| caterpillar becomes of a light ochrish-
I yellow hue, shortly before becoming _ a
chrysalis, which usually takes place in
spring, when it makes a strong cocoon
of chips of wood and small pieces of
bark, which it has gnawed off. The
chrysalis is yellow, and the segments
i are deeply indented and capable of
I much extention ; its back is furnished
! with strong pointed spines, sometimes
; of a reddish brown colour. The cocoon
i is situated immediately within the open-
j ing in the tree, so that the pupa, when
arrived at maturity, can press itself half
: out of the hole when the shell bursts,
| and the moth comes forth usually in
! the month of .Tune or July, after having
' reposed in the pupa state for an inde-
' finite time. When at rest the wings
i are folded together over the back in
j the form of a roof; it. sits quietly in
the day-time on the stems of trees, and
is difficult to be distinguished on ac-
count of its grey colour. Its wings
measure, from one tip to the other,
nearly three inches, and many speci-
mens more than this : the female i ,
usually larger than the male. The
fore-wings are ashy white, clouded with
brown, especially across the middle, and
marked with very numerous streaks,
like net - work ; the hind-wings are
brown. Thorax ochrish in front, pale
in the middle, with a black bar behind.
The female is provided with a strong
egg-depositor, with which she intro-
duces her eggs into the bark of the
tree often 1000 in number; the young-
caterpillars living at first in and be-
tween the outer and inner bark, and
afterwards, when they are stronger,
penetrating into the wood. When the
existence of one of these creatures is
detected in a trunk, by its excrement,
relief comes too late for the tree, even
if we are able to kill the caterpillar, the
mischief being already done. Notwith-
standing this, the caterpillar should
never be left undisturbed; and an at-
tempt should be made to reach it by
enlarging the opening with a garden
knife, or endeavouring to kill it by
thrusting a piece of garden wire up the
hole. It is called the Goat Moth from
the peculiar smell both of the insect
and its larva, The Cottage Gardener,
Co'sxrs. (An ancient name adopted
from Pliny. Nat.ord., tringenrorls [Zin-
;->iberaceae]. Linn., 1 -Monantlr'm 1
The roots are very bitter, and without the
aromatic pungent odour peculiar to the Costus
of the continental shops, which is the root of a
very different plant, a native of Arabia, and
rJlied to Cardopatum. The Costus of Cash-
mere, employed to protect bales of shawls from
moths, is the root of Auklandia Costus. Stove
herbaceous perennials of easy growth, and
readily increased by root-division ; sandy loam
\vith a little peat.
(', A'fer (African). 2. White. June. Sierra
Am 1 b iciiK( Arabian). 2. White. August.
di'scolor (two-coloured-tefli-erf). 4. White.
June. Maran. 1823.
I ana' t us (woolly). 3. May. South America.
macula' tus (spotted). 2. White. July.
Sierra Leone. 1822.
Nepah'nsis (Nepaul). 3. White. July. East
pi'rtu>i (variegated-jftweraf). 2. Yellow,
purple. July. Mexico. 1832.
Piso'iiis (Pison's). 3. Crimson.
specio'fuiK (showy). 3. White. August.
East Indies. 1799.
spica'tus (spiked). 1. Yellow. June. West
spira'lis (spiral). 4. Scarlet. November.
villosi'ssinrus (most hairy). 6. Yellow.
November. St. Vincent. 1822.
COTONEA'STER. (From colonea, Pliny's
I name for the quince, and aster, a cor-
! ruption of ad -in star, generally used to
j express likeness ; literally Quince-like.
I Nat. ord., Appleworts [Pomacea?].
Linn., l'2-Icosandria 'l-Dlgynia.}
Hardy shrubs, easily increased by layers or
seed. Common soil.
C. acumtna'ta (pointed-leaved}. 4. Pink. April.
. (iffi'nis (similar). 4. Pink. April. Nepaul.
barilla' ris (rod). Nepaul. 1841.
Buxifo'lia (Box-leaved). 3. White. April.
margina'ta ( w/,!/^ -margined). 3.
