the full sun and rain. Take off the
layers as soon as they are rooted ; put
them into five -inch pots in pairs, place
them in cold frames, shading them from
the sun until they make fresh roots, then
expose them again to the weather till
the winter frosts begin to take place,
and then keep the lights on, protecting
them from heavy rains and frost ; but,
on all favourable occasions, during mild,
fine weather draw the lights entirely off
during the day, shutting them up at
night and covering them up securely
whenever there is an appearance of
Forcing. Carnations may be success-
fully forced, choosing the freest growers,
potting them singly early into eight-
inch pots, and placing them in gentle
heat (55) early in January. There is
a variety called the Tree carnation, which
answers best for forcing. Lately there
have been imported from the continent
several handsome and full -flowering
Tree carnations, which are a great addi-
tion to our winter flowers. To bloom
these in the greatest perfection, they
should not be allowed to flower the first
year, but should be repotted when
rooted into eight-inch pots, the tops
nipped off to make them bushy, and no
flower- stems allowed to rise till the
autumn following. They will then send
up several stems, and flower all the
winter in the greenhouse or conserva-
tory. Tree carnations are propagated
by pipings ; and as the same method of
propagating by pipings is proper for
the florists' varieties, we shall describe .
it briefly. It is done as follows : pre-
pare as many pots as are wanted for
the purpose ; fill them nearly full of the
compost above described, and the re-
maining space with silver sand ; prepare
the piping by cutting off a stem quite
smooth at the third joint, then carefully
slit the joint just through, and insert the
pipings in the sand, pretty thickly all over
the pot ; place them upon a gentle hot-
bed on a layer of sifted coal ashes, or
river sand ; place the lights on and
shade from the sun till they are rooted,
then harden them off gradually, and pot
them into small pots, if Tree carnations,
singly if show varieties, in pairs of the
same kind, and repot them as directed
Exhibiting. In June, or beginning of
July, the plants will be considerably
advanced towards flowering, and they
should be put upon stages or stands.
The posts or supporters of the stage
should be surrounded at the bottom by
small cups of water to exclude slugs ;
and by placing the plants on a stage,
having the platform eighteen inches or
two feet high, the flowers are viewed to
more advantage ; and if there is erected
an awning over the top, supported four
feet above the platform, the flowers
being screened from the heat of the mid-
day sun, and defended from heavy rains,
are continued much longer in beauty.
With respect to the cups of water
above mentioned, they are earthen or
leaden, about fifteen inches wide, and
three or four deep, having a hollow or
vacancy in the middle six inches wide,
like a socket to receive the posts : and
is formed by a raised rim in the middle,
equal in height to that of the circum-
ference, and the hollow or socket so
formed as to receive the bottom of the
posts quite through to the ground ; and
the space between the outer and inner
rim is filled with water, so that each
post standing in the middle of such a cis-
tern sufficiently guards the plants against
For want of a covered stage to screen
the flowers, you may contrive a small
umbrella or round spreading cap, either
of tin or canvas, nine or ten inches
diameter, one for each plant ; having a
socket in the middle to receive the tops
of the support-sticks; those umbrellas,
which are formed of tin, are the best,
but if you make them of canvas, first
make little round frames, having the
rim formed with slips of wire, cane, &c.,
the above width, with cross slips of the
same materials ; contriving a socket of
lead or tin in the middle for the support-
stick to go quite through, as justobserved ;
and upon these frames paste or sew
canvas, which paint with oil-colour ;
either covers are placed over the flowers
by running the support- stick up through
the hole or socket in the middle, and
resting the cap upon a piece of wire or
peg, put across through holes in the
stick at such a height from the flower
as to screen it from the sun and rains.
Give attention to continue to tie up
neatly the flower-stalks of the plants as
they advance in stature. When they
are arrived at their full height, support
them erect at top with wires, having a
small eye or ring at one end for the re-
ception of the flower-stalk ; so put the
other end into holes made in the sup-
port-sticks. These wires should be five
or six inches long, and several holes are
made in the upper part of the sticks ;
the first at the height of the bottom of
the flower-pod, the other above that, an
inch or two distant ; and place the wires
in the holes lower or higher, that the eye
or ring may be just even with the case
of the calyx, to support the flower in an
upright position; and by drawing the
wire less or more out, the flower is pre-
served at such distance from the support
as shall seem necessary to give it proper
room to expand ; and if two or three of
the like wires are placed also in the
lower parts of the support-sticks, placing
the stem of the flowers also in the eye of
the wires, all the tyings maybe cut away.
To have as large flowers as possible,
clear oft" all side shoots from the flower-
stem, suffering only the main or top buds
to remain to flower.
