sca'ndem (climbing). Yellow. March. 1824.
spartiot ties (Spartium-like). A. Yellow
red. August. 1832.
specta' bills (showy). 2. Orange red. March.
triangula're (three-angled), f. Scarlet.
va'ria (various-leaved). 4. Orange red.
ffrandiflo'ra (large - flowered) . 3.
Orange. Spring. 1844.
CHRISTMAS ROSE. Helle'borus mger.
.CHRIST'S THORN. PaUu'rus.
CHRYSA'NTHEMUM. (From chrysos,
gold, and anthos, a flower. Nat. ord.,
Composites [Asteracese]. Linn., 19-Syn-
genesia, 2 - Superflua). Hardy plants.
Annuals by seed sown in the border, in
April, or in a slight hotbed at the end of
March, and transplanted; Perennial her-
baceous species by seed and division of
roots, in autumn or spring ; the garden
varieties of sinense by divisions and cut-
tings in March and April, giving them
light rich soil ; and to do these full jus-
tice, planting them against a wall, or
blooming them under glass, giving plenty
of manure-water after the bloom buds
appear. The shrubby kinds are increased
by cuttings and divisions, and require a
little aid in winter in a frame, cold pit,
or cool greenhouse.
C. absinthiifo' Hum (Worm wood -leaved). 1.
White. Siberia. 1824.
Achf llece (Milfoil-leaved). 1. White. July.
ano'malum (anomalous). 1. White. June.
a'rcticum (arctic). $. White. July.
argdnteum (silver-leaved). 1. White. July.
atra'tum (blackened-fcawd). 1. White.
July. Austria, 1731.
C. atra'tum loba'tum\(lobed.). |. White. July.
carina'tiim (keeled). 2. White, purple.
August. Barbary. 1796.
corona' rium (garland) . 4. Yellow. Au-
gust. Sicily. 1629.
daucifo'lium (Carrot-leaved). 1. White.
graminifo' Hum (Grass-leaved). 1. White.
June. Montpelier. 1739.
heterophy? Hum (various-leaved). 1 White.
July. Switzerland. 1806.
i'ndicum (Indian). 2. Yellow. Septem-
i to! licum (Italian). 2. Pale yellow. June.
lanceola' turn (spear-head-/ecrf). . White.
June. Hungary. 1817.
leuca'nthemum (white-flowered). 2. \Vhite.
mexica'nnm (Mexican). 1. White. Au-
gust. Mexico. 1825.
montpelie'nse (Montpelier). 1. White.
July, Montpelier. 1739.
monta'num (mountain). 2. White. June.
Myco'nis (Mycon's). 1. Yellow. July.
paludf/sum (marsh). 1$. White. June.
perpusi'llum (very small). 1. White. June.
pinnati'fidum (leafleted). 3. White. July.
ptfmilum (dwarf). \. White. August.
ra'dicans (footing-branched). 1. White.
July. Spain. 1818.
rotundifa'lium .(round-leaved). 1. White.
June. Hungary. 1817.
rutheni'acum (Russian). . Pink. June.
sefgetum (corn). 1|. Yellow. July. Bri-
sine 1 me (Chinese). 3. Variegated. Octo-
ber. China. 1764.
sylvtfstre (wood). 2. White. June. 1804.
tanacetifo' Hum (Tansy-leaved). 1. White.
Asia Minor. 1818.
triparti'tum (three-lobe-leaved) . 3. Yel-
low. October. East Indies. 1800.
CHRYSANTHEMUM as a Florist' s Flower.
This is the C. sineme and its varieties.
Propagation by cuttings. The best
time is the first week in February. Take
off the young shoots three inches long,
and with a sharp knife cut off the lower
leaves ; insert the cuttings round the
edge of a five-inch pot, numbering each
kind as they are put in to prevent mis-
takes. Use a light sandy loam, with a
thin layer of pure sand on the surface.
Give a gentle watering to settle the
earth closely to the cuttings. Place
them upon a heated surface of either
coal ashes or river sand. Cover them
with a hand-glass, and they will soon
[ 239 ]
emit roots. When rooted, pot them im-
mediately into small pots and replace
them under the hand-glasses. As soon
as the roots reach the sides of the pots,
repot them immediately. Cramping the
roots in small pots is very injurious.
