low pans and plunged in a hotbed ; by
offsets, which should be well dried at
the base before planting, and then
plunged into bottom heat. This method
of propagating should only be resorted
to in spring or summer ; all changing of
the soil, or repotting, should also be done
at that time, as, if done in winter, stag-
nation and decay are apt to ensue. Good
drainage constitutes an essential feature.
Soil, equal portions of sandy loam and
peat, and half parts of clear river or
silver sand, leaf moulder dried old cow-
dung, and brick rubbish, consisting, how-
ever, more of the brick broken than the
lime. In addition to this compost, when
potting offsets without roots, a little
silver sand may be advantageously
placed round them, and firmness be se-
cured by placing some slight pins of
wood round their base. In repotting it
is well to use a thick soft glove, to save
alike hands and spines ; and then it is
advisable to remove the most of the
soil as well as drainage, and any faulty
roots; holding the plant well up, and
shaking the compost with the other
hand carefully among the roots. "Water
at all times must be given with care ; but,
when growing in fine weather in sum-
mer, they will require a considerable
supply both at the roots and as vapour
in the atmosphere, with a high tempera-
ture. As soon as the spines change
colour, moisture must be gradually with-
held, the temperature lowered, and more
air given. Summer temp., 60 to 90 ;
winter, 40 to 50.
Insects. The red spider seizes them
at times, and he must be started imme-
diately, either by covering the surface of
the pot and then placing your hand over
it, turning it topsy-turvy and drawing
the plant rapidly several times through
water at 1 20 ; or by dusting the plants
with flowers of sulphur; or, as alike
prevention and cure, fuming the house
ay placing sulphur on the hot water
ripes, or on a hot water plate kept on
Purpose. The most remarkable are the
E. stanesii and Viznaya, the monsters
br size lately introduced to Kew gar-
(LTSLESTI'NA. (From ccekstis, celestial ;
n reference to its sky blue colour. Nat.
ord., Composites [Asteracese]. Linn., 19-
Syngenesia, \-cequalis; allied to Agera-
tum). Seed and cuttings take freely.
Greenhouse and cold pit in winter, and
the flower border in summer. They
grow most compact in loamy soil.
C. ageratoi'des (Ageratum- like), 1. Blue.
August. New Spain.
caeru'leaf sky-blue). 1. Blue. July. North
-~ micro,' ntha (small flowered), 1. Blue.
July. South America. 1800.
CJENO'PTERIS. (From kainos, new,
and pteris, a fern. Nat. ord., Ferns
[Polypodiaceae], Linn., I^Cryptogamia,^
\-filices]. Divisions, like most ferns ;
peat and loam. Summer temp., 60 to
70 ; winter, 38 to 50.
C. appendicula' ta (appendaged) . f. Brown.
July. New Holland. 1822.
odonti'tes (odontites). f. Brown. July. New
C.myriophy'lla (myriad leaved). 1. Brown.
December, West Indies.
rhizophy'lla (rooting-leaved). 1, Brown.
June. West Indies. 1827.
tkalictroi'des (thalictrum-like). 1. Brown.
CJESALPI'NIA. Brasiletto, (Named
after Ccesalpinus, physician to Pope
Clement VIII. Nat. ord., Leguminous
plants [Fabacese]. Linn., IQ-Decandria,
l^nonogynia; in alliance with Poin-
ciana), "As hard as Brazils" refers to
the Brazil- wood that of Ccesalpmia,
Brasiliensis* Stove evergreens, except
where otherwise mentioned. Seeds and
cuttings in sand and in bottom heat.
Peat and loam. Summer temp., 60 to
75 ; winter, 50 to 55.
C. bahame'nsis (Bahama). 15. White. Ba*
brasiliefnsis (Brazilian). 20. Orange. Ja-
cassioi'des f Cassia-like). 6. Yellow. South
chinefnsis (China). 10. Yellow. East In-
Gillie* sii (Gillies's), Mendoza. 1829. De
oleospefrma (oil-seeded) . 15, Yellow. East
^panicula'ta (panicled). 6 Yellow. Mala-
proceVo (tall). 30. Yellow. Cuba. 1824.
puncta'ta (dotted). 6. Yellow. Brazil. 1820.
Sappa'n (Sappan). 20. Yellow. East Indies.
^-xca'ndens (climbing). 20. Yellow. East
Indies. 1800. Climber.