When the flowers begin to open, at-
tendance should be given to promote
their regular expansion, they being apt
to burst open on one side ; and, unless
assisted by a little art, as by India-
rubber rings already noticed, the flower
will become very irregular ; therefore,
attending every day at that period, ob-
serve, as soon as the calyx begins to
break, to cut it a little open at two other
places in the inden tings at top, with
narrow-pointed scissars, that the open-
ings may be at equal distances, observ-
ing if one side of any flower comes out
faster than another, to turn the pot
about, that the other side of the flower
be next the sun, to assist the more re-
gular expansion of the flower.
Likewise, to bloom any flowers as
spreading as possible, place paper collars
round the bottom of the flower, on
which to spread the petals to their ut-
most expansion ; these collars are made
of stiff white paper, cut circular, about
three or four inches diameter, having a
hole in the middle to receive the bottom
of the petals, withinside of the calyx,
the leaves of which are made to spread
flat for its support ; and then spread or
draw out the petals upon the collar to
their full width and extent, the longest
undermost, and the next longest upon
these, and so of the rest quite to the
middle, observing that the collar must
nowhere appear wider than the flower
when they begin to burst.
Diseases. These plants are subject to
the mildew ; and when it is not checked
in time, it not only destroys the plants
it first appears on, but will in time
spread to the whole stock. As soon as
it is observed, sprinkle the affected
plants with sulphur, and keep the air
inside the frames as dry as possible.
The black spot is only mildew in a se-
verer form. Cut off the leaf on which
it appears, and treat as for mildew.
Insects. The great enemy is the wire-
worm, which eats away the inside of the
stem and destroys the plant. Search
for it in the soil previously to using
and bury there, after the plants are
potted in the blooming-pots, some slices
of potatoes. Examine these daily and
destroy the wireworms you may find in
the baits. The green flij also attacks
carnations, sometimes even in the frames.
These are easily destroyed by fumigating
with tobacco- smoke. When the plants
are blooming they sometimes appear. De-
stroy them then by sprinkling with Scotch
snuff. The red spider is often trouble-
some in dry springs. The best remedy
is washing every leaf with a small
sponge, repeating the operation till the
plants are quite cleared.
CAROLI'NEA. Pachira. (Named after
Sophia Caroline, Margravine of Baden.
Nat. ord., Sterculiads [Sterculiaceae].
Linn. , 1 6 - Monadelphia, 8 - Polyandria.
Allied to Adansonia). Stove trees. Cut-
tings of ripened wood, in sand, under a
bell-glass, in heat ; rich loamy soil. Sum-
mer temp., 60 to 85; winter 50 to
C. (flba (white). 20. White. July. Brazil.
insi'gnis (showy). 20. Red West Indies.
mtnor (less). 20. Red, yellow, green.
July. Guiana. 1798.
pri'nceps (princely). 30. Red, yellow,
Green. West Indies. 1787.
CARPI'NUS. Hornbeam. (From car, the
Celtic for wood, and pix, a head; in refer-
ence to the wood being used to make the
yokesof oxen. Nat. cvd.,Mastworts [Cory-
laceae]. Linn., 5 - Pentandria, \-Mo-
nogynia}. C. Betulus is the only one
of the Hornbeams that is of much use
or ornament ; it is one of the best nurse
plants in young plantations, and for
making fast growing hedges. Hardy de-
ciduous trees. Seeds, sown when ripe,
or kept in dry sand, until the following
spring; suckers and layers for the varie-
ties ; layers for the common plants, but
they are inferior to plants raised from
seed. Common soil.
C. America,' na (American). 20. North Ame-
Be'tulus (common). 30. March. Britain.
inci'sa (cut-leaved}. 15. March.
quercifo'lia (oak-leaved). 30. May.
C. Betulus variega'ta (variegated). 20. March.
teA-leaved). 20. March. 1845.
orienta'lis (Eastern). 12. Levant. 1739.
CARPOCA'PSA POMONE'LLA. The Cod-
Every grower of the apple knows how
liable his fruit is to be " worm-eaten."
He finds basketfuls of "windfalls" even
in the calmest weather, and that the
cause of the loss is a small grub, which
has fed upon the pulp of the fruit ; but
how, when, or where these grubs got
there he has not the slightest notion.
As it is one of the most injurious of in-
sects to one of our most useful of fruits,
we shall give more full particulars than
usual, borrowing them chiefly from Mr.
Westwood's essay in the Gardeners'
Magazine, iv. 235, N.S. The grub in
question is the larva of the Codlin Moth.
