hotbed for this sowing, even if it is only
of four boards nailed together, to keep up
the earth round the sides of the bed, and
no glass to cover it ; but if an old light
can be spared until the plants are up, all
the better. Several prickings- out may
be made from this sowing in any rich
earth, in open situations, having the beds
made up neatly ready for pricking out,
either in warm showery weather, or dur-
ing evenings in dry weather. The plants
should be inserted six inches apart in the
nursery beds, well supplied with water,
until the plants are established, and the
earth among them frequently stirred.
A third sowing may be made about
the second week or middle of April in the
open warm border, to be attended to as
before mentioned, as to pricking-out,
watering, &c., only that cool situations
will be found best, such as north borders
for summer pricking -out, for a supply to
plant out for winter and spring use.
Finalplanting the single trench system.
The trenches, where the soil will allow
of it, may be eight or ten inches deep, to
receive the plants for the first summer
plantings ; but as the season advances,
not so deep by two inches, at each suc-
cessive planting, and, lastly, on the level
surface for late winter and spring use.
When planted in deep trenches for the
first crop, the rows may be much nearer
together. Another method of planting
out the principal and late crops is, to dig
out a trench, four and a half feet wide,
and one foot deep, placing the earth half
on one side, and half on the other side ;
this done, give a thorough good manur-
ing, as the soil cannot be made too good
for this vegetable : let it be neatly dug in,
and the surface made smooth as the work
goes on; then lift the plants with a
trowel from the nursery beds, to ensiire
their having good roots ; let them be
planted precisely one foot from row to
row, and six or seven inches from plant
to plant ; the row crossways of the trench,
Thoroughly well water, and in the course
of a week after planting, the earth should
be carefully stirred over the whole hed.
The plants should not be shortened, as
many persons do ; but remove any de-
cayed or broken leaf, and all side-shoots
from the plants, one by one, being care-
ful not to injure other leaves, or the
Earthing up. The first earthing up
should be done with a small trowel,
holding the leaves of the plant together
in one hand, and stirring and drawing up
a little earth to the plant with the other ;
the next earthing is done by the help of
two light boards, six to eight inches
broad, of the same length as the trench
is wide ; these to be placed between two
of the rows of plants by two persons ;
then place between these boards well-
broken earth as much as required ; draw
up the boards steadily ; do the same in
the next space, and so on until the work
is completed. By the last mentioned
method of final planting, more than
double the quantity can be grown on a
given space of ground, and the
heads are quite as fine as in the
single-trench system. It is also
handy for protection in winter,
either with hoops and mats, or
The trench being dug out four
and a half feet wide, allows room
for six plants across it, at six
inches apart from plant to plant,
leaving three inches' space from
the outside of the trench.
Frost. At the appearance of
very severe weather setting in at
any time during the winter
months, three or four dozen heads of the
celery may be taken up without cutting
away any part of them, and laid in
dry earth, sand, or sifted coal ashes, so
as to be handy for immediate use.
Manuring. In the seed-bed, when
pricked out, and in the bed for final
growth, too much of the richest manure
cannot be applied. Upon this, and upon
the roots being uninjured at each removal,
depend the fineness and excellence of
the celery ; any cheek to its growth is
never recovered but renders it dwarf
and stringy. Liquid manure should be
given to it frequently.
To save Seed. Some plants must be
left where grown, or in February or
March some may be carefully taken up,
and after the outside leaves are cut off,
and all laterals removed, planted in a
moist soil a foot apart. Those which are
most solid, and of a middling size are to
be selected. When they branch for seed,
they must be tied early to a stake to pre-
serve them from the violence of winds.
The flower appears in June, and the seed
is swelling in July ; if dry weather oc-
curs, they should be watered every other
night. In August the seed will be ripe,
and when perfectly dry, may be rubbed
out and stored.
Diseases. In heavy wet soil it is
liable to have its stalks split and canker.
The soil for earthing up cannot be too
light and dry. We have seen coal ashes
employed for the purpose most success-
CELERY FLY (Tephri'tis onopordi'nis).