Then place them either on a shelf near
the glass of a good greenhouse, or,
which is better, place them in a cold
frame well protected from frost and
By layers. To procure very dwarf
plants, as soon as the frosts are fairly
passed for the season, plant out in the
open air a few old plants in a row in an
open situation. Peg down some of the
branches, and, as soon as the flower
buds appear, plunge as many small pots
round the plants, filled with light rich
earth, as may be required; place a
branch into each pot, and give it a gentle
twist : put a short hooked peg into each
pot, catching the branch with the hook ;
then cover it with half an inch of soil,
and in a month it will be rooted. Then
cut it off from the parent plant, take up
the pots and keep them in the shade till
fairly established. They may then have
another and final potting, and will be
neat dwarf plants to place in front of the
By seeds. The seed must be saved as
soon as it is ripe, and only from such as
are of a fine shape and bright, clear co-
lour. Sow the seeds in February, very
slightly covered with soil, finely sifted
in shallow wide pots. Place them in a
gentle heat, giving very gentle waterings
when dry with a fine rosed watering-
pot. As soon as the seedlings have two
or three leaves each, transplant them
singly into small pots, keeping them in a
temperature of 55 to 60 ; repot when
required. Some of them may flower, if
well grown, the same season. Treat
them exactly like the old varieties, and
they will all flower the second year.
Soil. As these plants are gross feeders,
they require a very rich compost ; half
light loam, half decayed dung, with a
fourth of peat added, will grow them
strong and flower them well.
Summer culture commences in April.
Such as are intended to bloom in pots
should now have large shifts out of their
small pots into three sizes larger ; for
cuttings struck the same season, the
blooming pots should be at least nine
inches' diameter, but for plants a year
older they should be twelve inches. At
every potting stop all the shoots, to
cause them to branch early and form
dwarf compact bushes. Give up stopping
at the last shift, which should not be
done later than the middle of June. Tie
the branches out so as to give as much
room and air to each as possible, con-
sistent with forming a handsome plant.
Thin the buds of such as are intended
for exhibition, to cause large flowers.
During the whole season of growth give
abundance of water. Every week give
them one watering with liquid manure.
Never allow them to flag from the first re-
potting up to the finishing bloom. "Water
them over head in hot weather at least
twice a day. The proper situation to
place them at this season (from May till
they bloom), is on a bed of ashes or
gravel in an open situation. As soon as
the buds begin to open remove them
into the greenhouse, giving them as
much space as possible, or the lower
leaves will drop off. Continue an abun-
dant supply of water till the blooming
season is over.
Winter Culture. "When the flowers
are all decayed, cut down the blooming
shoots and place the pots in a cool pit,
giving only just water enough to keep
the plants alive during the winter, and,
as they are nearly hardy, they do not re-
quire much protection ; a mat or two
thrown over the glass in very severe frost
will be quite sufficient.
These old plants are the best to plant
out in the open border. In the southern
counties Chrysanthemums bloom very
finely either in the open borders or
against a wall or low paling, and during
the months of October and November
make a fine display.
Insects. The green fly is the most
troublesome, and, where it is allowed to
prevail greatly, will quite destroy the
bloom. It is easily destroyed in the
open air by dipping the ends of the
shoots in tobacco water, and, in the
greenhouse, by filling it completely with
the smoke of tobacco.
Diseases. These are such robust
hardy plants that they are seldom
troubled with any diseases. The only
one that is dangerous is mildew on the
leaves, brought on by a damp cold at-
mosphere before they are brought into
the greenhouse. The only remedy is
dusting the parts where it appears with
flowers of sulphur. Brown's fumigator
is an excellent one to apply the sulphur
CHRYSE'IS. See Eschscho Uzia.
CHRYSOBA'LANUS. Cocoa Plum. (From
chrysos, gold, and balanos, an acorn ; in
reference to the colour of the drupes or
berries. Nat. ord., Chrysobalans [Chry-
sobalanaceao]. Linn., \1-Icosandria, 1-
mmogynia). Layers ; also cuttings of
half ripened shoots in sand, under glass.
Loam and peat. Common greenhouse
and cool stove treatment.
C. lea' co (Icaco). 15. White. West Indies.
1752. Stove evergreen.
oblongifo' litis (oblong-leaved). 3. White.
May. Georgia. 1812. Greenhouse
CHRYSO'COMA. Goldy -locks. (From
chrysos, gold, and home, hair ; in refer-
ence to the yellow florets. Nat. ord.,
Composites [Asteracese]. Linn., 19-Syn-
genesia, \-aqualis. Allied to Solidago).
