BURTO'NIA. (Named after D, Burton,
a collector for the Kew Gardens. Nat.
ord., Leguminous plants [Fabaceoo]. Linn.,
10-I)ecandria, \-monogynia. Allied to
Pultenaea). Greenhouse evergreen under
shrubs ; seeds in March and April in
sandy peat ; cuttings of half-ripened
shoots in sand, under a bell-glass ; fibry
peat, sandy loam, and pieces of charcoal,
mixed with soil and drainage. Summer
temp., 60 to 70 ; winter, 45 to 50.
B. brunioi'des (Brunia-like). 1. Yellow. June
New Holland. 1844.
confefrta (clustered-./?0(/we^). 2. Violet.
July. New Holland. 1830.
mi' nor (smaller). $. Yellow. May. New
pulchc'lla (beautiful). 2. Purple. April.
Swan River. 1846.
sca'bralvough-leaved). 1. Yellow. June
New Holland. 1803.
sessiliflo'ra (stalklcss-flowered) . ^. Yellow.
June. New Holland. 1824.
villa' sa (long-haired). 2. Purple. May.
Swan River. 1844.
BUSHEL. See Basket.
BUTCHER'S BROOM. Ruscus.
BU'TEA. (Named after John Earl of
Bute, Nat. ord., Leguminous plants [Fa-
baceae]. Linn., ll-Liadelphia, \-pcntan-
dria. Allied to the Coral tree). Stove
evergreen trees ; cuttings of shoots,
young, but firm : in sand, in a moist bot-
tom heat, under a glass, removed, or air
given during the night ; loam and peat.
Summer temp., 60 to 75 ; winter, 50
B.f rondo' sa (leafy). 30. Scarlet. East Indies.
parviflo'ra (small-flowered). 20. Scarlet.
suptfrba (superb). 30. Scaiiet. East
BU'TOMUS. Flowering Rush. (From
bous, on ox, and temno, to cut ; in refer-
ence to its acrid juice, causing the mouth
to bleed. Nat. ord., Butomads [Buto-
macese]. Linn., ^-Enneaiidrea, 3-hexa-
gynia). Hardy perennial aquatics ; divi-
sions ; rich loam in water.
B. latifo'lius (broad-leaved). 1. White. June.
umbella'tus (umbeled). 2. Pink. June.
BUTTER NUT. Caryo' car and Jit ' glans
BUTTER AND EGGS. Narci'sstts incom-
BUTTER AND TALLOW TREE. Penta-
BUTTER TREE. Ba'ssia.
BUTTERFLY PLANT. Onci'dktmpapi'lio.
BUTTON FLOWER. Go'mphia.
BUTTON TREE. Conoca'rpus.
BUTTON WEED. Spertnaco 'ce,
BUTTON WOOD. Cephala'nthtts.
BT/XUS. Box tree. (From pyknos,
dense ; referring to the hardness of the
wood. Nat. ord., Spurgeivorts [Euphor-
biacese]. Linn., 21-Monoecia, 4-tetran-
dria}. There is a weeping box tree in
the gardens at Shrubland Park, with
branches as pendulous as those of the
weeping ash. Hardy and greenhouse
shrubs and trees ; seed sown in light
well-drained soil, as soon as ripe ; cut-
tings from four to six inches in length of
the young shoots, inserted in a shady
place in August and September ; layers
of either old or young wood : division of
the variety suffruticosa, generally used as
edgings to walks ; cuttings of bakarica
will require protection in winter. Chinese
and New Holland species require a cold
pit or greenhouse in winter.
j?. austra'lis (southern). 6. New Holland.
Ji.balea'rica (Balearic). 8. Yellow green.
July. Minorca. 1780.
chine! nsis (Chinese). 3. Yellow green.
October. China. 1802.
semper vi' r ens (common evergreen). 8. Yel-
low green. April. England.
8. Yellow green. April.
_ - arboref scens (tree-like) . 30.
Yellow green. May. Britain.
arge'ntea (silver-variegated) .
30. Yellow green. May. Britain.
au'rea (golden-variegated). 30
Yellow green. May. Britain.
margina'ta (yellow-edged). 30.
Yellow green. April. Britain.
- myrtifo'lia (myrtle-leaved) . 8.
Yellow green. April. Britain.
- = - suffrutico'sa (sub-shrubby). 1.
- - variega'ta (variegated-fcm- ed.