White. April. Saharunpore. 1838.
denticula'ta (fine-toothed-/eawed). 6. White.
emargina'ta (bordered). White. April. Ne-
fri'gida (frigid). 10. White, green. April.
laxiflo'rq (loose-flowered). 4. Pink. April.
uniflu'ra (one-flowered). 3. White.
microphy'lla (small -leaved). 4. White.
April. Nepaul. 1825.
multiflo'ra (many- flowered 1 !. 4. White.
May. Altai. 1837.
nummuta'ria (money - wort - leaved} . 10.
White, green. April. Nepaul. 1824.
rotundifo'lia (round -leaved). 3. White.
April. Nepaul. 1820.
Ro'ylei (Dr. Royle's). White. North India.
tomento'sa (woolly). 4. Pink. April. 1759,
rulga'ris (common). 4. Pink. April. Eu-
depre'ssa (depressed). White.
erythorca'rpa (red-fruited). 4.
White. April. Europe.
melunoca'fpa (black-fruited). 8.
White. April. Europe.
COTTON THISTLE. Ono'pordum.
COTYLE'DON. Navelwort. (A name
adopted from Pliny. Nat. ord., House-
leeks [Crassulacea?]. Linn., IQ-Decan-
dria k-Pentayyn'ia. Allied to Sedum).
These plants feed as much, if not more, by
I the myriads of pores or mouths all over their
j leaves, than by the roots, which seem only
necessary for holding them stationary in the
; driest and most barren situations. Greenhouse
| evergreens, from the Cape of Good Hope, except
where otherwise mentioned ; sandy loam, with
1 a little old mortar mixed with it, and plenty of
drainage ; cuttings at any season.
C. alte'rnam (alternate- leaved}. 1. July. 1816.
cacalioi'des (Cacalia-like). 1. Yellow. May.
canalicula'ta (small-channelled). 1. May.
cluvifo'lia (club-leaved). 1. Purple, Sep-
C. coru'scam (glittering^ 1. Orange. June.
rrassifo'lia (thick-leaved). 2. 1824.
crista'ta (crested). 1. Variegated. Sep-
cunea'ta (wedge-like). 1. May. 1818.
cuneifwrmis (wedge-shape-/emO- 1. 1823.
curviflo'ra (curve -flowered). 2. Orange.
decussa'ta (cross-leaved}. 2. Scarlet. Au-
- dicho'toma (fork-spined). 1. June. 1818.
ela'ta (tM-potvdered). 2. June. 1816.
fusciculn'ris (cluster-leaved). 1. Red. July.
gi-a'cilis (slender). 1. July. 1800.
hemisphce'rica (half- globular). 1. White,
purple. June. 1/31.
i n terj e'cta \ cast- down). . July. 1824.
jasminiflo'ra (Jasmine-flowered). 1. White,
purple. July. 1818.
Lieve'nii (Lieven's). if. Red. May. Altai.
maculu'ta (spotted). 1. White, purple.
malacopJiy'llum (soft-leaved). 1. Pale yel-
low. June. Davuria. 1815. Hardy.
mammilla'ris (nippled). 1. White, purple.
oblo'nga (oblong-leaved). 2. Red. August.
orbicula'tu (round-leaved). 2. Red. July.
ova'ta (egg-leaved). 2. 'Red. August. l/SQ.
papilla! ris (pimpled). 2. Red. June. 1822.
ramo'sa (branchy). 1. June. 1748.
ramosi'ssima (branchiest). 1. May. 181 6.
rhombifo'lia (diamond - leaved). 1. June.
rotundifo'lia (round - leaved). 1. June.
sempervi'vum (Houseleek-ft/re). d- Cauca-
spu'ria (spurious). 1. July. 1731.
tritntspida'tu (three-spined)." 1. July. 1823.
triflo'ra (three-flowered). 1. Pink, white.
tubercii'losa (knotted). 1. Orange. July.
undula'ta (waved-/ee<). 1. June. 1818.
ung-ula'ttt (nail-shaped). 2. May. Purple.
vl'ridis (green). 2. 1824.
COUCH GRASS. Agopy'rum re' pens.