Hardy herbaceous species by divisions in
March. Common soil. Greenhouse species
by cuttings of half ripe shoots in April,
under a glass, in sand. Loam and a
little peat. Winter temp., 35 to 45.
C. bifio'ra (two-flowered). 3. Blue. August.
dracunctiloi'des (Tar agon-like). 2. Yellow.
Linosy'ri'i (Flat-leaved). 2. Yellow. Sep-
tember. Europe. 1596.
nudd la (naked). 2. Yellow. September.
villo'sa (long-haired-leaved]. 2. Yellow.
August. Hungary. 1799.
viraa'ta (twiggy). 1. Yellow. September,
North America. 1821.
C. ce'rnua (drooping). 4. White. July. Cape
of Good Hope. 1712.
cilia' ris (hair-ringed4eoted). 4. White.
August. Cape of Good Hope. 1759.
Comau'rrn (golden -hair). 6. Yellow. July.
Cape of Good Hope. 1731.
denticula'ta (tooth-leaved). 4. Yellow.
ni'vea . (snow-'irMfe). 3. Yellow. July.
Cape of Good Hope. 1816.
pa'tula (spreading). 3. Yellow. July.
Cape of Good Hope. 1810.
sea'&rafrusrgedl. 4. White. August. Cape
of Good Hope. 1832.
C. squama'ta (sc&ly-stalked). 2. Yellow.
May. New South Wales. 1837. Her-
CHRYSO'GONUM. (From chrysos, gold,
and gonu, a joint; the golden flowers
being borne on the joints. Nat. ord.,
Composites [AsteraceaeJ. Linn., 19-Syn-
genesia, \-aqualis. Allied to Milleria).
Hardy herbaceous perennial. Dividing
the roots in spring ; loam, with a little
peat and leaf mould.
C. virffinia'num (Virginian). 1. Yellow. May.
CHRYSOPHY'LLUM. Star Apple. (From
chrysos, gold, and phyllon, a leaf ; refer-
ring to the colour of the under side of
the leaves. Nat. ord., Sapotads [Sapo-
taceaa]. Linn., 5-Pentandria, \-monogy-
nia). The fruit of C. cainito is the Star
Apple, an esteemed Indian dessert fruit.
Stove evergreen trees ; cuttings in sand,
under a glass, and in heat ; peat and
loam. Summer temp., 60 to 80 ; win-
ter, 50 to 55.
C. angustifo' Hum (narrow -leaved) . 20. White.
West Indies. 1819.
arge'nteum (silvery-leaved). 20. White.
Caini'to (Cainito). 50. White. May. West
caynfleum (blue - fruited) . 40.
White. May. South America. 1737.
jamaice'nse (Jamaica). 40. White.
May. Jamaica. 1737.
. microphy 1 Hum (small -leaved). 30.
White. May. South America. 1800.
gla'brum (smooth). 15. White. Marti-
macrophi/ Hum (large-leaved). 100. White.
Sierra Leone. 1824.
monopyrc'num (one-stoned). 30. Brown.
West Indies. 1812.
CHRYSO'PSIS. (From chrysos, gold,
and oj)sis, a face. Nat. ord., Composites
[Asteraceae]. Linn., \-Syngenesia, 1-
aqualis}. A strong coarse hardy herba-
ceous perennial for a shrubbery, and
will grow in any common soil ; divisions
C. trichophy'lla (hairy-leaved). Yellow. June.
North America. 1827.
CHRYSORRHO'E. (From chrysos, gold,
and rheo, to flow ; referring to their
bright yellow or golden heads of flowers.
Nat. ord., Fringe- Myrtles [Chamselaucia-
ceac]. Linn., IQ-Decandria, \-monogy-
nia. Allied to Chama^laucium). Very
beautiful little bushes from New Hol-
land. They are very scarce, if at all in
cultivation. Cuttings of firm young
shoots, under a bell-glass, in sandy soil ;
cold pit or greenhouse, or with a little
protection, such as a warm wall, might
C. ni'tens (shining-flowered). Yellow. May.
serra'ta (saw-leaved). Yellow. May. 1841.
CHRYSOSPLE'NIUM. Golden Saxifrage.
(From chrysos, gold, and splen, spleen ; in
reference to the colour of the flowers,
and the supposed medicinal qualities of
the plant as a slight tonic. Nat. ord.,
Saxifrages [Saxifragacese]. Linn., 10-
Decandria, 1-digynia). Hardy herbace-
ous perennials. Dividing the roots ;
moist situation ; common soil.