C. vesica'ria (bladdered). 12. Yellow. East
C^'SIA. (Named after F. Ccesia. Nat.
ord., Lilyworts [Liliaceae]. Linn., 6-
Hexandria, \-monogynia. Allied to AN-
THERICUM). Greenhouse tuberous-rooted
perennial. Seeds in March, in heat ;
division of the roots ; loam and peat.
Summer temp., 60 to 70; winter, 40
C.vitta'ta (riband). 1. Pale blue. July.
New South Wales. 1816.
CAJA'NUS. Pigeon Pea. (From its
Malabar name, Catjang. Nat. ord., Legu-
minous Plants [Fabaceae]. Linn., 17-
Diadelphia, 1 - Pentandria. Allied to
PHASEOLUS.) Stove evergreen shrubs.
Seeds in spring ; sandy loam and peat.
Summer temp,, 60 to 75 ; winter, 50
C. U' color (two-coloured). 4. Yellow. July.
East Indies. 1800.
fla'vus (yellow). 4. Yellow. July. East
CAJEPUT TREE. Melaleu'ca teucade'n-
CAJOPHO'RA, (From kaio, to sting;
referring to the stinging property in the
hairs on the leaves and stems. Nat.
ord., Loasads [Loasaceae]. Linn., 13-
Polyandria, 1 - monogynia* Allied to
BLUMENBACHIA). Hardy annuals. Seeds
in open border in the end of April, or in
a slight hotbed in March, and afterwards
transplanted as a half-hardy annual.
C. later ftia (brick -coloured). Red orange.
May. Tucumania. 1836. Climber.
Pentla'ndica (Pentland). Orange. May.
CAL ABA TREE. Calophy'ttum cdlaba.
CALADE'NIA. (From kalos, beautiful,
and aden, a gland. Nat. ord., Orchids
[Orchidaceae]. Linn., 1Q-Gynandria, 1-
monogynia. Allied to LIMODORUM). New
Holland half-hardy terrestial orchids.
Division of the roots ; loam, peat, sand,
and broken pots in equal portions. A
cool greenhouse in winter.
C. ala'ta (winged). June. New Holland.
a'lba (white). White. July. New Hoi-
ccerdlea (sky-blue). Blue. New Holland.
cdrnea (Aesh-coloWed}. Flesh. July. New
clavtgera (club-lipped). June. New South
I 170 ]
C. dcnticula'ta (toothed). Yellow. Swan
dilata'ta (broad-lipped] . New South Wales.
elonga'ta (elongated). Yellow. May. Swan
gemina' ta (budded). Purple. May. Swan
gra'cilis (slender). Australia. 1826.
hi'rta (hairy). Yellow. May. Swan
ixim'des (Ixia-like). Yellow. May. Swan
longica'uda (long-spurred). Yellow. June.
margina'ta (bordered). Purple. May. Swan
mofllis (soft). Yellow. Swan River.
Paterso'nii (Paterson's). New South Wales.
pili'fera (hairy). Purple. September. Swan
reopens (creeping). Purple. August. Swan
testa' cea (light-brown). July. New Hol-
unguicula'ta (clawed). Yellow. August.
CALA'mtJM. (A word of uncertain
derivation, perhaps from kaladion, a
cup. Nat. ord., Arads [Araceae].
Linn., 2l-Monoecia, -Polyandria. Allied
to COLOCASIA). The ginger-like roots of
C. bicokr, &c., are Used as common food
in tropical countries, under the name
cocoa roots ; but the roots of others are
very acrid, Stove plants, with the ex-
ception of C, virginicum. Interesting
chiefly on account of their stems and
leaves. Herbaceous kinds, by division
of the plants, and suckers; sub-shrubs,
cuttings, and dividing the roots; rich
lumpy soil, and abundance of water.
Summer temp., 60 to 85 ; winter, 50
C. aculea'tum (prickled). White. Surinam.
arborc? seem (tree-like). 8. White. June.
West Indies. 1759.
arbo'reum (tree). 9. White. Cumana.
auri'tum (ear-leaved), 3. White. Ame-
tiuculla'tum (hoofcleaved) . Green. March.
fragranti'ssimum (most fragrant). 4. Red.
Demerara. 1832. A parasite.
helleborifo'lium (Hellebore - leaved). 2.
White. June. Caraccas. 1796.
la'cerum (torn). 4. White. Caraccas.
macula 1 turn (spotted). 6. Green. August.
South America. 1820.
segui'num (Seguin-Z)m&-c/7nc). 6. White.