30. Yellow green. May. Britain.
BY'BLIS. (A classical name, after
Syblis, daughter of Miletus. Nat. ord.,
Sundews [Droceracese]. Linn., 5-Pentan-
dria, 5-pentagynia) . Greenhouse aquatic ;
seeds ; fibry black peat, immersed in
water. Summer temp., 50 to 70 ; win-
ter, 45 to 55.
B. liniflo'ra (flax-flowered). L Blue. May.
New Holland. 1800.
BYRSO'NIMA. (From byrsa, a hide ; in
reference to the tanning properties of the
genus. Nat. ord., Malpighiads [Malpigh-
iaceae]. Linn., \Q-Decandria, 3-trigynia).
In Brazil the bark of these trees is in
common use by the tanners, under the
name of Murice, The fruit of some of
them is eaten in the West Indies. Stove
evergreens ; cuttings of half-ripened
shoots, in sandy peat, under a bell-glass,
and in a moist bottom heat ; loam and
peat. Summer temp., 60 to 80 ; win-
ter, 55 to 60.
B. alti'ssima (tallest). 60. "White. July.
chrysopliyf lla (golden-leaved). 10. Yellow,
August. Orinoco. 1823.
coria'cea (leathery-feaved). 30. White.
June. Jamaica. 1814.
crassifo'lia (thick-leaved). 20. Yellow.
July. Guiana. 1793.
laurifo'lia (laurel-leaved). 10. Yellow.
July. Cumana. 1824.
litcida (shining-fcarerf). 6. Pink. July.
West Indies. 1759. '
Mourei'la (Moureila). 20. Yellow. August.
South America. 1823.
nervofsa (full-nerved). 8. Yellow. July.
pa'llida (pale). 4. Pale. Cayenne. 1820.
reticula'ta (netted). 10. Purple yellow.
July. Cayenne. 1823.
spica'tn (spiked). 6. Yellow. August.
B. verbascifo'lia (verbascum-leaved). 6. Pale
red. July. Guiana. 1810.
volitUlis (twining). 10. Yellow. August.
West Indies. 1793. Twiner.
BYSTROPO'GON. (From byo, to close,
and pogon, a beard ; in reference to the
throat of the flower being closed up with
hairs. Nat. ord., Labiate [Lamiaceae].
Linn., \-Didynamia, \-gymnospermia.
Allied to Thyme). Greenhouse evergreen
under-shrub ; cuttings of stubby side-
shoots, in sandy soil, under a glass ;
peat and loam. Summer temp., 50 to
70 ; winter, 40 to 48.
B. canarie'nsis (Canary). 1. Pale purple.
July. Canaries. 1714.
origaniftflius (Origanum-leaved). 1. Pale
purple. July. Canaries. 1815.
plumo'sus (f eather j-flowered}. 1^. Pale
puncta'tm (dotted). 1
Pale purple. June.
BYTTNE'KJA. (Named after Buttner,
a German professor. Nat. ord, Byttne-
riads [Byttneriaceae]. Linn., 5-Pentan-
dria, \-monogynia}. Cuttings; the two
first species require the greenhouse, the
others require the routine of the plant
B. dasyphi/lla (thick-leaved). 3. White. June.
Van Diemen's Land. 1780.
hermanniftflia (Hermania-leaved). 4. White.
July. New Holland. 1823.
microphy'lla (small-leaved). 5. White
purple. South America. 1816.
sca'bra (rough-leaved). 6. Purple. July.
West Indies. 1793.
CABARET. See Asarum.
CABBAGE. (Brassica oleracea).
Varieties. But few should be planted
of the early varieties, as they soon harden
and burst ; but the large York and others
that are mentioned in the middle class,
though not far behind the others in quick
cabbaging, continue long in a state fit for
For First Crops. Early Dwarf, Early
Fine York, Early Dwarf Sugar Loaf,
Battersea, Imperial, East Ham.
Midsummer Crops. Large Early York,
Large Sugar Loaf, Wheeler's Nonpareil,
Atkinson's Matchless, Shilling's Queen,
Penton this is valuable in late summer,
when other varieties are strongly tasted.
Antwerp, Russian to have this in per-
fection, the seed must be had from abroad,
as it soon degenerates in this country.
Early London Hollow. Musk is excel-
lent at any period, but is apt to perish in
frosty weather. Couve Tronchuda, for
its leaves and stalks used as Sea Kale.
