Nat. ord., Valerianworts [Valerianaceaej.
Linn., \-Nonandria, l-Digynia). Hardy
herbaceous perennials, except C. calci-
trapa. Seeds and divisions ; common
C. anffustifo'lius (narrow-leaved). 2. Crimson.
June. South Europe. 1759.
calci'trapa (Caltrop-teacerf). 1. Purple.
June. Portugal. 1683. Hardy annual.
nfber (red). 2. Crimson. June. Britain.
flo're-a'lbo (white -flowering). 2.
White. June. Britain.
CENTROCLI'NIUM. (From kentron, a
sharp point, and Mine, a bed. Nat. ord.,
Composites. Linn., 19-Syngencsia, 2-
Supcrflua). Stove plants. Seeds and
cuttings, in heat ; sandy loam and leaf-
mould. Summer temp., 50 to 75;
winter 50 to 55.
C . appre'ssum (elose-presseft-scaled) . 2. Rosy.
January. Peru. 1836. Evergreen.
reflffxmti (bent-back-sca/ed). 2. Rosy. Au-
gust. Peru. 1830. Annual.
CENTROPO'GON. (From kentron, a spur,
and pogon^ a beard ; in reference to the
fringe which envelopes the stigma. Nat.
ord., Lobeliads [Lobeliaceae]. Linn., 5-
Pentandria, \-Monogynia). Notwith-
standing the acid poisonous qualities
assigned to Lobeliads, it is asserted that
the soft fruit of the Centropogon surina-
mensis is eatable. Herbaceous peren-
nials. Divisions of roots; sandy peat
and rich fibry loam ; moisture and heat
when growing, and comparative dryness
and a low temperature when at rest. The
Surinam species will require a few de-
grees higher temperature in winter than
C. cordifo'lium (heart-leaved). Rose. June.
Guatimala. 1839. Stove.
fastuo'sum (proud). 2. Rose. November.
Suriname' mis (Surinam). 2. P^ose. Novem-
ber. Surinam. 1786. Stove.
CEXTROSTE'MMA. (From kentron, a
spur, and stemon, a stamen ; referring to
a horn or spur-like process on the sta-
mens of Asclepiads. Nat. ord., Asclc-
piads [Asclepiadaceae]. Linn., 5-Pentan-
dria, 2-Digynia. Allied to Hoy a). Stove
evergreen twiner. Cuttings of rather
firm shoots root freely in sand, under a
bell-glass, with bottom heat ; fibry peat
and sandy loam, with rubbly charcoal to
keep the soil open. Summer temp., 60
to 80 ; winter, 55 to 60.
C. refltfxum (bent-back). 2. August. Cream.
Manilla. 1838. It is also called Hoy' a
voria'cca and Cyrtoce'ras refle'xum.
CEPHAE'LIS. (From kephale, a head ; in
reference to the arrangement of the
flowers in heads, or corymbs. Nat. ord.,
Cinchonads [CinchonaceajJ. Linn., 5-
Pentandria, \-inonogynia. Allied to Psy-
chotra). The Ipecacuanha of the shops
is the root of C. Ipecacuanha, a half her-
baceous plant with creeping roots, grow-
ing in the damp shady forests of Brazil.
Stove plants. Cuttings of firm young
shoots, in sand, under a glass, and in
moist bottom heat. Sandy fibry peat
and lumpy loam. Summer temp., 60
to 80 ; winter, 50 to 55.
C. a'lba (white). Pale pink. April. Guiana.
axilla' r is (axillary). 4. White. April.
ela'ta (tall). 15. Purple. Jamaica. 1793.
gla'bra (smooth). Blue. April. Trinidad.
C. involucra'ta (involucrated). 5. White. July.
ipecacua'nha (Ipecacuanha). ^. White.
January. Brazil. 1839.
musco'sa (mossy). White. May. West In-
peduncula'ta (long flower - stalked) . 2.
White. February, Sierra Leone.
puni'cea (scarlet involucred). 3. White.
July. Jamaica. 1820.
purpu'rea (purple -fruited). 1 White-
purple. May. Trinidad. 1821.
Swa'rtzii (Swartz's). 4. Bluish. West In-
- tomento'sa (downy). 4. Brownish. Au-
gust. Trinidad. 1825.
viola'cea (violet-berried). 1. White. June.