March. America. 17.59.
triparti' turn (three- parted -leaved], 3.
White. Caraccas. 1S16. **
C. xanthorhffzum (yellow-rooted). White. 1822.
bi' 'color (two-coloured). 1. White. June.
edu'le (eatable). 4. White. Guiana. 1800.
escule'ntum (esculent). 2. White. Ame-
li'vidum (livid). 1. Dingy. September.
West Indies. 1828.
nymphceifo' Hum (water - lily - leaved) . 4.
White. East Indies. 1800.
odora'tum (fragrant). 2. White. Pegu.
ova' turn (egg-shaped). 4. White. East
^pcda'tum (doubly-cut-Zrared). 2. White.
petiola'tum (Zon^-leaf-stalked). 1. Purple.
June. Fernando Po. 1832. Tuberous-
pinnati'fidum (deeply - lobecl - leaved) . 2.
White. Caraccas. 1817.
pu'milum (dwarf). 1. White. Nepaul.
saffittcfrfo'lium (arrow-leaved). 2. White.
West Indies. 1710.
sca'ndcns (climbing). 2. White. Guinea.
virgi'nicum (Virginian). 1. June. Vir-
ginia. 1759. Hardy.
vivi'pantm .(viviparous). 2. Green. May.
zamiccfo'lium (Zamia - leaved) . Yellow.
GALA' is, (Named after a fabled indi-
vidual covered with scales ; referring _ to
the scaly involucre, or the parts which
surround the outside of composite flow-
ers. Nat. ord., Composites [Asteraceoe],
Linn., \-Syngenesia, \-JEqualis. Allied
to Succory). A hardy annual. Seeds
in common soil, in March or April.
C, Lindleyi (Dr. Lindley's). Yellow. May.
North America. 1833.
CALAMI'NTHA. Calamiiit. ^ (From
kalos, beautiful, and mintha, mint. Nat.
ord., Labiates [Lamiacca;]. Linn., 14-
Didynamia, \-Angiospermia, Allied to
Melissa). Hardy herbaceous perenni-
als, except where otherwise mentioned.
Suckers and divisions ; common soil.
C. a'lba (white), f. White. July. Hungary.
carolinia'na (Carolina). 1. Flame. June.
cre'tica( Cretan). . Purple. June. South
Europe. 1596. Half-hardy evergreen.
frutico'sa (shrubby). %. Purple. August.
Spain. 1752. Half-hardy evergreen.
grandiHo'ra (large-flowered). 1. Red. July.
varicya'ta (variegated-Zeaverf) <
1. Red. July. Gardens.
marifo'lia (Marum-leaved). 1|. Purple.
June. Spain. 1788.
CA'LAMUS, (From kalom, the Arabic
word 'for a reed. Nat. ord., a section of
Palms [Palmaceoe]. Linn., 6-Hexandria,
\-Monogynia). The dark coloured resin
called Dragon's blood is the natural se-
cretion of the fruit of C. Draco. Stove
palms. Seed ; sandy loam. Summer
temp., 60 to 80 ; winter, 50 to 55.
C. a'lbas (white). 50). East Indies. 1812.
dra'co (dragon). 50. East Indies. 1819.
ni'aer (black). 20. Green. East Indies.
rude? ntnm (cable). 200. Green. East In-
vc'rus (true). 20. Green. Cochin China.
Zala'cca (Zalacca). 20. Green. East In-
CALANDRI'NIA. (Named after Calan-
drini, a German botanist. Nat. ord.,
Purslanes [Portulaceae]. Linn., \\-Do-
dccandria, \-Monogynia}. When grown
from seeds, the hardy, as well as the
greenhouse and stove kinds, like a little
protection, such as may be given by a
slight hotbed in April, and a hand-light
over it. Cuttings also strike freely; light
sandy soil, well drained, suits them well.
C. arena' ria (sand-inhabiting}. %. Orange
red. July. Valparaiso. 1831. Herba-
caulefscens (stemmed). Rose. August.
Mexico. 1827. Annual.
comprefssa (flattened). . Rose. August.
Chili. 1826. Annual.
mona'ndra (one-stamened) . f Red. Au-
gust. Chili. 37. Annual.
proctfmbcns (lying-down). ^. Rose. Au-
gust. Peru. 1827. Annual.
spccio'sa (showy). J. Purple. June. Cali-
fornia. 1831. Herbaceous peren-
umbella'ta (umbel-cowered) . Rose. July.
Peru. 1826. Annual.