For Autumn Crops. Pomeranian,
Large Hollow Sugar Loaf, Large Oblong
Hollow, Long-sided Hollow, and any of
the preceding. Red Dutch for pickling.
(B. oleracea rubra). Large Round Win-
ter, Great Drum Head. Great Pound
Scotch, or Strasburg, employed for sour
krout in January.
Times of Sowing. Some gardeners sow
almost monthly, and employ many varie-
ties ; but we only employ Wlieeler's Non-
pareil, Shilling's Queen, and Atkinson's
Matchless of one of which a sowing
should be made about the 21st of July ;
for final planting out, early in September;
many plants of which will be turning in
between Michaelmas and Christmas, and
in early spring. The second and most
general time of sowing to raise plants for
almost the whole year's supply, and of
any kind, including the Red Dutch and
its varieties, is from the 6th to the 12th
of August, of which the seedlings may re-
main in the seed-bed all the winter, if not
too thick ; or any number may be finally
planted out into the open quarters from
October to November, or pricked out into
nursery-beds, banks, &c., so as to have
a good stock plants for final planting out
whenever favourable opportunities offer.
Should the winter be so severe as to
have destroyed many of the autumn-
sown plants, then early spring- so wing
becomes of importance. Sow towards
the middle or end of January, so as to
have good plants for final planting out
if the weather be mild and open, about
the end of February. To effect this,
either a pinch of seed may be sown in
pans or boxes, and placed in some steady-
heated structure, and when the seedlings
are up large enough to prick out have a
warm border or very gentle hotbed ready
to prick them out upon, to be protected
either by a little glass or hoop and mat.
To sow on a larger scale make up gentle
hotbeds, to be protected with either glass,
which is best, or mats; the pricking out
attend to as before mentioned. Also
any kind may be sown in the open warm
border in February and March, should
the August sowing have been destroyed.
The Gouve Tronchuda should be sown
from the first of March to the end of
April. One very important point is, that
all pricked-out plants should invariably
be lifted with either a spade, trowel, or
fork, out of the pricked-out beds, whether
in frames or otherwise, so as to secure
their young roots. Plants out of the
seed bed seldom need this precaution.
Mode of Sowing. The seed is inserted
rather thin, about a quarter of an inch
deep, and occasionally watered until the
plants are well above ground, and the
waterings in summer may afterwards be
beneficially repeated two or three times
a week, until they are ready for removal,
if dry hot weather continues. The seed-
lings are pricked out in rows four or five
inches asunder each way ; shaded and
watered until completely established.
The Soil cannot be made too rich for
cabbage-worts at any time.
Planting. "We never make but two
plantings in the year; one from the 21st
of July sowing, which planting is made
during the first fortnight of September ;
and the second planting is made in the
spring, towards the end of February or
beginning of March. This last planting
is either made from plants raised in Au-
gust, or, if the winter destroyed that
sowing, it is made from early spring
sowings ; our soil being made so rich for
these two plantings that we never want
for coleworts, or even young cabbage,
which are produced after the principal
heads have been cut away.
Cutting^ Cabbages. If young sprouts-*
are required, the side-leaves should be
left on for about five days after the prin-
cipal head is cut. The side-sprouts will
be found to put forth very much the
stronger and quicker for the leaves being
Planting. Plant in rows from one and
a half to two and a half feet asunder
each way ; the smaller early kinds being
planted the closest. The red cabbage,
the principal plantation of which should
be made in March for pickling in Sep-
tember, is benefited by having the dis-
tances enlarged to three feet. They must
be well watered at the time of removal,
and until fully established. The best
mode of applying the water is to make
the hole with the dibble and pour in
about a quart before inserting the plant ;
frequently hoe to keep under the weeds,
and as soon as their growth permits, the
earth should be drawn round the stems.
To promote the cabbaging of the plants,
it is useful to draw the leaves together
with a shred of bass mat, which forwards
it about a fortnight. The stems of the
summer and autumn crops, if left after
the main head has been cut, will produce
numerous sprouts during those seasons,
and continue to do so throughout the
To obtain Seed. In October, which is
the preferable season, and from thence
until the close of February, select some
of the finest and best cabbage plants.
Have the large outer leaves removed,
and then insert them up to their heads
in rows, three feet asunder each way.
