seru'tinum (late red). 20.
variega'tum (variegated). 15.
Yellow red. June. Britain.
semper vi'rens (evergreen). 15. Scarlet. June.
North America. 1656. Evergreen.
Bro'wnii (Brown's). 20.
Bright scarlet. May.
ma'jor (larger-flowered). 20.
mi'nus (less. Trumpet). 15.
Scarlet. June. Carolina. 1656.
tubulo'sum (cylindrical) . Mexico. 1846.
C. chine 1 nse (China). 30. Orange. August.
China. 1806. Evergreen.
cilio'sum (hair fringed). 6. Yellow. June.
imple'xum (interwoven). 8. Red yelknv.
July. Minorca. 1772. Evergreen.
balea'ricum (Balearic). 8. Cream.
japo'nicum (Japanese). 15. Red. June.
China. 1806. Evergreen.
nepale'nse (Nepaul). 15. Orange. July.
Nepaul. 1807. Evergreen.
CA'PSICUM. Chili Pepper. (From
kapto, to bite ; referring to its pungency.
Nat. ord. , Nightshades [Solanaceae] . Linn. ,
5-Pentandria, \-monogynia}. Cayenne
pepper is the ground seeds of Capsicum ;
seeds sown in a hotbed in March, and
after being picked off finally potted to be
grown in a house, such as a vinery, or
transplanted against a wall, or any shel-
tered place out of doors.
C. angulo'sum (angular-fruited). 1. White.
a' nnum (annual). 1. White. June. India.
cordifo'rma (heart-shaped). 1, White.
Icfngum (long-fruited). 1. White. June.
tetrago'num (four-angled). 1. White. June.
STOVE EVERGREEN SHRUBS.
C. bacca'tum (berried). 3. White. June. 1731.
bi' color (two-coloured). 4. Purple. June.
West Indies. 1804.
cerasiflo'rum (cherry-flowered). 2. White.
cerasifo'rme (cherry-shaped). 1. Red yel-
low. June. West Indies. 1739. An-
cceruld 'scens (bluish). Purple. June. South
co'nicum (conical-fruited). 2. White. June.
Guiana. 1820. Annual.
conoi'des (cone-like). 2. White. April.
C. frute! scens (shrubby). 1. Pale yellow. July.
tortulo'sum (sub-twisted). 2.
White. June. East Indies. 1820.
globi'ferum (globe-bearing). 2. White. June.
gro'ssum (large). 1. White. July. India.
bi'fidum (two-cleft). "White. May.
East Indies. 1758.
globo'sum (globe-fruited}. 1. White.
July. East Indies.
lute' urn (yellow-fruited). White. July.
havane'nse (Havanah). White. May. Ha-
lu'teum (yellow -fruited). 1. White. July.
East Indies. 1820.
micr a' nthum (small-flowered). 3. White.
May. Brazil. 1820.
microca'rpon (small-fruited). 2. White. May.
Mille'rii (Miller's). 1. White. June. June.
West Indies. 1824. Annual.
mi'nimum (smallest). White. May. East
ova' turn (egg-fruited). 3. White. July. 1824.
pefndulum (pendulous)). 2. White. May.
pyramida'le (pyramidal). 2. White. May.
sine 1 me (Chinese). 2. White. July. China.
sphee'ricum (globular-fruited). 2. White.
tomatifo'rme (Tomato-shaped). 1|. Whitish.
ustula'tum (burnt). 2. White. June. Chili.
CAPSICUM. For pickling purposes the
following are the species and varieties
usually employed :
Capsicum annuum (Guinea pepper), the
long-podded, short-podded, and oval
short-podded. C. cerasiforme (cherry pep-
per), cherry-shaped red and yellow pod-
ded. C. grossum (bell pepper).
Soil and situation. They do best in a
light, rich loam, and against a fence or
wall, hence they are often grown within
an enclosure devoted to hotbed forcing.
Time and mode of sowing. Sow to-
wards the end of March or beginning of
April. Sow in pots or pans, and place in
a hotbed, with the shelter of a frame ;
but in default of a stove, hotbed, or
frame, they may be raised under hand-
glasses on a warm border, the sowing in
such case being deferred until settled
warm weather in May. The seed covered
a quarter of an inch deep. When the
plants have still their seed leaves, thin to
four inches apart, and those removed
plant in four-inch pots, three in each,
and keep them in a moderate hotbed,
being shaded from the meridian sun, and
moderately watered with tepid water
until they have taken root ; but little
shading will be required if the roots of
the seedlings are carefully moved, and in
the afternoon just before shutting up.