A weed, the creeping underground
stems of which render it very difficult
to be destroyed: constantly and care-
fully forking it out of the' soil when-
ever seen and burning it is the most
COULTE'RIA. (Named after Dr. Conl-
ter. Nat. ord., Leguminous Plcnits
[Fabaceas]. Linn., IQ-ltecandria 1-
Monoyynia. Allied to Poineiana).
Stove evergreen shrubs. Peat and loam ;
C. ho'rrida (horrid). 15. Orange. Carthagena.
C. tincto'na (dyer's). 12. Orange. Cartha-
COURSE 'TIA. (Named after Council
a botanist. Nat. ord., Leguminous
Plants [Fabacefe]. IAni\.,l7-Diadelphia
4 Decandria. Allied to Robiuia).
Stove evergreens. Cutting of firm young
shoots, in spring or beginning of summer ; in
sand, under a bell-glass, and in a mild bottom-
heat ; loam and peat, well drained. Summer
temp., 60 to 80 ; winter, 45 to 55.
C, tomento'sa (downy). Yellow. June. Peru.
virga'ta (twiggy). Yellow. June. Trinidad.
COUSI'NIA. (Named after Cousin, a
French hotanist. Nat. ord. v Composites
[Asteracese]. Linn., l9-8yn<jene$ia 1-
j&qualis. Allied to Caiiina).
Hardy plants, Annuals and biennials, by
seeds at the end of March, in the garden-bor-
der ; perennials, by division in autumn or
C. carduifo'rmis (Thistle-form). Purple. July.
Cywn>'oi'des(Cynara-like). White. Caucasus,
Hohenu'keri (Hohenaker's). Yellow. July.
hy'strix (porcupine). Purple. June. Russia.
macrocc'phala (large-headed). Pale yellow.
Caucasus. 1823. Biennial.
tene'lla (tender). Purple. America. 183".
Vclge'nsis (Wolga). Purple. Wolga. 1804.
COUTA'REA. (From Coutari, its name
in Guiana. Nat. ord., Cinchonnds [Gin-
chonacese]. Linn., 5-Pentandria 1-
Monogynla. Allied to Cinchona).
The Cinchona bark of French Guiana is the
| produce of this fine tree. Stove evergreen.
Sandy peat and loam ; cuttings, in heat, under
; glass, in spring months.
j C. specio'sa (beautiful). 12. Purple. Guiana.
COUTOUBE'A. (From Coutonll, its
name in Guiana. Nat. ord., Genllun
irorts [Gentianaeere]. Linn., 4-7V-
trandrla \-Monogynia. Allied to Leian-
thus and Lisianthus).
It is used in Guiana as a substitute for gen-
tian. Stove annual and biennial plants. Sow
in a mixture of loam and peat, early in spring,
in hotbed, frame, or stove.
C. ramo'sa (branchy). 3. White. July. Brazil.
npica'ta (spiked). 2. White. July. Maran.
rerticilla'ta (whorlcd-heudfd). 1. White.
July. Trinidad. 1818. Biennial.
COWA'NIA. (Named after J/n Coicnn.
Nat. ord., Eoseworts [Rosaceoe]. Linn.,
12-Icosandria 3~Trigynia. Allied to
Greenhouse evergreen shrub. Sandy peat
and loam ; propagated by cuttings under glass,
in heat, but not easily.
C. plica'ta (plaited-lcaved). 2. Red. June.
COWBERRY. T'acci'n'ntm vi'tis-idae'a.
COWDIE PINE. Damma'ra austra'lls.
COW-DUNG. See Dung.
COW-GRASS. TriJ'o'lium me'diiim.
COW-HERB. Sapona'ria vacca'ria.
COW-ITCH. Mucu'na u'rens.
COW-ITCH CHEERY. Malpi'ghia u'rens.
COWSLIP. Fri'mula ve'ris. There
are several varieties, varying in colour
from almost white to a very deep yel-
low ; some are single, Imt others are
double, in the form that florists distin-
guish as hose-in-hose, the calyx in these
being converted into a corolla. Some
specimens will produce one hundred
pips upon a single truss, and they have
been known to yield even more than
one hundred and fifty. The cultivation
is the same as that of the Polyanthus.
CRAB, or Wild Apple. Pi/'rus ace'rla.