Each variety must be planted as far from
any other as possible, as indeed from
every other species of cabbage- wort ; and
this precaution applies equally to the
Frame Seedlings. The heat must never
exceed 60, nor sink more than two or
three degrees beneath 50, which is the
most favourable minimum. Air should
be admitted freely in the day, and the
glasses covered, as necessity requires, at
night with matting.
Coleworts, or Collets, merely signify
cabbages eaten young, or previous to
their hearts becoming firm, the genuine
colewort, or Dorsetshire kale, being nearly
The observations upon transplanting,
and the directions for cultivating cab-
bages, apply without any modification to
coleworts ; but the distance at which the
plants may be set is much less. If the
rows are a foot apart, and the plants
seven or eight inches distant from each
other, an abundant space is allowed.
They may be eaten when the leaves are
five or six inches in breadth. The most
preferable mode of taking them is to pull
up every alternate one ; the openings left
are beneficial to the remaining plants, and
some especially of the August-raised
plants may be left, if required for cab-
The cabbage is liable to the Mildew
and Ambury, which see ; and to many
insects, as the Aphis^ Mamestra, and
those next enumerated.
CABBAGE BUTTERFLY. See Pie'ris.
CABBAGE FLY. See Anthomy'ia.
CABBAGE GARDEN PEBBLE MOTH.
CABBAGE MOTH. Mamestra.
CABO'MBA. (Derivation not explained.
Nat. ord., Water shields [Cabombaceas].
Linn., Q-Hexandria, 1-Digynia). A small
water plant with floating shield-like
leaves, and small yellow flowers, which
look at a distance like so many Crow-
foot flowers. An interesting species
propagated by root division, requiring
only greenhouse culture in summer, and
to rest in a cool part of the stove in
winter. A shallow pan of water, with
three inches deep of rich loam in the
bottom, will suit it well.
C. (Mua'tica (aquatic). Yellow. May. Caro-
CACA'LIA. (From Jcalcos, pernicious,
and Kan, exceedingly ; supposed to be
hurtful to the soil. Nat. ord., Composites
[Asteracese]. Linn., Vd-Syngenesia, 1-
JEqualis. Allied to Senecio). Hardy spe-
cies are propagated by dividing the plant,
and dividing the root when tuberous ;
C. coccinea may be sown in the borders in
April ; other annuals require a hotbed ;
Cape and East Indian species require the
greenhouse and stove respectively. Cut-
tings should have their juicy ends dried
before inserting them in sandy soil ;
sandy loam, fibry peat, equal parts ; lime
rubbish and very rotten cow-dung half
a part of each.
C. alpi'na (alpine). 2. Purple. July. Aus-
cn-Wnra (xc-drlct-flou-ered). 1.}. Orange.
V* June. 1799. Annual.
cordifo'lia (heart-leaved). 1. "White. Au-
gust. Mexico. 1823. Tuberous-
Jiasta'ta (hsdbert-leaved). 1. White Sep-
tember. Siberia. 1780.
renifcfrmis (kidney-formed), li; "White,
July. North America. 1801.
suave 1 olcns (sweet-scented). 6. White*
August. North America. 1752.
tubcro'sa (tuberous). 1. August. North
America. 1812. Tuberous-rooted.
C. art'icula'ta (jointed). 1. Yellow. Sep.
tember. Cape of Good Hope. 1775.
camcf sa (iicshy-/wm/). 1. Yellow. June.
Cape of Good Hope- 1757.
C. cyli'ndrica (cylindrical). 1. Yellow. June.
Cape of Good Hope. 1818.
Hawafrthia (Haworth's). 2. Yellow. Cape
of Good Hope. 1795.
Klci'nia (Klein's). 3. Yellow. Septem-
ber. Canaries. 1732.
longifoflla (long-leaved). 1. Yellow. 1820.
papilla' ris (pimpled-stalked). 2. Yellow.
Cape of Good Hope. 1727.
ra'dicans (rooting). . Yellow. July.
Cape of Good Hope. 1823. Creeper.
rcticttla'ta (netted). 2. Yellow. Bourbon.
sca'ndens (climbing). 6. Orange purple.
April. Cape of Good Hope. 1814.
C. II' color (two-coloured). 2. Purple. July.
East Indies. 1804. Deciduous.
ova' Us (oval-leaved). 3. Yellow. July.
East Indies. 1734. Evergreen.