During the whole of their continuance
beneath a frame, air must be admitted
freely to prevent their being drawn ; and
as May advances they must be accus-
tomed gradually to an uncovered situa-
tion, by taking off the glasses during the
day, and by degrees leaving them open of
an evening : this prepares them for their
final removal at the close of that month
or early in June. Those raised in a
border beneath hand-glasses must also
be thinned as directed above, and those
removed planted in a similar situation,
or in default of hand-glasses, beneath a
paper frame or matting. The same may
be adopted for the plants from the hot-
beds, if all other conveniences are want-
ing. "When planted out finally, set them
two feet asunder, screened from the sun,
and water freely until rooted. Continue
the watering in dry weather throughout
their growth. They flower during July
or beginning of August, and the pods are
ready to be gathered for pickling at the
close of this last month or early in Sep-
To obtain seed. A plant bearing some
of the forwardest and finest fruits of each
variety must be preserved, that it may
be ripe before the frost commences, the
first of which generally kills the plants,
When completely ripe, cut the pods and
hang up in the sun, or in a warm room,
until completely dry, and keep the seed
in them until wanted for sowing.
CARAGA'NA. Siberian Pea Tree.
(From Caragan, the name of C.
arborescens among the Mogul Tar-
tars. Nat. ord., Leguminous plants
[Fabaceee]. Linn., 1 1 -Diadelphia, 4-
Decandria. Allied to Colutea). These
handsome shrubs inhabit the whole of
north-eastern Asia, from Pekin in China
westward, to the banks of the Wolga ;
they are increased principally in the
nurseries by grafting on C. arborescens,
which is a deciduous tree, but all the
others are deciduous shrubs. The larger
growing species are best propagated by
seeds sown in spring, or by cuttings of
the roots. Shrubby low plants by seed
and layers ; and the rarer, Chinese, Sibe-
rian, and drooping kinds, by grafting in
spring ; sandy loam.
C.Altaga'na (Altagana). 3. Yellow. May.
arbore'scens (tree-like). 15. Yellow. May.
ine'rmis (unarmed). 10. Yel-
low. May. Siberia. 1820.
arena' ria (sand). 1. Yellow. June. Si-
Chamla'gu (Chamlagu). 4. Yellow. May.
fe'rox (fierce). 2. Yellow. June. Siberia.
frute'scens (shrubby). 2. Yellow. April.
. angustifo'lia (narrow-leafleted) .
6. Yellow. April. Odessa.
latifo'lia (broad-leafleted). 6.
grandiflo'ra (large-flowered). 1. Yellow.
June. Iberia. 1823.
Gerardia'na (Gerard's). Himalayas. 1839.
juba'ta (maned). 2. Pink. April. Siberia.
macraca'ntha (large-thorned), 2. Yellow.
microphy'lla (small-leaved). 2. Yellow.
May. Russia. 1819.
moTHis soft). 2. Yellow. May. Tauria.
mongrflica (Mongolian). Yellow. April.
pygmcefa (pigmy). 1. Yellow. May. Si-
arena' ria (sand). 1. Yellow.
Redtfwski (Redowski's). 3. Yellow. June.
pro? cox (early). 3. Yellow.
spincfsa (thorny). 6. Yellow. May. Si-
tragacanthoi' des (Goat's-thorn-like). 4.
Yellow. May. Siberia. 1816.
triflo'ra (three-flowered). Greenish yellow.
CARA'LLIA. (From cara'llie, its name
in India. Nat. ord., Mangroves [Rhizo-
phoraceas]. Linn., ll-Dodecandria, 1-
monogynia}. This, like the rest of the
mangroves, grows only along the tropical
shores, where they form impenetrable
thickets, and send down roots from the
branches, like the Banian tree. In time
such roots raise the main trunks high
above their original level ; hence the
usual name of the order rhizophoraceae,
or root bearers. Cuttings and treatment
as for Canthiunt
C. lufcida (shining). 20. Yellow. East Indies.
CARALLU'MA. (Its Indian name. Nat.
ord., Asclepiads [Asclepiadaceae]. Linn.,
5-Pentandria, 1-Digynia. Allied to Sta-
pelia). Stove evergreen shrubs, natives
of East Indies. Cuttings well dried, and
laid rather than fastened among gravely
and limy rubbishy soil until they strike ;
sandy loam, broken pots, and lime rub-
bish; little water given, unless when
growing freely. Summer temp., 60 to
85 ; winter, 48 to 55, and dry.