C. Andrc'u'sii (Andrews'). Rose. August.
West Indies. 1812. Deciduous shrub.
di'scolor (two-eoloured-Jeiroed). 1. Rose.
July. Chili, 1834. Herbaceous pe-
glau'ca (milky-green). Rose. August.
Chili. 1827. Annual.
Lockha'rti (Lockhart's). Rose. June. Tri-
nidad. 1825. Deciduous shrub.
nVtida (shining). . Red. August. Chili
phacospefrma (Lentil-seeded)." Red. Au-
gust; Chili. 1837. Biennial.
C. ascc'ndens (ascending). ^, Purple. Br
eil. Herbaceous perennial.
cilia' ta (hair-fringed). . Purple. Au-
gust. Chili. 1823. Annual.
C. grandifto'ra (large-flowered). 1. Purple*
July. Chili. 1826. Herbaceous per-
Lla'vea (La Llave's). April. Mexico. Her-
panicula'ta (panicled). 1^. Purple. July.
South America. 1816. Herbaceous
CALA'NTHE. (From Jcalos, beautiful,
and anthos, a flower. Nat. ord., a sec-
ion of Orchids [Orchidaceoe]. Linn., 20-
Gynandria, \-Monogynia). Terrestrial
orchids, all evergreens except C. vestita.
Divisions and suckers ; loam and peat,
Lightened with sand and charcoal, and en-
riched by top-dressings of old cow-dung ;
extra well drained, constantly moist, and
the plants well exposed to light. Sum-
mer temp., 60 to 80; winter, 50
C. U' color (two-coloured). Yellow. Japan.
di'scolor (discoloured). White. Japan. 1837.
fwca' ta (forked). White. Luzon Isles. 1836.
C. austra'lis (southern). New South Wales.
brevico'rmi (short-horned), Rose. White.
August. Nepaul. 1838.
curculigoi 1 des (Curculigo-like). 2. Orange.
October. Malacca. 1844.
densiflo'ra (thickly-flowered). f. Yellowish.
September, East Indies. 1837.
fla'vicans (yellowish-^o?fered). White blue.
April. East Indies. 1838.
Masu'ca (Masuca). 2. Violet purple. June.
East Indies. 1838.
ochra'cea (ochre-coloured). Pale yellow*
April. Japan. 1836.
plantagi'nca (Plantain-leaved}. Lilac. Feb-
ruary. Nepaul. 1839.
Siebo'ldii (Siebold's). East Indies, 1837.
sylva'tica (wood). White, changing to yel-
low. Madagascar. 1823.
veratrifo'lia (Veratrnm-leaveA}. 2. WTiite.
April. Java. 1819.
versi' color (various - coloured - flower cd)t
Whitish blue. August. Mauritius.
vesti' ta (clothed). 2. White and pink.
November. This has pseudo-bulbs;
no water given between December and
March, its time of rest, See The Cot-
tag& Gardener, v. 166,
CALA'THEA. (From Icalathos^ a basket
in reference to the leaves being worked
into baskets in South America. Nat.
ord., Maranths [Marantaceae]. Linn.,
1-Monandria, \-Monogynia). Stove her-
baceous perennials. Divisions ; sandy
peat and fibry loam. Summer temp.,
60 to 75 ; winter, 55 to 60.
C. flare' scens (pale yellow). 1. Yellow. Au-
gust. Brazil. 1822.
C. grand if o'lia (large-leaved). 2. Yellow.
July. Rio Janeiro. 1826.
longibractea'ta (long-bracted). 1. Purple.
July. Brazil. 1826.
orbicula'ta (rovmd-Ieaved). 2. Yellow.
August. West Indies. 1830.
villtfsa (shaggy). 3. April. Brazil. 1825.
viola'cea (violet-coloured). li. Purple.
July. Brazil. 1815.
zebri'na (Zebra plant). 2. Red yellow.
CALATHIAN VIOLET. Gentiana pneu-
CALCAREOUS SOIL is a soil in which
chalk (carbonate of lime) predominates.
The colour approaches to white, in pro-
portion. No soil is productive which
does not contain some chalk, or in which
it exceeds nineteen parts out of twenty.
From one to five per cent is the usual
proportion in fertile soils. Calcareous
soils are rarely productive ; they are so
feebly retentive of moisture that the crops
upon them are burnt up in summer ; and
they reflect the sun's rays so fully, that
they remain unheated, and vegetation is
late upon them in spring. The best ad-
dition to such soils, to improve their
staple, is clay.