In the autumn it is very common to
observe part of the leaves of celery plants
blistered and turned yellow ; and this oc-
curs occasionally to such an extent that
their growth is checked and their size
diminished. If the withered parts are
examined, and the skin of the blisters is
raised, there will be found beneath it
some small green grubs,* that have eaten
away all the green pulp (parenchyma) of
the parts so withered. These grubs are
the larvae of the Celery Fly. The grubs
may be found in the leaves of the celery
in June, July, September, October, and
November ; for there are two or more
broods of them in the course of the year.
The grubs, though less frequently, are
found doing similar damage to the leaves
of Alexanders and Parsnips. When full
grown, the grubs descend into the earth
and remain in the chrysalis state until
the spring following, when they give
birth to the fly. The Celery Fly, may
usually be found upon the leaves of the
laurel, hovering over flowers and resting
upon palings in the sunshine, from the
middle of May to the end of July. It is
one of the most beautiful of the English
two-winged flies, and has been thus de-
scribed by Mr. Westwood. The general
colour of the body, which is five-jointed,
varies from rusty-brown to shining black;
head buff", with black hairs ; legs yellow ;
thorax sprinkled with long black hairs ;
wings black, with various pale spots;
eyes green. The whole length of the
insect is not more than one-sixth of an
inch, and its wings, when outspread,
barely half an inch across. The cross-
lines in our woodcut show these propor-
tions, as well as the insect magnified.
The motions of this fly are very peculiar ;
seated upon a leaf in the sunshine, the
wings are partially extended, yet partially
elevated, and it has a sideling kind of
motion. The withered leaves of the
celery should be picked off, and the grubs
within them crushed as soon as seen.
Mr. Westwood suggests that a string,
smeared with birdlime, and stretched over
the celery plants, might catch many of
the parents. The Cottage Gardener, i. p.
CELO'SIA. Cockscomb. (From Jcelos,
burnt ; in reference to the burnt-like ap-
pearance of the flowers of some of the
species. Nat. ord., Amaranths [Amaran-
taceae]. Linn., 5-Pentandria, \-monogy-
nia). The flowers of the coxcomb, Celo-
sia cristata, are astringent, and much used
by Asiatic physicians. Seeds in a hot-
bed in March; potted off repeatedly,
and transferred to the hothouse or green-
house ; light rich soil, well drained.
C. echina'ta (hedge-hog). 1. Purple. July.
Orinoco, 1821. Stove evergreen.
glavfca (milky green). 1. White. July.
Cape of" Good Hope. 1818. Green-
C. crista'ta (crested). 2. (Dark red). July.
compa'cta (compact). 2. Dark
red. July. Asia. 1570.
C. crista'ta ela'ta (tall). 2. Dark red. July.
flavffscens (pale yellow). 2. Yel-
low. July. Asia. 1570.
C argefntea (silvery-spikrd). 1. Light flesh.
July. China. 1740.
Uncarts (narrow-fcarcrf). 1. Flesh.
June. East Indies. 1714.
castre'nsis (camp). 2. Purple. July. East
cefrmia (drooping) . 3. purple. July.
East Indies. 1809.
cocci! 'nea (scarlet). 5. Pink. July. China.
como'sa (tufted). 1. Pink. July. East
dicho'toma (fork-branched). 1. Yellow.
July. East Indies. 1824.
margarita' cm (pearly). 2. Yellow. Au-
gust. West Indies. 1817.
Monso'nia (Monson's). 3. White. August.
East Indies. 1778.
ni'tida (shining). 1. Purple. August. Ma-
nodiflo'ra (knotted-flowered). 2. Green.
August. East Indies. 1780.
pyramida'lis (pyramidal). 1. White. July.
East Indies. 1820.
CELOSIA CRISTATA. TJie Cockscomb of
florists. All the varieties of this are
well worth cultivating. The deep crim-
son coloured varieties are generally the
most esteemed ; and of these there are
tall and dwarf kinds the latter being
generally preferred. The comb at its
extremities altogether, or nearly,, touch-
ing the sides of the pot. Seeds should be
sown in a aweet hotbed in spring, and,
unlike the balsam, where splendid speci-
mens are required, they should never be
turned out of the hotbed until the combs
are nearly full grown, when they may
be set in the greenhouse. Two systems
of culture may be adopted. First, as soon
as the plants are one inch in height,
prick out and shift successively into
larger pots, never allowing the plants
to be pot-bound. By this method the
plants are strong before the combs ap-
pear ; and you have a chance of having
many very fine, but with the risk that
many others from their shape will be fit
only for the rubbish heap. By the
second method, the best for those with
limited space, the young plants are
pricked out a few inches apart into shal-
low pans, in light rich earth, encouraged
to grow freely, and then checked sud-
denly by keeping them cooler and with-
holding water, which will cause them.
to show their combs in a few days.