West Indies. 1818.
CEPHALANTHE'RA. (From kephale, a
head, and anthem, an anther. Nat. ord.,
Orchids [Orchidaceae]. Linn., W-Gynan-
dria, \-monandria. Allied to Limodo-
rum). Hardy terrestrial Orchids. Di-
visions ; peat and loam.
C. ensifo'lia (sword-leaved). 2. White. June.
pa'llens (pale). 1. White. June. Bri-
rifbra (red). 2. Purple. June. Britain.
CEPHALA'NTHUS. Button-wood. (From
Jcep/iale, a head, and anthos, a flower ;
flowers disposed in heads being a general
characteristic of this order. Nat. ord.,
Cinchonads [CinchonaceaeJ. Linn., 4-
Tetrandria, \-inonogynia. Allied to Sper-
macoce). The Button- wood grows in
marshy places from Canada to Florida,
and prefers a damp peat bed in this
country. Hardy deciduous shrub. Cut-
tings in sandy soil, under a hand-glass,
in the beginning of autumn ; layers also.
Sandy loam, with vegetable mould or
C. Occident a' Us (western). 7. White. August.
North America. 1735.
brachypo'dus (short - stalked)
White. August. North America.
CEPHALO'TUS. (From Jcephalotes, head-
ed ; in reference to the simple scape or
flower stalk, bearing a compound ter-
minal spike. Nat. ord., doubtful. Dr.
Lindley believes "the genus will fall
into the ranks of the Crowfoots"). This
is the New Holland Pitcher plant, found
growing in the marshes of King George's
Sound. Greenhouse herbaceous peren-
nial. Offsets. Chopped sphagnum, peat,
earth, and broken pots, well drained and
carefully watered ; a bell-glass kept over
it and frequently cleaned. Summer
temp., 60 to 75' ; winter, 48 to 55.
C.follicula'ris (follicled). 1. White. New
CEPHALOTA'XUS. (FTomkephale, a head,
and taxus, the yew ; referring to the ge-
neral appearance of these trees. Nat.
ord., Taxads [Taxacese]. Linn., 22-
Dio&cia, \3-polyandria. Allied to Phyllo-
cladus). These are the Japanese Yews,
lately set apart from the old yews by
Dr. Sieboldt, the Japan traveler, and
Zticcarini, in their work called Flora Ja-
panica. Hardy evergreens.
C. drupa'cea (berry-hearing). 12 to 20 feet.
Fortu'ni (Fortune's). 40 to 60 feet. Japan.
peduncula'ta (stalked-fruited. Lord Har-
rington's yew). Japan. 1837.
CERA'DIA. (From Jceras, a horn; re-
ferring to the disposition of the spiny
branches. Nat. ord., Composites [Aster-
aceae]. Linn., l$-Syngenesia, 2-sttperflua.
Allied to Cremocephalum). We keep
this botanical curiosity as a sample of the
scanty vegetation of the Island of Icha-
boe, of guano notoriety ; and we are told
by an officer of our navy that when the
plants are walked over in the evening
the bruised stems emit a frankincense
scent. It succeeds best planted out on a
sunny border in summer, and requires
the protection of a greenhouse in winter.
Cuttings of the branches. Sandy soil,
with a little peat. Winter temp., 50 to
C.furca'ta (forked). Pale yellow. January.
CERANTHE'RA. (From Jeer as, a horn
and anthera, an anther ; alluding to a
horny point on the anthers. Nat. ord.
Vioktworts [Violaceoe]. Linn., 5-Pen-
tandria, l-monogynia). This should have
been united to Akode'ia. Stove ever-
green shrub. Cuttings in sandy soil,
under a bell-glass, in a brisk bottom heat;
light fibry loam. Summer temp., 55 to
80; winter, 48 to 55.
C. subintegrifo'lia (almost entire-leaved). 6.
White. June. Guinea. 1824.