C. adscdndens (ascending). 2. Pink. July.
crenula'ta (round-notched), i. Pale yel-
fimbria'ta (fringed), i. Pale yellow. 1829.
umbella'ta (umbelled). Pink. 1804.
CARAMBO'LA TREE. Averrho 'a caram-
CARA'NDAS. Cari'ssa cara'ndas.
CARA'PA. (From caraipe, its name in
South America. Nat. ord., Meliads
[Meliacese]. Linn., \Q-Decandria, 1-
monogynia}. The flowers are small but
numerous, and like the rest of the meliads,
this genus possesses bitter astringent
and tonic qualities. Stove trees. Cut-
tings of ripened shoots, in sand, under a
glass, and in bottom heat ; loam and
peat. Summer, temp., 60 to 85 ; win-
ter, 55 to 60.
C. guianefnsis (Guiana). 20. Yellow. Guiana.
guinetfnsis (Guinea). 20. Yellow. Sierra
moluccefnsis (Moluccas). 20. Yellow. East
pro'cera (tall). 40. Yellow. West Indies.
CA'RAWAY. Ca'rum ca'rui,
CARDA'MINE. Lady's smock. (From
Kardamon, watercress ; referring to the
acrid flavour. Nat. ord., Crucifers [Bras-
sicaceasj. Linn., \5-Tetradynamia. Al-
lied to Arabis). Like the rest of the
crucifers, Cardamine is antiscorbutic and
stimulant. All that we describe are
hardy herbaceous perennials, except C.
thalictroides, which is an annual ; seeds
in any common soil, provided it be moist ;
the herbaceous and marshy plants by
division ; marshy peaty soil.
C.ama'ra (bitter) 1. White. April. Britain
asarifo'lia (Asarum-leaved). 1. White.
June. Italy. 1710.
bellidifo'lia (daisy-leaved). 1. White.
alpi'na (Alpine). 1. White
April. Austria. 1658.
chclido'nia (Celandine4eoerf). 1. White.
June Italy. 1739.
yliu'ca (milky-green). 1. White. June.,
C. latifo'lia (broad-leaved). 2. Purple. June
Spain. 1710. Marsh plants.
macrophy'lla (large-leaved). 1. Purple.
May. Siberia. 1824,
prate' nsis (meadow- Cuckoo-flower}. 1. Pur-
ple. April. Britain. Marsh plant.
pie! no, (double-flowered). 1. Pur-
ple. April. Marsh plant.
plefna a'lba (double-white flower-
ed). 1. White. April. Marsh
thalictroi'des (Thalictrum-like). 1. White.
June. Piedmont. 1818. Annual.
trifo' lia (three-leaved). 2. White. May.
uligino'sa (bog). 1. White. April. Tauria.
1819. Marsh plant.
CARDAMOM. Alpi'nia cardamo'mum
CARDINAL FLOWER. Lobelia cardi-
CARDOON. Cyna'ra cardu'nculus. The
stalks of the inner leaves, when rendered
tender by blanching, are used in stews,
soups, and salads.
Soil and Situation. A light rich un-
shaded soil, dug deep, and well pulverised,
suits it best.
Time and mode of Sowing. Sow at
the close of April, those plants raised from
earlier sowing being apt to run ; for a
late crop, a sowing may be performed in
June. Best practice is to sow in patches
of three or four, six inches apart, in rows
four feet apart, to be thinned finally to
one in each place, the weakest being re-
moved. If, however, they are raised in
a seed-bed, they will be ready for trans-
planting in about eight or ten weeks
from the time of sowing, and must be
set at similar distances.
The seed must be covered about half
an inch. "When about a month old, thin
the seedlings to four inches apart, and
those removed may be pricked out at a
similar distance. When of the age suf-
ficient for their removal, they must be
taken up carefully, and the long straggling
leaves removed. The bed for their re-
ception must be dug well, and laid out in
trenches as for celery, or a hollow sunk
for each plant ; but as they are liable to
suffer from excessive wet, the best mode
is to plant on the surface, and form the
necessary earthing in the form of a ridge.