OALCEOLA RIA, Slipperwort. (From
cakeolus, a slipper; in reference to the
shape of the flower. Nat. ord., Fig worts
(Scrophulariace' V. Linn., 2-Diandria,
\-Monogynia}. Herbaceous kinds, to
bloom early, sow seeds in August and
September, and cuttings at the same
time. Shrubby kinds, for flower-garden
decoration, by cuttings of firm young
shoots, under glass, in September; and
again, in heat, in March. Soil for pots,
light and rich compost, well drained ;
for beds, a good loam should preponde-
rate. Summer temp., 50 to 60 ; win-
ter, 35 to 45.
C. atnplexicatf Its (stem-clasping). 1J. Yel-
low. June. Peru. 1845.
arachnofdes (cobweb-like). 1. Purple.
June. Chili. 1827.
a'lba (white-flowered). 1.
conna'ta (base-joined-leared). 3, Yellow.
Chili. 1824. Biennial.
corymbofsa (corymbose). 1. Yellow. May.
crenatifU/ra (round-notched-/terf). li.
Yellow spotted. June. Chili. 1831.
cuneif o'lia (wedge-shaped-leaved). 1. Pale
lemon. Bolivia. 1846.
flextto'sa (zig-zag). 3. Yellow. Peru
C.Fothergi'lli (Fothergill's). $. Orange."
April. Falkland Isles. 1777.
Herbertia'na (Herbert's). L Yellow. June.
pinna' ta (leafleted). 2. Yellow. July.
Peru. 1773. Annual.
plantagtnea (Plantain-feared). 1. Yellow.
August. Chili. 1827.
polyf o'lia (Poly-leaved). 1. Yellow. July.
purpu'rea (purple-flowered). 1. Purple.
July. Chili. 1827.
e'legans (elegant). 1. Pale pur-
ple. June. Chili. 1832.
pi' eta (painted). 1. White pur-
ple. June. Chili. 1832.
C. a'lba (vftete-jloivered). li. White. June.
Chili. 1844. '
angustiflo'ra (narrow-flowered). 1. Yel-
low. June. Peru. 1830.
ascefndens (ascending). 1. Yellow. July.
H' color (two-colored). 2. Yellow. August.
chiloe'nsis (Chiloe). 2. Yellow. August.
floribu' 'nda (many - flowered) . 1. Pale
yellow. September. Quito. 1843.
Herbertia'na parviflo'ra (Herbert's small-
flowered). 2. Yellow. April. Val-
integrif o'lia (entire-leaved). 2. Yellow.
August. Chili. 1822.
angustif o'lia (narrow -leaved).
2. Yellow. August. Chili. 1822.
* viscosi'ssima (clammiest). 3.
Yellow. August. Chili. 1832.
pefndnla (hanging). Yellow spotted. July.
rugo'sa (wrinkled). 2. Yellow. August.
scabioscef o'lia (Scabious-leaved). 2. Yel-
low. May. Chili. 1822. Trailer.
se'ssilis (stainless-leaved). 1. Yellow.
September. Valparaiso. 1832.
thyrsifto'ra (thyrse-flowered). 14. Yellow.
June. Chili, 1827.
CALCEOLARIA AS A FLORIST'S FLOWER.
Propagation by Cuttings. In August,
immediately after flowering, and in
March. In August, from a spent hotbed
remove the soil, and place six inches of
dry coal-ashes or sawdust. In spring,
prepare a hotbed of leaves or stable lit-
ter a month before it is wanted, to allow
the strong heat to subside ; then cover it
with the same depth of coal-ashes or
sawdust. Fill a sufficient number of
pots, within an inch of the top, with
light sandy loam ; fill up to the rim with
silver sand, and water gently to settle
the sand firmly. Take off the cuttings
(the young tops are the best), cut off the
bottom leaves, leaving two or three at
the top ; put them in the sand by the
aid of a small sharp-pointed stick, pres-
sing the sand about them firmly. The
herbaceous varieties should be placed
rather thinly round the edge of the pot,
the half-shrubby ones may be put in all
over the pot, neatly in rows; then give a
gentle watering. Allow the water to
dry oif, and then plunge them into the
hotbed, in the ashes or saw- dust, up to
the rims of the pots, taking care that
the heat is moderate. Shade for a week
all the day, afterwards only when the
sun shines. If the sand becomes dry,
water in the morning of a fine day, but
very little water will be necessary. Re-
move all decaying leaves or dead^, cut-
tings as they occur. As soon as the
cuttings are rooted pot them off in
the same kind of soil, and in 2|-inch
pots, and set them on the surface of the
same bed till they make fresh roots, then
remove them into a shady part of the
greenhouse, for a week previously to re-
By Seed. Sow twice as soon as the
seed is ripe, and in early spring. Sow in
wide, shallow seed-pans, rather thinly,
and very slightly covered, A similar
situation as for cuttings will answer; but
as soon as the seedlings are up, place
them on a shelf, near the glass, in an
airy greenhouse. When they are large
enough, pot them into 2| inch-pots, singly,
and keep repotting as they require it till
they are in 6 -inch pots; then allow them
to flower, and such as are of a good form,
bright distinct colours, and a fair size, re-
pot again, and keep them to propagate
by cuttings ; but all others either throw
away or plant them out to ornament the
flower borders till the frost kills them.