Carpocapsa pomonella of some entomolo-
gists, but Tinea pomonella, Pyralis po-
tnona, and Tortrix pomoniana of others.
It is upon the pulpy parts of the apple
that the grub chiefly feeds ; when, how-
ever, it has nearly attained its full size,
it feeds on the pips of the apple, which,
thus attacked in its most vital part, soon
falls to the ground. No sooner is the
apple fallen, than the grub quits the
fruit by the passage which it had pre-
viously gnawed. A hundred apples may
be opened, and not more than two or
three larvae observed within them ; the
orifice by which they have escaped being
open, and not concealed by a little mass
of brown grains, which is the case with
those apples from which the larva has not
made its escape. These little grains are
the excrement of the larv, which are
also to be seen in the burrows formed by
them within the apple. The grub is of
a dirty white colour, with a brown head,
varied with darkish brown marks. The
body is slightly hairy; the first segment
after the head is whitish, with minute
brown spots ; the other segments are of a
pale colour, with about eight small tu-
bercles on each ; each of the three ante-
rior segments is furnished with a pair of
legs, and there are a pair of feet at the
extremity of the body. In its early
state it is of a dirty reddish or fle'sh
colour. The caterpillar wanders ,^bout
on the ground till it finds the stem of a
tree, up which it climbs, and hides itself
in some little crack of the bark. The
fall of the apple, the exit of the grub, and
its wandering to this place of safety,
usually take place in the night-time. It
gnaws away the bark a little, and having
made a smooth chamber, spins a little
milk-white silken case, in which, after a
few weeks, it becomes a chrysalis ; and
in this state it remains through the
winter, and until the following June,
when the moth comes forth, and is to be
seen hovering round the young apples
on a midsummer evening. The moth
itself, of which we give a cut, of the
natural size and magnified, is a very
beautiful insect, about three- quarters of
an inch in expanse : fore wings ashy-
brown, with very numerous, rather ob-
scure, darker, transverse streaks, united
into a broadish band towards the base,
giving them a damasked appearance.
On the hind border of the fore wings is
a large reddish-brown patch, spotted and
surrounded with a golden mark. The
hind wings reddish-brown, tinged with
yellow. The moth lays its eggs in the
eyes of the young apples, one only in
each, by inserting its long ovipositor
(egg-tube) between the divisions of the
calyx. As soon as the egg is hatched,
the little grub gnaws a hole in the crown
of the apple, and soon buries itself in its
substance ; and it is worthy of remark,
that the rind of the apple, as if selected
for the purpose, is thinner here than in
any other part, and consequently more
easily pierced. The apple most com-
monly attacked is the codlin. It will
be evident, from the preceding details of
the habits of this moth, that there are
considerable difficulties in the way of its
extirpation. It is impossible, for in-
stance, to be aware of the presence of
the enemy within the fruit, until the
mischief is actually completed ; and, in
like manner, the destruction of the moth,
from its small size, and its habit of
secreting itself in crevices of the bark,
&c., is equally impracticable. The
gathering up of the worm-eaten apples
immediately after their fall, and before
the enclosed caterpillar has had time to
escape, cannot but be attended with good
effect ; care, however, must be taken to
destroy the larvae, which would other-
wise very speedily make their escape.
The cocoons also may be destroyed in
in the chinks of the bark during the
autumn and winter. (The Cottage Gar-
dener, ii. 63).
CARPODE'TES. (From karpos, a fruit,
and detos, tied ; the fruit or capsule is as
much constricted as if tied in the mid-
dle. Nat. ord., Amaryllids [Amaryllida-
ceae]. Linn., Q-Hexandria, \-Monogy-
nia. Allied to Eucrosia and Liperiza).
C.recu 'rvata (bent-back). A purplish long-
necked bulb, with purplish yellow flowers,
from Peru, where it is called by the
natives Chichuanhuaita, constitutes this
genus. It requires the same treatment
CARPODO'NTOS. (From karpos, fruit,
and odontos, toothed ; in reference to the
toothed ends of the fruit cells. Nat.
ord., Tutsans [Hypericaceos]. Linn., 13-
Polyandria, 6-Pentagynia}. Greenhouse
shrub. Cuttings of small side shoots, in
sand, under a bell-glass, in April ; peat
and loam. Summer temp., 55 to 70 ;
winter, 40 to 45.
C. lu'cida (shining). 20. White. New Hol-
CARPODI'SCUS. Sweet Pishamin. (From
karpos , a fruit, and discos, a circle ; in
reference to the form of the fruit. Nat.
ord., Dogbanes [Apocynaceae]. Linn.,
5-Pentandria, \-Monogynia. Allied to
Carissa). Stove shrub. Cuttings of
half-ripened shoots, in heat ; loam and
peat. Summer temp., 60 to 85 ; win-
ter, 50 to 65.