Water abundantly at the time of planting,
as well as subsequently, until the plants
are established ; and also in August, if
dry weather occurs, regularly every other
night, as this is found to prevent their
running to seed. When advanced to
about eighteen inches in height, which,
according to the time of sowing, will be
in August, and thence to October, the
leaves must be closed together, a hay-
band wound round each, and then earthed
up like celery. It must be done on a
dry day. As the plants grow, use more
hay-bands and more earthing, until
blanched about two feet high. The
blanching is completed in about eight or
ten weeks. If litter is thrown over the
tops during severe weather, the plants
will continue good through the winter.
To obtain seed. Being a native of Can -
dia, seed in this country seldom comes
to maturity ; but in dry seasons a few
plants may be set in a sheltered situation
of the April sowing, not earthed up, but
allowed the shelter of mats or litter in
frosty weather. The flowers make their
appearance about the beginning of July,
and the seed should ripen in September.
CARDU'NCELLTJS. (The diminutive of
Cardunculm, the Cardoon. Nat. ord.,
Composites [Asteraceoe]. Linn., \9-Syn-
genesia, \-cequalis. Allied to Carthamus).
Hardy herbaceous perennials, natives of
France. Division of the roots ; common
C. miti'ssirmis (most gentle), f. Blue. June.
vulga' ris (common). J. Blue. May. 1734.
CA'RDUUS. Thistle. (From ard, the
Celtic word for a prickle, or sharp
point; referring to the spines of the
thistle. Nat. ord., Composites [Astera-
ceae]. Linn., Vd-Syngenesia, l-cequalis).
Notwithstanding the proverbial weedi-
ness of thistles, there are some hand-
some garden species among them. All
hardy. Seeds or divisions ; common soil.
C. a'lbidus (whitish). 2. Purple. July. Tauria.
arcfbicus (Arabian), i. Purple. July.
argenta'tus (silvered). 1. Purple. July.
cine" reus (grey), 3. Purple. July. Cau-
clavula'tus (club-shaped). 2. Purple. July.
leucctnthus (white-flowered). 2. Purple.
July. Spain. 1816.
leuco'ffraphm (white-painted). 2. Purple.
June. Italy. 1752.
peregri'nus (diffuse 2. Purple. July. 1816.
C. volge'nsis (Volga). 2. Purple. July. Volga.
C. ala'tus (winged). 2. Purple. July. 1812.
ca'ndicans (hoary). 3. Purple. July. Hun-
carlinecefo' lius (Carline-leaved). 2. Purple.
July. Pyrenees. 1804.
car linoi'des (Car line-like). 1. Purple. July.
colli'nus (hill). 3. Purple. July. Hun-
corymbo'stis (corymbose). 4. Purple. July.
cri' spits (curled). 2. Purple. July. Eu-
hamulo'sus (spiny-hooked). 5. Purple.
June. Hungary. 1802.
lanugintf sus (woolly). 3. Purple. July.
mo'ntosus (mountain). 3. Purple. July.
South of Europe. 1820.
myriaca' nthus (myriad - spined). Purple.
July. North Africa. 1836.
nigre'scens (blackish). 4. Purple. July.
South of France. 1819.
persona' ta (Burdock). 4. Purple. July.
seminu'dus (half-naked). 3. Purple. July.
uncina'tus (hooked). 6. Purple. July.
C. a'ffinis (allied), Pink. July. Naples. 1830.
alpefstris (alpine). 1. Purple. July.
atriplicifo'lius(Atri-pleK-leaved). 10. Purple.
August. Siberia. 1784.
arctioi'des (Burdock-like). 2. Purple. July.
argemo'ne ( Argemone-leaved) . 1. Purple.
July. Pyrenees. 1810.
crassifo' lius (thick-leaved). 2. Purple. July.
deflora'tus (unflowered). 6. Red. August.
du'bius (doubtful). 2. Purple. July. 1816.
macroce'phalus (large-headed). 2. July.
me'dius (intermediate). 2. Purple. June.
onopordioi' des (Onopordum-like). 1L Purple.