C. alternifo'lium (alternate-leaved). 1. Yel-
low. April. Britain.
nepalc'nse (Nepaul). 1. Yellow. April.
oppositlfo' Hum (opposite-leaved). Yellow.
CHRYSOSTE'MMA. (From chrysos, gold,
and stemma, a crown the yellow flowers.
Nat. ord., Composites [Asteraceae]. Linn.,
\$-Syngenesia, 3-Frmtranca. Allied to
Rudbeckia). Hardy herbaceous peren-
nial. Division of the roots, and seed;
common light soil.
G. tri'ptcris (three-winged). 6. Yellow. Au-
gust. North America. 1837.
CHYMOCA'RPUS. (Better known as
Tropaolum pentaphyllum of "THE COT-
TAGE GARDENER ;" but the genus is ac-
knowledged by botanists, and the mean-
ing of the name is juicy-fruited, in con-
tradistinction to the hard dry fruit of the
narsturtium. It is derived from chymos,
juice, and carpos, a fruit). Greenhouse
perennial climber. Seeds in a slight
hotbed ; cuttings in sandy soil, under a
hand-light, in summer. Sandy loam,
with a little peat.
C. pentaphy'llus (five-leaved). 4. Red, green.
August. Buenos Ayres. 1830.
CHY'SIS. (From city sis, melting ; in
reference to the fused appearance of the
pollen masses. Nat. ord., Orchids [Or-
chidacea}]. Linn., 20 - Gynandria, 1-
mofiandria). Stove orchids. Offsets ;
baskets filled with fibry peat and pot-
sherds ; and kept in a cool moist stove.
C. au'rea (golden-flowered). 1. Yellow and
crimson. May. Venezuela. 1834.
bracte" 'scats (bracteated). 1. White, yellow.
May. Guat : mala. 1840.
la? vis (smooth). Cream, yellow. Guati-
CIBO'TIUM. (From kibotion, a small
box ; referring to the form of the seed
vessels. Nat. ord., Ferns [Polypodiaceae].
Linn., 1-Cryptoyamia, l-filices}. Divi-
sion of the roots ; peat and loam ; a
warm greenhouse or cool stove.
C. Ba'rometz (Barometz). 6. Brown, yellow.
May. China. 1824. Stove.
SiUardiefri (Billardier's). 30. Brown.
April. New Holland. 1824. Green-
Schie'fci (Schiede's). 6. Brown. Mexico.
CIBOUL, or "WELSH ONTON, Alliumjistu-
losum, a perennial, never forming any
bulb, but sown annually, to be drawn
young for salads, &c. Its strong taste
renders it greatly inferior to the common
onion for this purpose; but from its
extreme hardiness it is good as a winter-
standing crop for spring use.
Varieties. Two varieties are in culti-
vation, the white and the red.
Cultivat-ion. It may be sown at all
times with the onion, and is similarly
cultivated, except that it may be sown
thicker, and only thinned as wanted.
(See Onion}. The blade usually dies
away completely in winter, but fresh
ones are thrown out again in February or
To obtain seed. Plant some of the roots
in March, six or eight inches asunder.
The first autumn they will produce but
little seed ; in the second and third, how-
ever, it will be produced abundantly. If
care is taken to part and transplant the
roots every two or three years, they may
be multiplied, and will remain produc-
tive for many years, and afford much
better seed than that from one-year-old
Scattiom. There is good reason for
concluding that by a confusion of names,
arising from similarity of appearance,
this vegetable is the true scallion, whilst
the hollow leek of Wales is the true
Welsh onion. At pi-esent all onions that
have refused to bulb, but form lengthened
necks and strong blades in spring and
summer, are called scallions.
CI'CCA. (Named after Peter Cicca, a
writer of the sixteenth century. Nat.
ord., Spurgeicorts [Euphorbiaceae] . Linn.,
21-Moncecia, k-tetrandria. Allied to.
Phyllanthus) . The milky j nice of many
of the Spurgeworts is poisonous, yet the
succulent fruit of C. disticha is whole-
some, and the roots a powerful purga-
tive. Stove tree ; cuttings of ripe shoots,
in sand, under a glass, and in bottom
heat ; sandy loam. Summer temp., 60
to 80 ; winter, 55 to 60.