CERA'PTERYX graminis. The Anther
Moth. We have seen enough to render
us quite ready to assent to Mr. Kirby's
observation ; that it is " the greatest
enemy of our pastures." Fortunately, it
is of rare occurrence in this country. It
is the Charceas and Bombyx graminis of
[ 222 ]
some entomologists. This moth, repre-
sented of its largest size in our drawing,
is generally altogether of a grey brown
colour, with a slender whitish line run-
ning from the base of the fore-wing along
its centre vein, and branching along its
branches. Another whitish line runs
along near each edge of the fore-wing ;
near the point of the wing is a row of
triangular dark spots. There are also
two dark kidney-shaped spots near the
front edge. The hind- wings are yellow-
ish brown, with a dark circular spot in
the centre of each, and various dusky
bars. The caterpillar is green, with
brown spots, and smooth. In the few
instances it has been found in this coun-
try it appeared in June. Mr Kirby says,
" It is said not to touch the foxtail grass.
In the years 1740-41-42-48-49, they
multiplied so prodigiously and committed
such ravages in many provinces of Swe-
den, that the meadows became white and
dry, as if a fire had passed over them.
In 1759, and again in 1802, the high
sheep-farms in Tweedale were dreadfully
infested with a caterpillar, which was
probably the larva of this moth. Spots
a mile square were totally covered with
them, and the grass devoured to the
root." The Cottage Gardener, v. 1.
CE'RASUS. Cherry. (From Cerasus,
a town in Pontus, in Asia, whence the
cherry was brought to Rome by Lucullus.
Nat. ord., Almondworts [Drupaceae].
Linn., \1-Icosandria, \-monogynia}. Be-
sides the cultivated cherry, the genus
Cerasus includes species which contain
virulent poisons, chiefly in their leaves
and fruit -kernels. Hardy deciduous
trees and shrubs, except where otherwise
specified. Seeds sown when the fruit is
ripe, or mixed up with three or four
parts their bulk of dry sand, and frequently
turned to prevent sprouting, and sown in
the March following ; also by layers and
cuttings from the roots, and from suckers ;
particular varieties by budding and graft-
ing ; deep soil, rather sandy.
a affi'nis (related). White. May. Europe.
a'vium (Birds'. Corone}. 50. White. April.
macroca'rpa (large ^wrp/e-fruited) .
50. White. April. Switzerland.
multiplex (double flowered). 15.
pa'llida (pale and red-fruited}.
20. White. April.
sylve'stris (wood). 50. White. April.
borea'lis (northern Choke}. 20. White. May.
North America. 1822.
canade'nsis (Canadian). 15. White. May.
capronia'na (hautbois). 20. White. April.
South of Europe.
20. White. April. South of Europe.
gobbtftta (Gobbetta -white -flesh}.
20. White. April.
grio'tta (Griotte). 20. White.
Montmorencia' na (Montmorency).
20. White. April.
mu'ltiplex (double-flowered). 12.
. palle'scens (pale. Cer amble}. 20.
pcrsicifo' lia (peach-leaved) . 20.
poly'gyna (many-pistiled. Cera bou-
quet}. 20. White. April.
variega'ta (variegated). 10.
carolinia'na (Carolina. Evergreen bird}. 30.
White. May. Carolina. 1759.
Chammce'rasiis (ground-cherry). 8. White.
May. Austria. 1597.
chica'xa (Chicasaw Plum}. 8. White. April.
North America. 1806.
cornu' ta (horned). 10. White. 1842.
depre'ssa (depressed. Sand}. 4. White.
May. South of Europe. 1805.
dura'cina (hard). 20. White. April. South
cordi'gera (heart -bearing). 20.
mammilla' ris (nippled) . 20. White.
obtusa' ta (blunted). 20. White.
hyema'li* (winter. Slack-choke}. 4. White.
May. North America. 1805.
japo'nica (Japan). 2. Pink. April. Japan.
flo're pltfno-a'lba (white double-
flowered). 2. White. March. North
of China. 1846.
multiplex (double). 4. Pink. April.
Julia' na (St. Julian's). 20. White. April.
South of Europe.
Heaumca'na (helmeted). 15.
[ 223 ]
C. Julia' na pe'ndula (pendulous). 10. White.
April. South of Europe. 1821.
Lauroce? rasus (common Laurel cherry).
12. White. April. Levant. 1629.
angustifo' Hits (narrow-leaved). 8.
White. April. Evergreen.
variega' tus (variegated - leaved) .
12. White. April. Evergreen.
lusita'nica (Portugal Laurel). 20. White.
May. Portugal. 1648. Evergreen.
Maha'leb (Mahaleb). 20. White. April.
