ;
the seeds resembling coffee-berries. Nat.
ord., Malpighiads [Malpighiaceae]. Linn.,
IQ-JDccandria, 1 -monogynia) . Stove shrub
and tree ; cuttings of ripe shoots under a
glass, in moist bottom heat ; sandy loam
and peat. Summer temp., 60 to 85;
winter, 50 to 55.
B. argefntea (silvery). 10. Yellow. July.
' cane? seen s (hoary). 20. Yellow. July.
West Indies. 1742.
glanduli' fcra (gland-bearing). 10. Yellow.
April. West Indies. 1806.
ni'tida (shining). 10. Red. July. St.
odora'ta (scented). 10. Yellow. July.
panicula'ta (panicled). 10. Purple. June.
BUPLEU'RUM. Hare's ear. (From bous,
an ox, and plcuron, a side ; the leaves, if
eaten, are supposed to swell cattle. Nat.
ord., UmbcUifcrs [Umbellacese]. Linn.,
fj-Pentandria, Z-Digynia] . Hardy annuals
C 161 1
and herbaceous perennials, except where
otherwise specified. Seed of the annuals
in common soil, in March and April;
divisions of herbaceous plants in autumn
or spring; cuttings or divisions of green-
house species in March and April ; dry
B. glatfcum (milky-green). . Green yel
low. July. South Europe. 1819.
gra'cile (slender). \. Green yellow. July.
ju'nceum (rush-leaved). 1. Green yellow'
July. South Europe. 1772.
lancifo'lium (lance-leaved). 1. Green yel-
low. July. Tauria. 1820 Biennial.
oppositifo' Hum (opposite-leaved). 1. Green
yellow. July. Pyrenees. 1819.
Potfi'c/m (Pollich's). 1. Green yellow.
July. Palestine. 1818.
^protra'ctum (protracted), f. Yellowish.
July. Portugal. 1824. Twiner.
rotundifcf Hum (round-leaved). 2. Green
yellow. June. Spain.
semi-compo' situm (semi-compound) . f .
Green yellow. July. Spain. 1778.
subova'tum (rather oval-leaved). . Yel-
low. June. Spain. 1819,
tenui'ssimum (slenderest). . Green yel-
low. July. England.
tri'fidum (three-cleft). 24. Yellow. July.
Italy. 1824. Biennial.
B. arista' turn (awned). Blush. June. Britain.
mtreum (golden). 1. Yellow. May. Si-
coria'ceum (leathery). Striped. August.
falca'tum (sickle-leaved). . Green yel-
low. August. Germany. 1739.
frute'scem (small-shrubby). 2. Yellow.
August. Spain. 1752.
graminifo'lium (grass-leaved). . Green
yellow. June. Switzerland. 1768.
longifo' Hum (long-leaved). 3. Green yel-
low. June. Switzerland. 1713.
multinefrve (many-nerved). 3. Yellowish.
panicula'tum (panicled). Ij. Yellow.
July. Spain. 1824.
petrafum (rock). !. Green yellow. June.
poly phy" Hum (many-leaved). 1. Green
yellow. May. Caucasus. 1823.
scorzonercefo'lium (Scorzonera-leaved). Yel-
low streaked. June. Germany. 1818.
spmo'sum (spined). Yellow. July. Spain.
1752. Evergreen shrub.
B. candsccns (hoary). 5. Yellow. August
Barbary, 1809. Evergreen shrub.
frutictf sum (shrubby). 3. Yellow. July
South Europe. 1596. Evergreen
Gibralta'rica (Gibraltar). Yellow. June
Gibraltar. 1784. Evergreen halfl
B. plantagi'neum (plantain-feared). 3. Yel-
low. July. Mount Atlas. 1810.
BUPTHA'LMUM. Ox-Eye. (From
bous, an ox, and ophthalmos, eye ; the
disk of the flower ox-eye-like) . Nat.
ord., Composites (Asteracese). Linn., 19-
Syngenesia, 1-Superflua). Seed of an-
nuals in border, in April; division of
herbaceous perennials in March; cut-
tings in sand, under a bell-glass, of the
evergreen greenhouse shrubs ; the latter
require peat and loam, and the usual
B. aqua'ticum (aquatic). . Yellow. July.
South Europe. 1731. Annual.
ffrandifto'rum (large-flowered). 1. Yel-
low. August. Austria. 1722. Her-
salicifo' Hum (willow-leaved). 1. Yellow.
September. Austria. 1759. Herba-
speciosi' ssimum (showiest) . 2. Yellow. July.
South Europe. 1826. Herbaceous
' spmo'sum (spinose). 3. Yellow. July.