July. Iberia. 1818.
orienta'lis (eastern). 2. Purple. July.
parviflo'rus (small-flowered). 2, Purple.
July. South of Europe. 1781.
podaca' nthus (foot-spined). 3. Purple.
July. France. 1819.
pycnoce 1 phalus (dense headed Italian} . 1 ^ .
Purple. July. South of Europe. 1739.
CARE'YA. (Named after Dr. Carey, a
celebrated divine and Indian linguist,
who devoted his leisure hours to garden-
ing and botany. Nat. ord., Barrington-
iads [Barringtoniaceae]. Linn., 16-Mona-
delphia, 8-polyandria). These splendid
plants are fit associates to Barringtonia
and Gustavia, Stove plants from the East
Indies ; cuttings and dividing the roots ;
sandy loam one part, to two parts fibry
peat ; with pieces of charcoal and plenty
of drainage, and careful watering. Sum-
mer temp. 60 to 85 ; winter, 55 to 60.
C. arbo'rea (tree). 8. Red and yellow. 1823.
herba'cea (herbaceous). 1. Red and white.
July. 1808. Herbaceous perennial.
sphcefrica (ronnd-fmited) . 3. Red. 1803.
CA'RICA. Papaw Tree. (Named from
an erroneous idea that it was a native of
Caria. Nat. ord., Papayads [Papayacse].
Linn., 22-Dicecia, 9-Decandria). One of
the tropical fruits grown in our stoves,
more for curiosity than for use. The
Papaw fruit (C. Papaya) is eaten when
cookedj in some parts of South America ;
but not much esteemed by Europeans.
Stove trees ; cuttings of ripe shoots, in
sandy soil, under a bell-glass, and in
sweet bottom heat; rich loamy soil.
Summer temp., 60 to 85 ; winter, 50
C.cauliflo'ra (stem-flowering). 20. Green.
citrifo'rmis (orange-formed). 20. Yellowish.
microca'rpa monoi'ca (small-fruited-monoa-
cious). 20. Whitish green. 1818.
Papa' y a (common Papaw). 20. Green
July. India. 1690.
pyrifo'rmis (pear-shaped). 20. Pinkish
spino'sa (prickly) . 20. Whitish green.
CARI'SSA. (The derivation is not as-
certained; but krishna-pakphula, is the
Sanscrit name of C. Carandas. Nat. ord.,
a section of Dogbanes [Apocynaceee].
Linn., 5-Pentandria, \-monogynia). The
milky juice of this and others in this
order of Dogbanes, is manufactured into
india-rubber. The fruit of C. Carandas
furnishes a substitute for red- currant
jelly. Stove trees and shrubs ; cuttings
of ripe wood, in sand, under a glass, in
bottom heat ; peat and loam. Summer
temp., 60 to 85 ; winter, 50 to 55.
C. cara'ndas (Carandas). 15. White. July.
East Indies. 1790.
lanceola'ta (spear-leaved). 6. White. July
New Holland. 1822.
ovafta (egg-leaved). 15. White. August
New Holland. 1819.
spinet rum (spiny). 20. White. July. East
Xylopi'cron (bitter-wooded). 12. White.
July. Mauritius. 1820.
CARLI'NA. (Named after Charlemagne.
Nat. ord., a section of Composites [Astera-
cesej. Linn., 19-Syngenesia, l-^Equalis).
Hardy herbaceous perennials, except
where otherwise specified. Seeds of
annuals in April ; seeds and divisions of
perennials. The cape species requires
protection. Common soil.
C. acantUfo'lia (Acanthus-leaved). 2. White.
June. Carniola. 1818.
acaiflis (stemless). |. White. June. Italy.
caule'scens (sub-stemmed). 1.
White. June. Switzerland. 1819.
aggrega'ta (clustered). 2. White. July.
Biebersteinia'na (Bieberstein's). 2. August.
corymbo'sa (corymbose). 3. Yellow. July.
South of Europe. 1640.
lana'ta (woolly). 3. Purple. June. South
of Europe. 1683. Hardy annual.
lyra'ta (lyre -shaped leaved}. 1. June.
Cape of Good Hope. 1816. Green-
racemo'sa (racemed-flowered). 3. Yellow.
July. Spain. 1658. Hardy biennial.
si'cula (Sicilian). 1. July. Sicily. 1827.
si'mplex (singly-flowered). 1. White.