Austria. 1714. Evergreen.
fru'ctufla'vo (yellow-fruited). 20.
White. May. South of Europe.
latifo'lium (broad -leaved). 20.
White. June. South of Europe.
~- Mara'scha (Marascha). White. April.
nepaWnsis (Nepaul). 20. White. May.
Nepaul. 1820. Half hardy.
occidenta'lis (West Indian). 20. White.
Jamaica. 1629. Stove evergreen.
Pa'dus (Bird cherry). 30. White. April.
argefntea (silver-Wofc/ied) . 20. White.
auciibccfo'lia (Aucuba-leaved). 20.
White. April. 1845.
bracteo'sa (long bracted). 30. White.
heteropht/ lla (various-leaved). 20.
White. April. 1845.
parviflo'ra (small-flowered). 30.
White. April. North of Europe.
ru'bra (red. Cornish bird). 30.
White. April. Britain.
vulga'ris (common). 30. White.
pennsylva'nica (Pennsylvanian). 30. White.
May. North America. 1773.
persicifo' lia (peach-leaved). 8. White.
May. North America.
prostra'ta (prostrate). 1. Pink. April.
Pseu' 'do-ctf 'rasus (bastard cherry). 6. White.
April. China. 1821.
pubefscens (downy). 12. White. April.
North America. 1806.
pu'mila (dwarf). 2. White. May. North
pygmata (pigmy). 4. White. May. North
sali'cinus (Willow-leaved). 4. White. April.
semperflo' rens (ever-flowering). 20. White.
April. China. 1822. Half-hardy.
20. White. April.
sertftinus (late. American bird). 30. White.
June. North America. 1629.
retu'stis (blunt-feawd) . 30. May.
serrula'ta (saw-edge-leaved). 4. White
April. China. 1822. Half-hardy.
sphceroca' rpa (round-fruited). 10. White
June. Jamaica. 1820. Stove ever-
susqueha' nna (Susquehanna). White. May
North America. 1800.
Virginia' na Virginian). 30. White. May
Cherry Culture. All our cultivated
sherries appear to be derived, by the aid
>f various crosses, from Ce rasus dura cina,
Juliana, and caproniana.
1. Early Purple Guigne . .
. Early Duke b. June.
3. Royal Duke e. June.
4. Elton m. June.
5. Florence m. Aug.
6. Late Duke e. Aug.
7. Morello b. Sept.
8. Buttner's October Morello . e. Sept.
9. Kentish, e. Aug.
For Standards take Nos. 2, 3, 4, 6, 7 ;
these, however, are equally adapted for
walls, fan forcing take the Early Duke.
This is so well adapted both on account
of its earliness and fine bearing, that few
of the other kinds are ever used for this
purpose. Some of the others would suc-
3eed very well, and the Tartarian has
been pointed to by some as very eligible.
In addition to the above the following
are in good repute : "Warder's Black
Heart ; Black Eagle ; Bigarreau ; Tarta-
rian ; Downton ; and the new kind, Heine
Propagation. Both budding and graft-
ing are resorted to ; the former is the
safest plan to avoid gum. The stocks used
are those of the wild cherry for ordinary
standards or wall trees, but for a dwarf-
ing system it has become customary of
late to use the Ce rasus Maha'leb^ or
Perfumed Cherry, so called on account
of the agreeable perfume emitted by the
wood whilst burning. In France this is
called Bois de St. Lucia, and this has
long been used as slocks. In addition to
its promoting a dwarf habit it is said to
be adapted to very ordinary soils, totally
unfit for the common cherry stock. It is
the usual practice to obtain the Maha'leb
from layers ; but no doubt cuttings will
answer equally well. The ordinary
cherry stocks are raised from seed, gene-
rally obtained from trees of the same
kind. They are preserved in sand through
the winter, and sown in February. Care
must be taken to preserve them from the
mice. They may be transplanted in the
following October in rows two feet apart
in the row. For dwarfs they may be
budded the following season j but if
standards are required they must stand
until they acquire the desired height.
Soil. A deep and mellow loam rather
sandy, is hest adapted to the cherry ; it
will, however, succeed in any ordinary
garden soil, if some what fertile in charac-
ter and one which parts freely with su-
Wall culture in growing period. The
first operation commences in the dis-
budding, stopping, and laying in of the
young shoots this will be in the early
part of June. Gross fore-right shoots may
at once be displaced, unless required to
fill gaps ; but if any doubt exists as to
their becoming permanent stock, it will
suffice to pinch off their points wnen four
or five inches long.