Spain. 1570. Annual.
B. Iceviga'tum (smooth-leaved). 4. Yellow.
July. Teneriffe. 1800. Evergreen
mari'timum (sea). 1. Yellow. August.
Sicily. 1640. Half-hardy herbaceous
seri'ceum (silky). 4. Yellow. June.
Canaries. 1779. Evergreen shrub.
stenophy'llum (narrow-leaved). 3. Yel-
low. June. Canaries. 1818. Ever-
BURCHA'RDIA. (Named after H. Bur-
chard, M.D. Nat. ord., Melanths (Me-
lanthacese). Linn., Q-Hexandria, 3-Tri-
gynia. Allied to Veratrum.) Greenhouse
herbaceous perennial : offsets and divi-
sions ; sandy peat. Winter temp., 38
B. umbella'ta (umbellate). 2. White green.
August. New Holland. '1820.
BURCHE'LLIA. (Named after Burchett,
an African traveller. Nat. ord., Gin-
chonads [Cinchoniaceae]. Linn., 5-
Pentandria, \-Monogynia. Allied to Gar-
denia). Stove evergreen shrubs, from
Cape of Good Hope. Cuttings of yonug
shoots, getting firm at the base, in April
and May ; fibry loam and sandy peat.
Summer temp., 60 to 75 ; winter 50
B. bubali'na (buffalo). 3. Scarlet. May. 1818.
capefnsis (Cape). 3. Scarlet. March.
BURLINGTO'NIA. (Named after the
Countess of Burlington, Nat. ord., Or-
chids [Orchidacea?]. lA-an.^-Gynandria
\-Monogynia}. Stove orchids. Divi-
sions fastened to blocks of wood, with a
little moss attached. High temperature
and moist atmosphere when growing;
cool and dry when in a state of rest.
Summer temp., 65 to 90 ; winter, 55.
. ca'ndida (snow-white). 1. White. April.
macula' ta (spotted) . | . Yellow and brown
spots. May. Brazil. 1837.
ri'glda (stiS-stcmmed). 1. Purplish, pink
spotted. April. Brazil. 1838.
venu'sta (beautiful). White. March. Bra-
BURN ONION. See Potato Onion.
BURNET, (Pote'rium Sanguiso'rba}.
Small, or Upland Burnet. Used in cool
tankards, soups, and salads.
Soil and Situation, It delights in a
dry, unshaded poor soil, abounding in
calcareous matter, with a dressing of
bricklayers' rubbish or fragments of
chalk. A small bed will be sufficient for
the supply of a family.
Propagation is either by seed or by
slips and partings of the roots. The seed
sown towards the close of February, if
open weather, and until the close of
May; but the best time is in autumn, as
soon as it is ripe ; for, if kept until the
spring, it will often fail entirely, or lie in
the ground until the same season of the
following year, without vegetating. Sow
in drills, six inches apart, thin, and not
buried more than half an inch. Keep
clear of weeds. "When two or three
inches high, thin to six inches apart, and
those removed place in rows at the same
distance, in a poor, shady border, water
being given occasionally until they have
taken root, after which they will require
no further attention until the autumn,
when they must be removed to their final
station, in rows a foot apart. When
established, the only attention requisite
is to cut down their stems occasionally in
summer, to promote the production of
young snoots, and in autumn to have the
decayed stems and shoots cleared away.
If propagated by partings of the roots,
the best time is in September and Octo-
ber. They are planted at once where
they are to remain, and only require
occasional watering until established.
To obtain Seed some of the plants must
be left ungathered from, and allowed to
shoot up early in the summer ; they
flower in July, and ripen abundance of
seed in the autumn.
BURNING BUSH. Euo'nymus Ameri-
BURSA'RIA. (Named from bursa, a
pouch. Nat. ord., Pittosporads [Pitto-
sporaceae]. Linn., 5-Pentandria, \-Mo-
nogynia]. Greenhouse evergreen shrub.
Cuttings of young shoots in sand, under
a bell-glass; sandy peat and fibry loam.
Winter temp., 40 to 45.
B, spino'sa thorny). 10. White. October
New South Wales. 1793.
BU'RSERA. (Named after Burser, an
Italian botanist. Nat. ord., Amy rids
[Amyridaceae). Linn., 23-Polygamw, 2-
dioscia]. Stove trees ; cuttings under a
glass, with bottom heat; loam and peat.
Summer temp., 60 to 85 ; winter, 50
B. gummi'fera (gum-bearing). 20. White,
green. West Indies. 1690.
serra' ta (saw-edged-/eat>e^) . 30. East