CRAMBE. Sea-kale. (The Greek
name for Sea-kale. Nat. ord., Cruclfcrs
[Brassicaceee], Linn., In-Tetrad yna-
The Tartar bread, or large fleshy roots of
Crambe tatarica, is eaten in Hungary in slices,
with oil, salt, and vinegar. Hardy herbaceous
rooted perennials, of easy growth in rich garden
soil by root-division, or seeds sown in March.
C. cordifo'lia (heart-leaved). 6. White. May.
ju'ncea (rush-like). 2. White. May. Iberia.
mari'tima (common sea-A'a/e). l. White.
Tata'rifin (Tartarian). 3. White. June.
CRAMBE MAKITIMA or SKA - KALE
should be grown in an open situation.
It is readily increased by division of its
roots, or by seeds, which is the best
mode. Seeds sown towards the end of
INI arch, or beginning of April, in a well
manured and deeply trenched soil, and
lined out into four-feet beds, and with
two-feet alleys between. Sow the seeds
in patches two feet distant from patch
to patch. The patches should be made
by drawing a circular drill about eight
inches in diameter, and two inches
deep. Place therein about eight seeds
at equal distances round, and Avlien the
seedlings are up and well established,
they should be thinned out, leaving
from three to four plants in each patch,
at equal distances, to form the crop.
If the plantation be made from one-
year-old plants, then three plants should
be planted triangularly in each patch,
the patches as before directed, two feet
distant from each other. If the plan-
tation is made with pieces or slips of
crowns, which will do nearly as well,
plant in the same way, and the best
times are the end of March or be-
ginning of April. Should the wea-
ther be dry, watering will be required.
With good attention to earth-stirring
during the summer months, the plants
will be sufficiently strong to force the
following season, and may remain to
cut from for many years.
In soAving for transplanting, the drills
should be at least two feet from drill to
drill, and two inches deep, and seeds
about five inches apart in the drill, and
the seedlings attended to as before,
during the summer.
To force Sea-kale. Some prefer
taking up plants either one or more
year old, and placing the roots care-
fully on a gentle hotbed made up for
the purpose, or carefully planting them
in pots or boxes to be placed in other
warm structures, of course in either
case to be kept in the dark; but we
prefer in all cases to force this veget-
able in the open ground, by inverting
pots over the crowns, and covering over
them dung or leaves. If dung is em-
ployed, it should be well worked, as for
other forcing purposes, but the best
materials for covering the crowns and
pots, are leaves which we yearly col-
lect in a corner for the purpose ; no
turning over is requisite ; a dry calm
day should always be chosen for cover-
ing up, and the whole of the work
should be done at the same time, first
placing the pots all ready to suit each
crown, then with the lime bag give
each crown a good dusting over with
quick-lime, which will destroy all
worms and slugs ; put on the pots im-
mediately, and the warm leaves over
them, The pots should be. covered
with the driest parts first. When
leaves are used, these should be covered
over with some long littery material, to
prevent their being blown about by
winds. The whole covering should be
from a foot to a foot ami half thick
every way round the pots, and put to-
gether snug and tight. We always
make our first covering (to be ready to
cut kale by Christmas day) during the
first fortnight in November. Of course
the weather has something to do with
the covering required. The heat had
better be too low than too high ; the
best temperatures are from f>0 to 60,
and should never exceed Go . "We at
all times use a few coal-ashes, just
enough to cover the crowns. When we
cut the kale, this prevents the slugs,
&c.j eating into the crowns. This re-
mains until cutting ceases, and the ma-
terials and pots are cleared away ; then
the whole is carefully forked over, and
the ashes spread about with the hand,
and all is made tidy for the summer
growth. See Sea -kale.
CRANBERRY. Oxyco'ccus pulu'strix.
CRA'SSULA. (From the diminutive of
trussHs, thick, or succulent ; in refer-
ence to their leaves, c. Nat. ord.,
Honse-leeks [Crassulaeepe]. Linn., ;V
Pentandria J -Munoytjuia).
Greenhouse plants from the Cape of Good
Hope, except where otherwise mentioned.