The kinds differ so much in size of
foliage that a difference becomes neces-
sary in the distance at which the young
wood is trained. This must be ruled by
the sLze of the leaves. Such as the Bi-
garreau must be kept at least five inches
apart ; the Morello section may be placed
from two to four inches apart. One of
the main points is to destroy the aphides
in time ; they are almost sure to infest
the trees before midsummer.
Culture in rest period. The cherry in
general requires less culture than most
of our hardy fruits ; and this because it
produces so little breast wood. If the
summer management has been duly at-
tended to there will be little to perform
during the rest period.
The remaining portion of the snags or
bases of the young shoots, which were
pinched back in June, must now be
pruned back to within two inches of the
branch, unless required to furnish a blank
space. Any late made immature-looking
wood may be shortened to where solid,
but no other shortening is required with
bearing trees. All the shortening requi-
site in order to multiply shoots to furnish
the wall, should be done within three
years after their transplanting. There
will, however, be mostly a few shoots to
be entirely removed in the winter's prun-
ing ; and in doing this regard must be
paid to the distance previously given.
Uses, Jww to keep, $$c. "We need scarce-
ly point to the dessert section. The
Morellosare famous as "brandy cherries."
The Kentish has the peculiar property of
slipping from the stone, and when dried
making a delightful confection ; and in-
deed, most of them are of great use for
confectionary purposes. The pulp of
some makes a very good wine ; and in
Germany a liqueur is made from the kernel
and pulp bruised and fermented, known
by the name of Kirschwasser.
The keeping of cherries on the trees is,
indeed, the great obstacle to their much
extended culture. Were it not for this
cherries would be an everyday affair from
the end of May until the end of October.
The birds are their greatest enemies, and
next to them the wasps. For preserva-
tion from birds these is nothing like good
nets ; but, as it takes much netting to
cover an ordinary tree, a dwarfing system
should be had recourse to, by which
means much fruit may be preserved in a
little space. By strict preservation we
have had the May Duke in use from the
beginning of June until the middle of
August; the Late Duke from the latter
period until the end of September ; and
the Morello from the latter period until
the end of October, or even later. The
Wasps are by far the most difficult to
manage ; we have, however, kept these
at bay for a few weeks by covering the
bushes with some material like Scotch
Disease. We are not aware of any
positive disease in the cherry, excepting
the gum. This is an exudation of gummy
matter, which generally follows a wound
or bruise, and not unfrequently breaks
out spontaneously. The best way to
avoid this is to plant in soil of moderate
quality ; in general a light maiden loam
is good enough without adding a particle
of manure or vegetable matter. See
Insects. The Black Aphis (see Aphis')
is the greatest enemy, and next the Red
Spider (see Acarus}. The wall and wood
of the trees should be washed annually
in the rest season with soft soap water,
six ounces to a gallon, adding plenty of
lime, soot, and sulphur. When the
aphides attack the young shoots in sum-
mer there is no better plan than to dip
each in a bowl of tobacco water, just be-
fore they are trained.
Winter pruning of Standards. Very
little is requisite with standards. Like all
other fruit trees, they are apt to produce
an inconvenient amount of young spray,
in the interior of the tree especially. All
shoots of this character should be dressed
away during the rest season; and all that
are obviously not placed in a position to
receive the influence of light and air. Most
of these must be spurred back, leaving a
couple of inches of the base, which gene-
rally becomes a nucleus of spurs ; and, al-
though not well placed to produce fruit of
the highest amount of flavour, yet they
are sometimes of importance in inclement
seasons ; for we not unfrequently find a
sprinkling of fruit in such situations,
when all round the outside is barren.