Though small, you can easily observe
those which are close and well shaped
from those which will be upright
and straggling. Select the best, pot
them and continue repotting, and en-
courage with heat and manure water,
and the strength of your culture going
chiefly into the combs, these will be
large, while your plants will be small.
Where extremely dwarf plants are
wanted, cut off young plants a little be-
low the comb ; insert the part with the
comb into a small pot in sandy soil, in
strong heat and a hand-glass over. Soil,
sandy loam and very rotten dung, but
sweet. Temperature when growing 60
to 8-5 by day ; 60 at night
CE'LSIA. (Named after Professor Cel-
sius, of Upsal. Nat. ord., Figtvorts
[Scrophulariaceae]. Linn., \-Didynamia,
2-angiospermia). Chiefly from seeds, or
raised in a slight hotbed in March or
April, and flowered in the greenhouse
during the summer, or in favourable
positions out of doors. The biennials
require the protection of the cold pit
during winter ; light sandy open soil.
C. ArcMrus (Arcturus). 4. Yellow. August.
Candia. 1780. Half-hardy biennial.
betonicctifo' lia (Betony-leaved). 2. Yellow.
July. North Africa. Half-hardy
coromandelia! 'na (Coromandel). 4. Yellow.
July. East Indies. 1783. Stove annual.
cre'tica (Cretan). 6. Yellow. July. Crete.
1752. Half-hardy biennial.
heterophy" lla (various - leaved). Yellow.
July. 1829. Half-hardy biennial.
lana'ta (woolly). 2. Yellow. July. 1818.
lanceola'ta (spear-leaved). 3. Yellow. July.
Levant. 1816. Half-hardy biennial.
orienta'lis (eastern). 2. Brown yellow.
July. Levant. 1713. Hardy annual.
visco'sa (clammy). 3. Yellow. July. 1816.
CE'LTIS. Nettle Tree. (The name of
a tree mentioned by Pliny. Nat. ord.,
Elmworts [Ulmacese]. Linn., 23-Poly-
gamia, 1-moncecia). Seeds, sown as soon
as ripe ; layers also and cuttings of ripe
shoots in autumn; common good soil.
The East and West India species require
protection, but there seems little to re-
commend in them over the European
and North American species which are
hardy. The wood of australis is ex-
C. cane'scens (hoary). 40. Green. Mexico.
crassifo'lia (thick leaved) . 20. Green. April.
North America. 1812.
Iceviga'ta (polishedj. 20. Green. April.
occidenta'lis (western). 20. Green. April.
North America. 1656.
cordu'ta (heart -leaved) . 20.
Green. April. North America.
scabriu'scula (roughish). 20.
Green. April, North America.
pu'mila (dwarf). 6. Green. May. North
sine'nsis (Chinese). 12. Green. Asia. 1820.
Tournefo'rti (Tournfort's) . 8. Green. Le-
C. aculea'ta (prickly). 10. Green. Jamaica.
austra'lis (southern). 10. Green. Jamaica.
li'ma (file-leaved). 20. Green yellow. West
micro! ntha (small flowered). 10. Green.
August. Jamaica. 1739.
orienta'lis (oriental). 50. Yellow green.
East Indies. 1820.
CENTAURE'A. Centaury. (The classical
name of a plant, fabled by Ovid to have
cured a wound in the foot of Chiron
Chiron being one of the centaurs, or war-
horse breakers, of Thessaly. Nat. ord.,
Composites [Asteracese]. Linn., l^-St/nye-
iiesia, 3-frustraned), The Centaury s are
so numerous that more than twenty ge-
neric names have been applied to the
species. C. cyanea and dtpressa, or corn
flowers, are much used in bouquets.
Seeds of most of them in the open border
in the end of March. The tenderer ones
may be raised on a hotbed ; transplanted
to another : a few might be preserved
in a cold pit if it was deemed desirable.
HARDY ANNUALS AND BIENNIALS.