C. di'sticha (two-rowecU&tfVtftf). 20. Green.
East Indies. 1796.
CICHO'RITIM. Chicory, or Succory. (An
ancient Egyptian name. Nat. ord, Com-
posites [Asteraceae]. Linn. \Q-Syngenesia,
\-(sqnnlis). Hardy salad plants, of easy
culture; seed at different times. See
Chicory and Endive.
C.endi'via (Endive). 2. Blue. July. East
Indies. 1548. Animal.
i'ntybiis(mtyl>us Chicory). 2. Blue. July.
CIMICI'FUGA. Bugwort. (From eimex,
a bug, and fugo, to drive away ; from its
supposed quality. Nat. ord, Crowfoots
[Rammculaceie]. Linn.. \3-Polyandria,
5-pentagynia. Allied to Acta&a). Good
old hardy herbaceous plants for borders ;
seeds, and division of the roots in spring
or autumn ; common soil.
C. america'na (American). 2. White, yellow.
July. Carolina. 1824.
cordifo'lia (heart-leaved). 3. While, yellow.
June. North America. 1812.
fceftida (fetid). 4. Light yellow. June.
palma'ta (hand-leaved). 4. White, yellow.
July. North America. 1812.
CINCHO'NA. Peruvian bark. (Named
after the Countess of Cmchon, who was
cured by this Peruvian bark. Nat. ord.,
Cinchonads [Cinchonacese]. Linn., 5-
Pentandria, l-monogynia}. The Peruvian
bark stands foremost as a febrifuge tonic.
Stove evergreens ; cuttings of ripe wood,
in sand, under a bell-glass, in heat ; loam
and fibry peat, with a little sand and
charcoal. Summer temp., 60 to 85 ;.
winter, 55 to 60.
C. officina'/is (shop). 18. Red. July. Peru.
sea' bra (rugged). 6. Red. 1820.
CINERA'RIA. (From cineres,
ia reference to the grey down covering
the surfaces of the leaves. Nat. ord.
Composites [Asteraceae]. Linn., \S-Syn-
genesia, 2-Superfaia). Hardy Herbaceous
species by seed, but chiefly by division
of the roots ; good loamy soil, and a
little peat or leaf-mould. The shrubs
and imdershrubs which mostly require
a greenhouse or cold pit in winter, by
cuttings in sandy soil under a hand-light.
The garden florist varieties see further on.
C. attonifi'nn (Alton's). 1. Yellow. July.
america'na (American). 6. Yellow. Gre-
dis? color (two-coloured-frrtiwZ). 4. White.
July. Jamaica. 1804.
fflabra'ta (smooth). 2. Yellow. July.
hfcida (shining). 2. Yellow. July. West
C. a'lba (white). 1. White. February. Cape
of Good Hope. 1825.
angustifo'lia (narrow-leaved). 2. Yellow.
July. Mexico. 1825.
auri'ta (eared). 2. Yellow. June. Ma-
bi' 'color (two-coloured). 2. Yellow. July.
cacalioi'dcs ( Cacalia-like ) . 2. Yellow.
July. Cape of Good Hope. 1816.
cane'scens (hoary). 2. Yellow. June.
Cape of Good Hope. 1790.
cauca'sica (Caucasian). 2. Yellow. July.
Cape of Good Hope. 1759. Herba-
ela'tior (taller). 5. White. July.
geifo'lia (Geum-leaved). 2. Yellow. July.
Cape of Good Hope. 1710.
g'Mo'sa (swollen). Sicily.
humifu'sa (trailing). 1. Yellow. July
Cape of Good Hope. 1754. Herba-
fiy'brida (hybrid). 2. Yellow. February.
inca'na (hoary). 3. Yellow. July. Ja-
la'ctea (milk-coloured). 3. White. June
lana'ta (woolly). 3. Purple. June. Ca-
loba'ta (lobed). 3. Yellow. July. Cape
of Good Hope. 1774.
malvtpfo'lia (Mallow-leaved). 2. Yellow.
August. Azores. 1777. Herbaceous.
multiflo'ru (many -flowered). 2. White.
July. Teneriffe. 1829.
Petasi'tes (Butterbur-framZ). 3. Yellow.
February. Mexico. 1812.
populifo'lia (Poplar -leaved). 2. Red. July.
prcecox (early). 2. Yellow. February.
pulchc'lla (neat). 2. Purple. February.
salicifo'lia (Willow-leaved). 4. Yellow.