Orchard cherry trees, which have to re-
ceive nets occasionally, will, as strength
increases, require the removal of some of
the coarsest and most unyielding shoots ;
for, were they permitted to extend them-
selves without control, the amount of
netting required to cover them would
become a rather serious item, and a
drawback on their culture. Such un-
ruly shoots, therefore, should be timely
removed ; for amputations of the large
limbs should always be avoided in the
cherry, and indeed in all trees liable to
extravasation of sap. By a timely re-
moval of such shoots, and by the occa-
sional use of rope yarn or other fasten-
ings, the tree may be kept in a somewhat
CERATI'OLA. (From a diminutive
of keras, a horn ; in reference to the
stigma radiating into four divisions like
little horns, as in the Carnation. Nat.
ord., Crowberries [Empetraceae]. Linn.,
21-Moncecia,, \-monandria}. The Crow-
berries are a small group of little bushes
with heath-like leaves which are ever-
green. The most of them inhabit the
bleak and inhospitable regions both in
Europe and in North America. Half-
hardy under-shrub. Cuttings in sandy
soil, under a glass in a mild bottom heat.
Sandy peat and a little very fibry loam.
Winter temp., 40 to 48.
C. erlcoi'dcs (heath-like). 2. Brown. June.
North America. 1826.
CERATODA' CTYLIS. (From Jeeras, ahorn,
and dactylos, a finger ; alluding to the
divisions of the fronds. Nat. ord., Ferns
[Polypodiaceae]. Linn., 24-Cryptoffamia }
\-fiUces. This ought to have been united
to Allosorus}. Stove Fern. Divisions ;
peat and loam. Summer temp., 60 to
90 ; winter, 50 to 55.
C.osmundoi'des (Osmunda-like). Brown, June.
CERATO'NIA. CarobTree. (Frommw,
a horn; in reference to the shape of
the seed pods. Nat. ord., Leguminous
plants [Panaceas]. Linn., 1%-Polygamia,
2-dicecia. Allied to Gleditschia). This
is believed to be the Locust Tree of Scrip-
ture. " The dry pulp in which the seeds
are buried is very nutritious, and is sup-
posed to have been the food of St. John
in the wilderness ; wherefore it is called
the Locust Tree, and St. John's Bread."
Lindley. The North American Locust-
tree and the Locust-tree of the West
Indies, are different from each other,
and from the Locust-tree of Scripture.
Greenhouse tree, hardly worth culture.
Cuttings of ripe shoots, in sand, under a
hand-glass. Sandy loam.
C.si'liqua (podded). 15. Red, yellow. Sep-
tember. Levant. 1570.
CERATOPE'TALUM. Red Gum Tree.
(From keras, a horn, and petalon, a petal ;
the j>etals being jagged or like a stag's
horn. Nat. ord., Cunoniads [Cunonia-
ceae]. Linn., IQ-Decandria, \-monogynia).
Greenhouse tree. Cuttings, under a
bell-glass, in sand; rich sandy loam.
Summer temp., 55 to 75; winter, 35
C. gummi'ferum (gum-bearing). 50. Yellow.
New Holland. 1820.
CERATOSTE'MA. (From keras, a horn,
and sterna, a stamen. Nat. ord., Cran-
berries [Vacciniaceae]. Linn., W-Decan-
dria, \-monoyynia. Allied to Thibaudia
and Cavendishia). Stove plant. Divi-
sions ; layers. Peaty soil.
(7. longiflo'rum (long - flowered). Crimson-
CE'RBERA. (Named after the fabled
dog Cerberus. Nat. ord., Dogbanes [Apo-
cynaceae]. Linn., 5-Pentandria. \-mono-
gynia. Allied to Plumiera). Stove
evergreens. Cuttings of young rather
ripe shoots, in April, in sand, under a
glass, and in bottom heat. Rich fibry
loam. Summer temp., 60 to 80 ; win-
ter, 48 to 55.
C. Ahou'ai ( Ahouai). 20. Yellow. June. Brazil.
frutico'sa (shrubby). 4. Red. May. Pegu.
macula' ta (spotted). 4. White. June.
ova'ta (egg-leaved). 3. Yellow. New Spain.
There' tia (Thevetia). 12. Yellow. June.
South America. 1735.
thevetioi'des (Thevetia-like). 8. Yellow.
June. New Spain. 1800.
CE'RCIS. Judas Tree. (From Jcerkw,
a shuttlecock ; the name given by Theo-
phrastus. Nat. ord., Legwninow plants
[Fabaceae]. Linn., 10 - Decandria, 1-
monogynia). The wood of C. siliquas-
trum is beautifully veined and takes a
good polish. Hardy deciduous trees.
Seeds, sown in a gentle hotbed, in spring ;
hardened off and pricked out into a shel-