CACO'UCIA. (The Indian name. Nat.
ord., Myrobolans [Combretacese]. Linn.,
\\-Dodecandria) \-monogynia; allied to
Combretum). A fine stove climber, re-
quiring the same treatment as Combretum
purpureum. Cuttings of stiff side shoots ,
in sand, under a bell-glass, in bottom
heat. Peat and loam, both sandy and
fibry. Summer temp., 60 to 85 ; win-
ter, 50 to 60".
C. cocci' nea (scarlet). Scarlet. May. Guiana.
CA'CTUS. Melon Thistle. (A name
applied by Theophrastus to some spiny
plant. Nat. ord., Indian Figs [Cacta-
ceael. Linn., \1-Icosandria, \-Moiio-
gynia). This extensive genus of Indian
fig, Melon-cactus, &c., have been very
properly divided into several and well-
marked subgenera : here we gather them
under one general title.
C. corruga'tm (shriveled). Chili. 1824.
folMsiu (leafy). Chili. 1824.
reda'ctus (restored). 2. Mexico. 1796.
sent Us (old). 20 feet at least. Mexico. 1823.
speciosi' ssimus (most showy). Crimson.
July. South America. 1836.
Echinocactus. (Hedgehog Thistle).
C.abno'rmis (mis-shapen). White. July.
South America. 1818.
acittiis (sharp-ribbed). April. Monte Video.
acutangula'ris (sharp-angled) . Yellow*
September. Mexico. 1835
agglomera'tus (heaped). June. Mexico.
Anconia'nus (Anconian). April. Ancona.
arcua'tus (arched-ribbed). Yellow. Sep-
tember. Monte Video. 1836.
centete 1 rim (mariy-spined). Yellow. July;
chlorophtha'lmus (green-eyed). Purple.
June. Rio del Monte.
C. cocctneus (scarlet-flowered). Scarlet. Sep-
cowcfnniM (neat). YeUow. March. Monte
corn i'gcnis (horn-bearing). White. July.
cm-ynol'des (club-shaped). Yellow. October.
South America. 1837.
crispa'tite (curled). Purple. Mexico. 1826.
cylfndricus (cylindrical). Mexico. 1836.
-de 1 mm (dense). Mexico. 1829.
De'apei (Deppe's). Mexico. 1829.
depre'ssiis (depressed). South Ameriaa.
echina'tus (hedgehog-like). April. Mexico.
edtflis (eatable). Yellow. Mexico.
erina'ceus (rough). July. 1818.
^Eyr^sii (Eyre's). White yellow. Septem-
ber. Mexico. 1829.
> glau'cus (milky-green). White
~ aibbo'sus (swollen). White, July. Jamaica.
Gillie 1 sii (Gillies's). September, Mexico.
qladia'tm (sword-spined) . July. Mexico.
hcxcedro'phorus (six-sided). White. June.
infla'tus (inflated). Chili. 1828.
i'ngens (huge). Mexico. 1838.
inttfrtus (-twisted-spined) . Purple. June.
intrica'tus (intricate). April. Montevideo.
^-Le'chii (Leeche's). Yellow. July. South
Leea'nus (Lee's). Pale sulphur. May.
Buenos Ayres. 1840.
Li'nkii (Link's). Yellow. July. Mexico.
Maclcica'nus (Mackie's) . Yellow. Chili. 1836.
mammillaroi'des (Mammillaria-like). Yel-
low. Chili. 1836.
^-montevidefntu (Montevideo). Yellow. Monte
multiflo'rus (many-flowered). White. June.
- myriosti'gma (many-spotted). Pale-striped.
July. Mexico. 1843.
no'bilis (noble). White, June. Mexico. 1796.
obvalla'tus (fenced-round). Purple, Mexico.
octogo'nus (eight-sided). Red white. June.
South America. 1830.
oxygo'nus (sharp-angled). Pale rose. May.
pectini'ferus (comb-like) . Pale green rose.
April. Mexico. 1844.
^-pentla'ndi (Pentland's). Rose. July.
pulche'Ha (neat). White. August. Mexico.
sco' pa (broom). Yellow. April. Brazil.
spi'nis a' Ibis (white-spined). Yellow.
June. Brazil. 1836.
Staine'sii (Staines's). Pink. Mexico. 1844.
subqibbo'sus (slightly-swollen). White. July.
tubiflo'rus (txibe -flowered). White. Me-
Vi'snaqa (tooth-pick-spincd) . Yellow pink.