July. Mexico. 1827.
scapiflo'ra (scape-flowered). 1. Yellow.
July. Cape of Good Hope. 1829.
tussilaginoi' dcs (Coltsfoot-like). 2. Lilac.
Autumn. Teneriffe. 1829.
vesti'ta (clothed) ^. Yellow. Cape of
Good Hope. 1824.
visco'sa (clammy). 2. Yellow. July.
Cape of Good Hope. 1774. Biennial.
HARDY HERBACEOUS PERENNIALS.
C. alpt? stria (Alpine). 1. Yellow. May. Swit-
alptna .(Alpine). 1. Yellow. July. Swit-
auranti'aca (orange). 1. Orange. June.
aifrea (golden). 3. Yellow. July. Si-
auricula' ta (small-eared). 3. Yellow.
canade 1 mis (Canadian). 2. Yellow. July.
campe' stris (wild). 1. Yellow. May.
crassifo'lia (thick -leaved). 1. Yellow.
July Carinthia. 1827.
cri'spa (curled). 3. Yellow. July. Swit-
fla'mmea (flame-coloured). Flame. Dahuria.
gigtfntea (gigantic). 2. White. July.
Cape Horn. 1801.
int egrifo' Ha (entire-leaved). 1. Yellow.
Iceviga'ta (smooth - leaved] . 1. Yellow.
July. Siberia. 1819.
longifo'lia (long-leaved). 2. Yellow. July.
macrophy'Ua (large-leaved). 8. Yellow.
July. Altai Mountains. 1831.
mari'tima (sea. Ragwort). 2. Yellow. Au-
gust. South Europe. 1633. Ever-
palu'stris (marsh). 3. Yellow. June.
pappo'sa (downy-crowned). 1. Yellow.
July. Gallicia. 1821.
parviflo'ra (small-flowered). 2. Yellow.
July. Caucasus. 1820.
racemo'm (racemed). 1. Yellow. July.
renifo'lia (kidney-leaved). 1. Yellow.
May. Kussia. 1833.
rivula'ris (rivulet). 1. Yellow. July.
sib'irica (Siberian). 4. Yellow. July.
spatulfcfo' lia (spatulate-leaved). 1. Yel-
low. May. Germany. 1820.
specio'sa (showy). 6. Yellow. June.
sude'tica (Swiss). 2. Yellow. July. Swit-
thyrsoi'dea (thyrse-formed) . Prussia. 1832.
CINERA'RIA as a Florists' Flower. The
immense varieties of this flower seem to
be the offspring by various crosses of
C. malvcefolia, lanata, populifolia^ and
probably some others.
Propagation by Offsets. When a cine-
raria has done blooming, remove it from
the greenhouse, cut down the old flower
stems (excepting such as are intended
to save seed from), place the pots out of
doors upon a bed of coal ashes, in an
open situation. Give water moderately
in dry weather ; and as soon as the off-
sets appear, and have attained a leaf or
two, take them off with a sharp knife,
with the roots uninjured ; plant them in
small pots, and place them in a cold
frame, shading them from the light for a
fortnight, and from bright sunshine for
another week. They will then be well
rooted, and will require a pot a size
By Seed. Sow the seed as soon as it
is ripe in shallow wide pots, in light fine
soil, and slightly covered. As soon as
the seedlings have formed two or three
leaves, prick them out into the same
kind of pots in a somewhat richer soil.
They may remain in these pots till they
have made some more leaves and fresh
roots, then pot them off singly into small
pots, shading for a few days. After-
wards, and at the proper time, re-pot
them in the same manner as the offsets.
Soil. The offsets and seedlings having
attained the proper size for potting into
larger pots, prepare for that operation by
mixing and bringing, in a moderately
dry state, to the potting bench, the fol-
lowing compost : Turfy loam from an
upland pasture, two parts ; fibrous peat,
one part ; decayed leaves, two years
old, one part; very rotten cowdung,
half a part ; and a small addition of river
sand. Prepare, also, a sufficient quan-
tity of broken potsherds of two sizes, one
as large as walnuts, and the other about
the size of peas. Have also a sufficient
number of either new or clean-washed
pots, two sizes larger than the plants
are in. You are then ready for the ope-
ration of potting.
Winter Culture. By the time the
plants, whether offsets or seedlings, are
ready for re-potting out of their first
size pots, cold nights will have begun to
take place, which brings the time of cul-