C. di/u'sa (diffuse). 4. Pink. June. 1774.
expa'nsa (expanded). . White. June. 1774.
gla'bra (smooih-t.-luster). , White. Au-
glomeru'ta (round-headed). $. White. Sep-
Magno'lii (Magnol's). \. White. June.
South Europe. 1800.
moscha'ta (musky). . White. September.
New South Wales. 1794.
pulche'lla (pretty). '. Red. May. 1810.
retrofle'jo. ;bent-back>. \. Yellow. June.
ru'be)is(red}. %. Pink. May. Italy. 1/59.
subula'ta (awl-shaped). J. June. " 18np.
verticilla'ris (whorl-flowered). 4- Pink.
July. South Europe. 1788.
C. aloi'des( Aloe-like l. White. July. 1774.
capltella'ta (small-headed . White, July.
C. centaitroi'des (Centaury-like). J. Pink.
corymbulo'su vsub-corymbed\ 1. White.
lineola'ta (small-lined). .}. Yellow. July.
lingueefo'lia (latchet-leaved\ J. White.
obova'ta (reversed - egg - leaved^ . White.
pertusula (dotted-leared). 1. White, Oc-
spa'rsa (scattered-leaved). $. White. 1774.
iomento'sa (downey). White. April. 1818.
turri'ta (tower-formed). White. March.
EVERGREENS AND HERBACEOUS.
T. acii tlfu'lia (pointed-leaved\ i. White. July.
ulbiflo'ra (white-flowered). $. White. June.
Hi-bore. 1 'scens (tree-like). 3. Pink. May.
bibruftea'tn (two-bracted\ A. White. Au-
mu'jor (larger). \. White. Au-
bicQnve'xa (double-convex. A, White.
biplana'ta (ftzt-sided-lruved^. 1. White.
bullula'ta (small-studded). 1. Yellow.
ri/la'ta (hair-fringed\ i. Yellow. July.
me'dia (mediate). .]. Yellow. July.
mi' nor (smaller). A. Yellow. July.
coctine'lla (small- scarlet). $. Scarlet. July.
columnu'ris (columnar). ^. M'hite. 1789-
conci'nna (neat). ^. White. July. 1818.
corda'ta (riezrt-leuced}. J. Pink. July.
rotyle'donis (Cotyledon-leaved). 1. White.
dt'/e'cta (thrown- down). 1. White. July.
ericoi'des (Heath-Ike). . White. Septem-
filicau'lis (thread-stemmed^. ^. White.
fruticulo'sa (under-shrubby). White.
imbrica'tu (imbricated). 1. White. June.
la'ctea (milky), jj. White. September.
marginn'lis 'marginal). 2. Pale yellow.
nbli'quu (unequal-/eff!'i?</). 4. Red. April.
obtu'sa (blunt-leaved). 4. 1812,
orbicula'ris (round-leaf fd). $. Pink. Au-
gust. 1731. Herbaceous.
perfila'ta 'threaded . 1. Pink. September.
peUu'cida (transparent\ l. Pink. August.
jrtincta'tu ( .dottedi. 1. White. June. 1759.
i-amo'sa (branchyj, 2, Pink. July. 1/74.
L 283 ]
C. ramuliflo'ra (branehlet-flowered), 1. White.
rei-o'lvens (revolving). 1. White. August.
rnsula'ris (small-rosy), i. White. July.
rotund if o'lia (round-leaved). 1. White.
sra'brtt (rough-leaved). $. Pale yellow. June.
,w/iv?7/ (roughish). A. White. 1810.
sputhula'tu (spathulated). . White. Au-
squamula'sa . (scaley). A. White. July. 1817-
Telephioi'rtes (Tele'phium-like). 1. White.
tetrago'nn (four-angled). 2. White. Au-
Culture. Of the annual and biorniul
species the seeds should he sown in
pots in spring, and when the seedlings
will hear handling, separated and
planted singly in other pots. The
same soil suits them as the perennial
succulent species, which are those
most in request. The culture of these is
us follows, whether for bedding-out or
growing constantly under glass. Make
short cuttings, about the end of August
or in September, of the tops of the
young shoots which have not flowered,
and after the cuttings are rooted, place
singly in small pots and grow till the
end of October, when the pots are filled
with roots. From this time to the
end of February keep in a cool green-
house, on a shelf close to the glass, and
give two or three waterings during the
winter. As soon as the plants begin to
move in the spring stop them at about
three or four inches from the pot, and a
few of the top leaves take off, to facilitate
the growth of new shoots. As soon as
these are well formed thin them, so as
to leave but from three to six shoots on
each plant, according to its strength ;
and, as soon as the shoots are two
inches long, shift into pots a si/e or
two larger, in a mixture of yellow loam
and pounded bricks, well drained.