2. Yellow. July. Si-
C. Ada' mi (Adams's).
america'na (American). 2.
North America. 1824.
a'pula (Apulian). 1. Yellow. July. North
arachnoi'dea (cobweb -like). 3. Yellow.
July. Italy. 1820. Biennial.
benedi'cta ( Blessed -thistle). 2. Yellow.
August. Spain. 1548.
cancella' ta (latticed). 1. Yellow. July.
North America. 1824.
chile' nsis (Chilian), li. Lilac. June. Chili.
coarcta' ta (compressed). 1. Yellow. July.
North Africa. 1827.
di/'lium (Crocodylium). 3. Purple.
July. Levant. 1777.
crupl'tta (Crupina). 3. Flesh. June. Italv.
crupinoi'des (Crupina-like).- 1. Copper. July.
North Africa. 1818.
cya'nits (Blue-bottle). 3. Blue. July. Bri-
- fusca'ta (brownish). Yellow. July. Sar-
glau'ca (milky-green). 1. Pale yellow. June.
ibc'rica (Iberian). 2. Purple. July. Iberia.
ii'#pu(Lippi's). 1. Pale purple. June.
melitef nsis (Maltese). 1. Yellow. July.
moscha'ta (musky. Sweet Sultan). 2. Purple.
August. Persia. 1629.
napifo'tia (Turnip-leaved). 3. Purple. July.
palle'scens (pale). 2. Yellow. July. Esrypt.
pulche'lla (neat). 2. Purple. June. Persia.
piflchra (beautiful). 1. Bright crimson.
June. Cashmere. 1838.
salma'ntica (Salmanca). 3. Purple. July.
South Europe. 1596. Biennial.
si' cula (Sicilian). 2. Yellow. July. Sicily.
solstitia' Us (solstitial. Barnaby's Thistle}. 1.
Yellow. July. England.
Steve' nil (Steven's). 2. Yellow. July.
Caucasus. 1820. Biennial.
strum? nea (straw-eoloured) . 1. Yellow.
July. Egypt. 1801.
suave' olens (sweet-scented). 2. Yellow.
July. Levant. 1683.
sulphu'rca (sulphur-co/owraZ). 1. Yellow,
Torrea'na (Torre's). 1. Purple. July.
vertftiim (dwarf). 2. Yellow. July. Le-
C. cegypt?aca (Egyptian). 1. White. July.
Egypt. 1790. Herbaceous perennial.
argefntea (silver-leaved). 2. Pale yellow.
July. Candia. 1739. Evergreen shrub.
argu'ta (sharp-notched). August. Canaries.
1839. Evergreen shrub.
cincra'ria (grey-leaved) . 3. Purple, July.
Italy. 1710. Herbaceous perennial.
hyssopifo ; lia (Hyssop-leaved). 1. Purple.
July. Spain. 1812. Half-hardy ever-
ragusfna (Ragusan). 2. Yellow. July.
Candia. 1710. Evergreen shrub.
semperv? rens (evergreen). 2. Red yellow.
July. Spain. 1683. Herbaceous pe-
spintfsa (prickly -branched). 2. Purple.
July. Candia. 1640. Herbaceous
C acanthoi' des (acanthus-like). 2. Purple.
C. ala'ta (winged, stalked) , 2. Yellow. Au-
gust. Tartary. 1781.
a'lba (-white-floircred). 2. White. July.
nlpi'na (Alpine). 3. Yellow. July. Italy.
ama'ra (bitter). 2. Purple. July. Italy.
grandiflo'ra (large - flowered) . 2.
Purple. July. Switzerland. 1819.
pinnati'fida (leafleted). 2. Purple.
July. Switzerland. 1819.
arena'ria (sand). 2. Purple. August.
South Europe. 1778.
a'spera (rough). 2. Purple. August. South
astraca' nica (Astracan). 2. Purple. July.
atropurpu' rca (dark-purple). 3. Purple.
July. Hungary. 1802.
aufrea (great-golden}. 2. Yellow. August.
South Europe. 1758.
austri'aca (Austrian). 2. Purple. August.
axilla' 'ris (axillary). 1. Purple. July.
babylo'nica (Babylonian). 7. Yellow. July.
Balsa' mita (Balsamita). 2. Yellow. July.
Barrel'irfri (Barrelier's). 2. Purple. July.
bractca'ta (bracteated). 2. Purple. July.