June. Hungary. 1816.
CARLUDO'VICA. (Named after Charles
IV. of Spain, and Louisa, his queen.
Nat. ord., Screw Pines [Pandanaceae].
Linn., 21-Moncecia, 9-Polyandria). The
leaves of all the Screw Pines are set
spirally round the stem, which gives it
a cork-screw appearance ; hence the
name of this order. Stove perennials ;
suckers ; sandy loam. Summer temp.,
60 to 80 ; winter, 50 to 55.
C.funi'fera (rope-bearing). 4. White. Trini-
jamaice'nsis (Jamaica). 4. White. Jamaica.
C. angwtifo'lia (narrow-leaved). 3. Greenish
yellow. Peru. 1818.
latifo'lia (broad-leaved). 3. Green. July.
palma'ta (hand-heaved). 3. White. July.
CARMICHAE'LIA. (Named after Capt.
JET. Carmicliael, author of the Flora of
Tristan da Acunha. Nat. ord., Legu-
minous plants [Fabacea?]. Linn., 17-
Diadelphia, k-Decandria. Allied to In-
digofera) . Greenhouse evergreen shrub ;
cuttings of side-shoots, under glass, in
sand, in April or May ; sandy peat and
a very little fihry loam. Summer temp.,
55 to 65 ; winter, 40 to 45.
C. awtra'lis (southern). 2. Blue. June.
New Holland. 1800.
CARNA'TION. (Dia'nthm caryophy'l-
lus). Propagation by Layers. The latter
end of July and beginning of August is
the best time for this operation. By
performing it thus early the layers be-
come rooted in time to be taken off,
potted, and well established before
winter. Having a very sharp small
knife, some fresh-sifted compost of light
loam and leaf mould in equal parts, and
some hooked pegs (the best are made of
the fronds of the common fern, or when
they cannotbe had, of birch or h azel twigs),
Eroceed to dress the stem intended to be
tyered by trimming off the bottom leaves,
leaving about six on, nearest to the top.
Do not shorten those left on. If there
are more in the pot than can be con-
veniently layered, take the surplus ones
off and make pipings of them. Dress
all intended to be layered in one pot,
before any are tongued. This prevents
breakage and confusion. Then tongue
the layer ; to do which hold the first
layer, on one side, and with the knife
make an incision on the underside, just
below the third joint, bringing the knife
slanting upward through the joint, then
drop the knife, and with the other hand
take up a hooked peg, thrust the sharp
end into the soil, catching the layer with
the hooked end of the peg as it descends,
press it gently but firmly down to the
soil ; proceed with the layer next to the
one done, and so on all round the
plants, till the first pot is finished.
Then cover the slit joint an inch deep
with the compost, and proceed to the
next pot or plant. It is not advisable
to water the newly-layered plants the
first day, because withholding it will
give time for the wounds to heal a little.
Soil. The best compost to grow and
bloom carnations in is three parts loam,
taken from an upland pasture ; the top
turf four inches thick ; lay it up in a
heap for twelve months, turning it over
once a month to sweeten and pulverize,
and looking out diligently for the wire-
worm^ the grand enemy of the carnation.
One part, two years old cow-dung and
one part well - decayed vegetable mould
Mix them together three months before
using, and turn them over together
three or four times.
Spring and Summer Culture. About
the end of March is the right time to
put the carnations into their blooming
pots. They are generally grown in
pairs, but this is not a necessary point.
The pots for blooming should be eleven
inches across, well drained with broken
potsherds, and the compost not sifted,
but in using it keep a sharp eye upon
the wireworm. As soon as all are potted
set them upon a bed of coal ashes, in a
sheltered part of the garden ; give water
when necessary. Whenever the plants
begin to send up their flower-stems,
place sticks to them of the size and
height they will require when in bloom.
Tie very slackly, or the stems will be-
come knee'd, and perhaps break ; to
prevent which, pay attention constantly
to the ties.
When the buds are nearly full grown,
thin out the least promising, leaving
the most plump and healthy. Just be-
fore they break, or burst, place an
India-rubber ring round each bud, or
a ribband of bass-mat : this prevents the
buds bursting on one side. Shade them
from sun and heavy rains.
Autumn and Winter Culture. As soon
as the bloom is over, cut down the
flower-stems and expose the plants to