After the spring potting, indulge with
a little more than greenhouse-heat, by
placing them for two or three weeks in
a peach-house or vinery, or a close pit,
to have them in full vigour by the
middle of May, because the earlier in
the summer they complete their annual
growth the more time and sun they
have to finish their ripening process.
About midsummei', or before the be-
j ginning of July, their growth is finished,
I and then turn out of doors, and plunge
; in sand close to the front Avail of a hot-
| house, where the heat in the dog days
j will often range from 80 to 100, and
where little rain can get at them, the
spouting which receives the water from
the roof passing over their heads. The
sand in which they are plunged gets
very hot also, and by watering it occa-
sionally between the pots the roots
are kept sufficiently moist without any
water being given on the soil in the
pots. This treatment is more uniform
and more natural to them than any
mode of pit or greenhouse culture.
On the first indication of frost re-
move into shallow cold pits, where the
lights can be drawn off them every mild
day till the end of November, then
move them to a dry shelf in the green-
house; but they could be wintered in a
dry pit from which the frost could be
During the following spring keep as
cool as possible, being among the first
set of greenhouse plants to be removed
into cold pits when plants begin to grow
in the spring, and about the last plants
to be bedded out at the end of May ;
and they make the most brilliant bed
for the whole season, flowering for six
weeks to two months, according to the
situation of the beds. We prefer the
tall dark scarlet, or old 6'. cocdneu, for
beds, but there are three or four dis
tinct sorts that do equally well in pots.
It often happens that plants with
only two shoots will produce but one
head of bloom, and then the second
shoot will be sure to follow the year
after, and thus a plant may be made to
flower every year.
If this plant with two shoots offers to
i flower on both instead of one, and you
| wish the plant to flower every year, you
j must forego the pleasure of having
' both shoots to flower the first season.
In that case, as soon as you can per-
ceive the flower-buds in the spring, you
must cut down one of the two shoots
and let the other one flower. The lower
down the shoot is cut the better. If
there is only an inch or two of it left,
it is sure to produce three times the
number of young shoots that will be
; -w-i 3
necessary to retain. If you select three |
of the best placed, these will be enough I
for a plant so young, therefore, instead j
of two flower-heads we have only one j
of them, and three others coming \\p \
to flower next season. As soon as the |
single truss of flowers begins to fade, j
about the middle of August, this flower- j
ing shoot must be cut down close like- j
wise, and from it succession shoots will j
be obtained, so that in a large old
specimen there are many flowering
shoots and succession ones growing on
at the same time ; and, as soon as the
plants are done flowering, the shoots
which have borne the flowers are cut
back to different lengths according to
the size or shape the plant is intended
to be grown.
Every morsel of the old shoots cut
off in August will make cntl'tnys, but
the best cuttings are obtained from the
top ends of young vigorous shoots ;
they will root either in heat or cold, at
any time. Abundance of air, strong
sunlight, and plenty of water during
their two months of active growth, but
little during the rerst of the summer
and autumn, and scarcely any in winter,
are the leading principles in their
CRATJE'GUS. The Hawthorn. (From
kratos, strength ; in reference to the
strength and hardness of the wood.
Nat. ord., Appleworts [Pomacea?].
Linn., 12-Icosatnh-ia S-Di-pentagynia).
The family of thorns furnishes a greater num-
ber of handsome small trees for ornamental
grounds than any other woody family whatever.
They are all white-blossomed, except where
we have mentioned otherwise ; but they vary in
another beauty the colour of their fruit ; and
this, as far as we know, we have particularized.
Young plants are obtained from seed sown in