C. dulcis (sweet). 8. Green. June. Sierra
CARPOLY'ZA. (From karpos, a fruit,
and lyssa, rage ; in reference to the three-
celled fruit or seed -pod opening like the
mouth of an enraged animal. Nat. ord.,
Amaryttids [Amaryllidaceae]. Linn., 6-
Hexandria, \-Monoyynia. Allied to
Gcthyllis and Lapiedra). C. spiralis,
pink, Cape of Good Hope, 1791. A very
neat little bulb, with spiral leaves and
starry pinkish flowers having green tops,
requiring the same treatment as Ixia.
CARROT. (Da'ttcw caro'ta).
Varieties. 'Those with a long taper-
ing root are named long carrots ; and
those having one that is nearly regularly
cylindrical, abruptly terminating, are
denominated horn carrots. The first are
employed for the main crops ; the second,
on account of their superior delicate fla-
vour, are advantageously grown for early
use, and for shallow soils.
Horn carrots. Early red. Common
early. Dutch, for forcing. Long. This
last is the best for the summer crop.
Long carrots. White Belgium, Yel-
low, Long yellow, Purple, Long red,
Chertsey and Surrey. Superb green-
topped, or Altringham. The two last
are the best for main crops.
Soil and Situation. Carrots require a
warm, light, rich soil, dug full two
spades deep. With the bottom spit it is a
good practice to turn in a little well-de-
cayed manure ; but no general application
of it to the surface should be allowed in
the year they are sown; but a spot should
be allotted them which has been made
rich for the growth of crops in the pre-
vious year, or else purposely prepared by
manuring and trenching in the preced-
ing autumn. The fresh application of
manure is liable to cause their growing
forked, and to expend themselves in
fibres, as well as to be worm-eaten ; if
the soil is at all binding it should be well
pulverized by digging very small spits at
a time. Pigeons' dung is a good manure
for the carrot.
Time and Mode of Sowing. The first
sowing for the production of plants to
draw whilst young, should take place in
a moderate hotbed, during January, and
in a warm border at the conclusion of
February, or early in March. At the
close of the last month, or preferably, in
the first half of April, the main crop
must be inserted; though, to avoid the
maggot, it is even recommended not to
do so until its close. In May and July
the sowing may be repeated for produc-
tion in autumn, and lastly in August, to
stand through the winter, and produce
in early spring. For sowing, a calm day
should be selected; and the seeds should
be separated by rubbing them between
the hands, with the admixture of a little
sand or dry coal-ashes ; otherwise they
cannot be sown regularly. Sow thinly,
in drills eight inches apart for the horn,
and ten or twelve inches for the long ;
and the beds not more than four feet
wide, for the convenience of after culti-
vation. The larger weeds must be con-
tinually removed by hand, and when the
plants are seven or eight weeks old, or
when they have got four leaves two or
or three inches long, they should be
thinned, those intended for drawing
young, to four or five inches apart, and
those to attain their full growth to ten ;
at the same time the ground must be
small-hoed, which operation should be
regularly performed every three or four
weeks, until the growth of the plants
becomes an effectual hindrance to the
growth of the weeds. The crop to stand
through the winter should, in frosty
weather, be sheltered with a covering of
litter, as, if it occurs with much seve-
rity, it often destroys them. The hotbed
for the first sowing of the year must be
moderate, and earthed about sixteen
inches deep ; two or three linings of hot
dung, as the heat decreases, will be suf-
ficient to bring them to a state fit for
use. These are the first in production,
but are closely followed by those that
have withstood the winter. The tempe-
rature must never exceed 73, nor fall
lower than 55. They need not be
thinned to more than three inches apart.
At the close of October, or early in No-
vember, as soon as the leaves change
colour, the main crop may be dug up,
and laid in alternate layers with sand,
in a dry outhouse, previously to doing
which the tops and any adhering earth
must be removed. A dry day should
always be chosen for taking them up.
To obtain Seed. Leave some where
raised; but if this is impracticable, some
of the finest roots should be selected, and
their tops not cut so close as those for
storing. These likewise must be placed
in sand until February or March, then
to be planted out two feet asunder in a
stiff loamy soil. Those left where grown,
or those planted at the close of autumn,
[ 202 ]
must, during frosts, have the protection
of litter to be removed, however,, during
mild weather. As the seed ripens in
August, which is known by its turning
brown, each umbel should be cut; other-
wise, much of the seed is often lost
during stormy weather. It must be
thoroughly dried by exposure to the sun
and air, before it is rubbed out for stor-
ing. For sowing, the seed should always
be of the previous year's growth; if it is
more than two years old it will not vege-
tate at all.