To save Seed. Impregnation is neces-
sary in order to produce good seed, and
to produce variety. Choose the pollen
from a bright- coloured clear-spotted va-
riety, and apply it to the best formed
ones destined to bear the seed. The
male parent for colour, and the female
Soil. Light sandy yellow loam two
bushels, leaf mould half a bushel, much
decayed cow-dung one peck ; mix tho-
roughly, and use in a moderately dry state.
If the loam is not sandy naturally, add
as much sifted river sand as will make
Summer Culture. Commence potting
as early in spring as possible. Autumn-
struck cuttings early in March, and the
spring- struck as soon as they are fit.
Old stools never make such fine speci-
mens as cuttings; they had better be
thrown away as soon as they have
yielded a crop of cuttings. Drain plen-
tifully with broken potsherds, using a
greater quantity every time. Repot
about three times, and leave the plants,
at last, in 11 -inch pots to bloom. No
flower stems should be allowed to remain,
until the plants have attained their full
growth. Keep them as near the glass as
possible, in a light airy greenhouse.
After the last potting, the plants should
present a healthy appearance, with large
broad leaves, of a dark green colour.
The flower-stems may now be allowed
to grow : each should be tied to a neat
small green stick. Place the sticks so
as to slope outwards, to allow room for
the heads to bloom. Plenty of air should
be given to cause a stout growth. They
should be in perfection early in July.
Each plant will be then two feet high,
and as much in diameter. They will be
fine objects either for the greenhouse
when few other things are in bloom, or
for exhibition purposes.
Winter Culture, As soon as the flow-
ers are all dead (if no seed is required),
the stems ought to be cut down and the
plants either removed out of doors, or
still better, into a cold pit. Plenty of
air should be given on all favourable
occasions, and as soon as the frost of
winter begins to appear, remove them
into the greenhouse, place them as near
the glass as possible, and keep them
there till the time of propagation arrives.
Take off the cuttings then, and throw
the old stools away.
Forcing. On account of , their impa-
tience of heat, calceolarias, excepting a
few shrubby ones, do not force well.
These may be repotted in January, and
put into a heat of 55 to 60. Give
water moderately, and allow the flower-
stems to grow from the first. They will
then flower in April and May.
Diseases, - The herbaceous varieties
are subject to a disease very like that
which has attacked the potato of late
years. They appear quite heajthy, until
dark brown spots appear on the leaves
and stems, and in a week's time the
disease spreads and the plants arc dead.
No cure is known. As soon as it ap-
pears on any plant remove it at once,
and throw it away, because the disease
is contagious, and soon spreads to the
healthy plants. Too much wet at the
root, or damp in the house, will accele-
rate the disease.
Insects. The most destructive is the
green fly (aphis). Whenever it appears
fill the house with tobacco smoke. Eed
spider (ctcarm} will sometimes appear if
the house be kept hot and dry. Dust
the leaves with sulphur where it is ob-
Calceolarias for bedding-out should be
propagated in the autumn, and kept in
the cutting-pots through the winter.
Pot them singly in the spring, place
them in a cold frame, and gradually
harden them off by May. Then plant
them out in a rich light soil, where they
are to flower.
CALDA'SIA. (Named after G. Caldas,
a naturalist at Bogota. Nat. ord., Phlox-
worts [Polemoniaceae] Stove annual :
seeds in hotbed in spring; sandy peat.
Temp., 50 to 70.
C. heterophy'lla (variable-leaved). 2. Blue.
July. New Spain. 1813.
CALBCLU'VIA. Named after A. Cald-