South Europe. 1817.
calci'trapa (Star-thistle). 1. Pink. July.
calcitrapoi' des (Calcitra pa-like). 1. Purple.
June. Levant. 1683.
caloce'phala (beautiful-headed). 3. Yellow.
July. Levant. 1816.
calop htf lla (beautiful-leaved). 5. Yellow.
July. South Europe. 1816.
capilla'ta (hairy). 1. Purple. July. Si-
centaureoi' des (Centaurea-like) . 3. Yellow.
June. South Europe. 1739.
centau'rium (Great Centaury). 4. Yellow.
July. Italy. 1596.
cheiranthifo'lia (Wall-flower leaved). 2.
Pale yellow. July. Caucasus. 1820.
cichora'cea (Endive-like). 2. Purple. July.
cicutcefo'lia (Cicuta - leaved). 3. Yellow.
July. Podolia. 1820.
chif'rict (grey). 2. Purple. June. Italy. 1710.
eolli'na (hill). 3. Yellow. June. South
concl'nna (neat). 4. Yellow. August.
coria'cea (leathery-leaved) . 2. Purple. June.
coronopifo' lia (Buckhorn-leaved) . 3. Yel-
low. June. Levant. 1739.
crue'nta (crimson-leaved). 1. Purple. July.
dcalba'ta (whitened). 2. Purple. July.
deci'piens (deceiving). 2. Purple. August.
declina'ta (curved-down). 2. Purple. July.
decvfmbens (lying-down). 2. Purple. Au-
gust. France. 1815.
C. depre'ssa (depressed) 1. Blue. July. Cau-
deu'sta (burned). 5. Dark red. August.
dlhftn (washed). 2. Pale purple. July.
South Europe. 1781.
dissect a (deeply - cut - leaved) . 2. Purple.
July. Naples. 1823.
ete'ta (tall). 4. Yellow. August. Mauri-
elonga' ta (lengthened). 2. Purple. August.
er'wfphora (wool-bearing) . 1. Yellow. Au-
gust. Portugal. 1714.
eriophy'Ua (woolly - leaved).
fe'rox (fierce). 2. Yellow. August. Bar-
py'Ua (woolly - leaved). 3. Yellow.
Fische'rii (Fischer's). 2. Blue. July.
flosculo'sa (many-fioreted). 1. Purple. Au-
gust. Italy. 1818.
glastifo'lia (Woad-leaved). 4. Yellow. July.
hy'brida (hybrid). 1. Purple. July. Switzer-
inca'na (hoary). 2. Purple. August. Naples.
intyba'cea (Succory-leaved). 2. Purple. Au-
gust. South Europe. 1778.
/swaWt (Isnard's). 1. Purple. July. Bri-
jacobcea' folia (Jacobaea-leaved). 3. Yellow.
Kartschia'na (Kartschi's). 2. Purple. June.
leuca'ntha (white flowered) . 2. "White. Au-
gust. South France. 1816.
leucophy" lla (white-leaved). 2. Purple. July.
limba'ta (fringed). 3. Purple. July. Por-
lingula'ta (tongue-feared). 2. Blue. July.
linifo'lia (Flax-leaved). 1. Purple. July.
macroctfphala (large-headed). 3. Yellow.
July. Caucasus. 1805.
macula' ta (spotted-leaved). Purple. July.
maculo'sa (spotted-calyxed) . 1. Purple.
July. Siberia. 1816.
Marshall ia'na (Marshall's). 2. Purple.
July. Caucasus. 1820.
mo' Mis (soft). 2. Blue. July. Hungary. 1818.
monta'na (mountain. Perennial blue-bottle).
2. Blue. July. Austria. 1596.
murica'ta (point-covered). 1. Purple. July.
myaca'ntha (Mouse - thorn). 1. Purple.
August. France. 1820.
ncgldcta (neglected). 3. Yellow. July.
nervo'sa (nerved). 2. Purple. July. South
nicest? mis (Nice). 2. Yellow. July. Nice.
ni'tens (sparkling) . Purple. Caucasus. 1823.
ochroleu' ca (yello wish-white). 2. Pale yel-
low. July. Caucasus. 1801.
orienta'lis (oriental). 2. Yellow. Siberia.