C. Wittia'msii (Williams's). White. June.
Ackerma'nnii (Ackermann's). Scarlet. June.
ma'jor (larger-flowered}. Scar-
ala' turn (winged). White, June. North
cocci' ncnm (scarlet). Scarlet. June. Brazil.
crena'tum (round-notched). Pale cream.
May. Honduras. 1839.
C.Hooke'ri (Sir Wm. Hooker's). White.
June. South America.
lonaifo'lium (long-leaved). June. Mexico.
la'tifrons (broad-stemmed). White. Au-
gust. South America. 1820.
pJiylla'nthus (many-flowering). White
June. South America. 1810.
rho'mbeum (diamond-feared). Pale yel-
low. June. Brazil. 1835.
specio'sum (showy). Red. June. Brazil.
trunea'tum (abrupt-ended). Pink. June.
cocci' neum (scarlet). Scarlet.
Russellia'num (Duke of Bed-
ford's). Pink, May. Brazil. 1839.
ed). Violet, May.
Mammillaria. (Nipple -bearers).
C. chrysaca'ntha (golden - spined). Yellow.
South America. 1827.
chrysa'ntha (yellow -flowered). Yellow.
South America. 1827.
cocci'nea (scarlet-flowered). Scarlet. June.
columna'ris (column-like). Mexico. 1838.
co'nica (cone-headed}. July, 1808.
corona' ria (garland). Scarlet. July. South
ddnsa (dense). June. Mexico. 1830.
deprefssa (depressed), Red green. July.
South America. 1800.
di'scolor (two -coloured). Red, July.
South America. 1800.
echina'ria (hedge-hog). Pale pink, Mexico.
flave'sccns (yellow-spined) . Yellow. 1811.
floribu'nda (many-flowered). Pink. Chili.
fulvispi'na (brown-spined). Re'd. Brazil.
aemmispi'na (twin-spinea). Red. Mexico.
alomera'ta (tufted). Red, St. Domingo.
heli'ctcr (twisted). Rose. June. Mexico.
lani'fera (wool-bearing). Red. Mexico.-
Lehma'nni (Lehmann's). Yellow. Mexico.
misaouric'nsis (Missouri). White. July.
proli'f era (whites pined proliferous). Whit-
ish. July. South America. 1800.
puflchra (pretty). Yellow. June, Mexico.
C. pusi' lla (small) . Pale red. South Americ a
^-pyramida'lis (pyramidal). Mexico. 1835.
quadra' ta (four-sided). Chile. 1827.
quadrispi'na (four-spined). Mexico. 1838
specie? sa (showy). Red. Chile. 1827.
Stella! 'ta (starry). Pink. May. South
strami'nea (straw-coloured). Red. June
South America. 1811.
tffnuis (slender). Pale yellow. May
tetraca'ntha (four-spined) . Rose. July.
turUna'ta (top-shaped). Striped. July.
~- viftula (oldish). Light scarlet. 1835.
vivi'para (viviparous). Red. Louisiana.
C. amatnus (lovely). Light scarlet. 1835.
commu'nis (common). Red, July. West
m'ridis (green). 1836.
depre'ssus (depressed). Scarlet. Pernam.
macro,' ntha (large-spined) . White red.
South America. 1820.
meonaca'nthus (ohlong-spmedf). Jamaica.
placentifo'rmis (placenta- shaped). Red.
polyaca'ntha (many-spined). Brazil.
pyramida'lis (pyramidal). Red. Curacoa.
There are many more species in all
the above subdivisions of Cactus men-
tioned in botanical works; but so little is
known about them that is certain that
we have omitted them. We think also,
that when this very numerous genus is
better known, many now considered
as species will be found to be a single
species at different periods of its growth.
Culture. It is possible that under the
different names of Epiphyllum, Mamil-
laria, and melo-cactus we may see oc-
casion to detail a few extra points of
culture ; but we may observe here, that
there are features of cultivation common
to them all, namely, a high tempera-
ture and a somewhat moist atmosphere
when growing in summer; a dry at-
mosphere when ripening their growth ;
and a dry atmosphere dryness compa-
ratively at the roots and a low tempe-
rature, when in a state of rest. Though
a temperature of from 80 to 95 will
not be too high in the one case, one not
below 40 will suffice in the other.
Echinocactiis culture. This group are \
propagated at times by seed, which
should be sown as soon as ripe in shal-