Insects. The carrot is liable to the
attacks of the wireworm (see Elater),
as well as of those next mentioned.
CARROT MAGGOT. Psila rosce. The
parent fly is dark, with a metallic green
lustre, and rather hairy ; head, reddish
yellow; legs, yellow; wings, very trans-
parent. Very much resembles the A.n-
thomyia. The grub or maggot is cylin-
drical and yellow ; it eats holes in the
main root of the carrot. This under-
ground enemy of the carrot is said to be
banished by mixing spirits of tar with
sand until saturated, and applying it to
the soil previously to digging, at the rate
of about one gallon to sixty square
yards, but we find trenching and manur-
ing, as we have directed, a sufficient
CARROT MOTH. See Tinea.
CA'RTHAMUS. (From quartom, to
paint, in the Arabic ; referring to the
flowers yielding a fine colour. Nat. ord.,
a section of Composites [Asteraceoe].
Linn., \$-Syngenesia,, \-JEqualis). Hardy
annuals. Seeds, sown in April where
they are to grow, or in a slight hotbed
in March, and then planted out; com-
C. oxyaca'ntha (sharp-spined). 2. Yellow.
July. Caucasus. 1818.
tincto'rius (dyer's). 3. Orange. June.
CARTONE'MA. (From Jcartos, shorn,
and nema, a filament ; referring to the
formation of the filaments, or threads,
which support the pollen bags. Nat.
ord., Spiderworts [Commelynaceae].
Linn., 6 - Hexandria, 1 - Monogynia).
Greenhouse herbaceous perennial. Seeds
sown in slight hotbed ; light loam and
sandy peat ; requires the protection of a
greenhouse, or a warm situation.
C. spica'tum (spiked). 1. Blue. July. New
CA'RTJM. Caraway. (From Caria, in
Asia Minor, where it was first disco-
vered. Nat. ord., Umbellifers [Apiaceae],
Linn., 5-Pentandria, 1-digynia. Allied to
the weed Ammi). The seed of C. Carui
is our caraway, esteemed for its aro-
matic qualities. Hardy biennials. Seeds;
open ground, in March or April. Com-
C. ca'rui (common). 2. White. May. Britain.
verticilla'tum (whorl-leaved). 1. White.
July. Britain. This species is re-
moved here from Sison, a genus of
CA'RYA. Hickory. (The Greek name
for the Walnut, so named on account of
Carya, daughter of Dion, king of La-
conia, said to have been changed by
Bacchus into a Walnut tree. Nat. ord.,
Juglans [Juglandacesel. Linn., 21-Jfo-
ncecia, 9-polyandria). This is the Hickory
so celebrated in North America for the
purposes of the cabinet maker. Their
best chairs they call their Hickories.
Hardy deciduous trees. Seeds ; the nut
should be sown where the tree is in-
tended to stand ; layers, and grafting on
the Walnut. Good common soil.
C. a'lba (white. Shell bark Hickory). 30.
ama'ra (bitter-nut). 30. May. 1800.
compre'ssa (compressed-fruited) . 30. April.
lacinio'sa (jagged). 30. April.
microca'rpa (small-fruited). 30. April.
obcorda' ta (reversed - heart - shaped) . 30.
olivcefo'rmis (olive-shaped). 30. April.
porci'na (hog-nut}. 30. May. 1799.
ffla'bra (smooth). May.
sulca' ta (furrowed). 30. April. 1804.
tomentt/sa (woolly). 30. April.
ma'xima (greatest fruited). 60.
CARYO'CAR. Butter Nut. (From
karyon, a nut : in reference to its fruit.
Nat. ord., Rhizobok [Rhizobolaceael.
Linn., 13- Polyandria, ^.-tetragynia).
Two genera of immensely large trees,
bearing large flowers and edible nuts,
constitute the whole of this small Order.
The Suwarrow (Sauari) nuts of the
shops are the produce of the C. nuciferum.
Oil not inferior to olive oil is extracted
from the kernels. Cuttings in sand, in
heat under glass. Loam and peat. Sum-
mer temp., 60 to 80 ; winter, 50 to 55,
[ 203 ]
C. gla'brum (smooth). 100. Green. Guiana.
nuci'ferum (nut-bearing). 100. Red yellow.
tomento'siim (woolly). 100. White. Guiana.
CARYOPHY'LLUS. Clove Tree. (From
karyon, a nut, ynsLfhyBon, a leaf; in re-