C. orna'ta (ornamental). 2. Yellow. July.
ovi'na (sheep's). 1. Purple. August.
panicula'ta (panicled) . 2. Purple. July.
parviflo'ra (small -flowered). 2. Violet.
June. Barbary. 1823.
pectina'ta (comb-edged). 1. Purple. Au-
gust. France. 1727.
pcregri'na (diffuse). 2. Yellow. July.
South Europe. 1749,
phry'gia (Swiss). 2. Purple. August. Switzer-
ambi'gua (ambiguous). 2. Purple.
August. Switzerland. 1819.
polyaca'ntha (many-spined). 1. Purple.
July. Portugal. 1804.
polymo'rpha (many-formed). 2. Pui-ple.
July. Spain. 1819.
Pouzi'ni (Pouzin's). 2. Purple, July. South
prate 1 nsis (meadow). 2. Purple. July.
procu'mbens (procumbent). 1. Purple. June.
South Europe. 1821. Trailer.
pube'scens (downy). 1. Yellow. July. 1804.
pulche'rrima (very beautiful). 5. Yellow.
July. Armenia. 1816.
pulla'ta (sad -looking), 2. Purple. July.
South Europe. 1789.
radia'ta (rayed). 2. White. July. Siberia.
refldxa (bent - back spined). 3. Yellow.
July. Iberia. 1801.
re! pens (creeping). 1. Yellow. July. Le-
ri'gida (stiff). 1. Purple. July. 1823.
rimila'ris (rivulet). 2. Brown. July. Por-
roma'na (lloman). 3. Red. July. Rome.
rupe'stris (rock). 2. Yellow. July. Italy.
ruthe'nica (Russian). 3. Pale yellow. Au-
gust. Russia. 1806.
sabulo'sa (sand). 1. White. July. Sibe-
salicifo'lia (Willow- leaved). 2. Purple.
July. Caucasus. 1823.
sangui'nea (bloody). 2. Purple. July. 1827.
se'ridis(Enc]i\G-lcaved}. 1. Purple. July.
sessa'na (Sessane). 1. Blue. July. South
sibi'rica (Siberian). 1. Purple. July. Si-
sonchifo'lia (Sow-thistle leaved). 1. Purple.
August. Mediterranean. 1780.
so'rdida (sordid). 1. Purple. July. 1818.
spatula' t a (spatulate-Zeacerf). 2. Blue. July.
sphceroccfphala (globe-headed). 2. Purple.
July. South Europe. 1683.
spinulo'sa (small-spined). 2. Purple. July.
sple'ndcns (shining). 3. Purple. July.
squarro'sa (wide-spreading), li. Purple.
July. Persia. 1836.
stereophy 1 lla (stiff- leaved). 2. Purple.
July. Podolia. 1820.
[ 220 ]
C. Stable (Stoobe). 1. Red yellow. June. Aus-
stri'cta (erect). 1. Blue. July. Hungary.
tata'rica (Tartarian). 2. Yellow. July.
tenuifolia (line-leaved). 2. Purple. July.
transalpi'na (transalpine). 4. Purple. July.
trichoce! phala (hairy-headed). 1. Purple.
July. Siberia. 1805.
trindrvia (three-nerved). 2. Purple. Julv.
uliffino''sa (marshy). 3. Yellow. July. Por-
uniflo'ra (one-flowered). 1. Purple. July,
South Europe 1819.
vochine'nsis (Vochin). 2. Purple. Julv.
Weldmannia' na (Weidmann's). 2. Rose.
July. Natolia. 1836.
xanthi'na (yellow). 2. Yellow.
CENTRADE'NIA. (From Jcentron, a spur,
and aden, a gland ; referring to a spur-
like gland on the anthers. Nat. ord.,
Melastomads [Melastomacese]. Linn.,
8-Octandria, \-Monogynia. Allied to
Lavoisiera). Stove evergreen. Cuttings
of side shoots, in March or April; sandy
loam one part, and rough peat two
parts; a cool stove, or a warm green-
house. Summer temp., 55 to 75 ; win-
ter, 45 to 55.
C.ro'sea (rose-coloured). 1. Rosy white.
April. Mexico. 1843.
CENTRA' NTHUS. (From kentron, a spur,
and anthos, a flower; referring to a spur-
like process at the base of the flower.