they then enjoy a genial warmth with-
out suffering from the meridian sun.
The border being dug regularly over,
and saucer-like hollows, about fifteen
inches in diameter and one or two de?p,
[ 290 ]
lormed five feet apart, the seed may be
sown six or eight in each.
Seed may also be sown beneath a
hedge of similar aspect, and the plants
either trained to it or to bushy branches
placed perpendicular. If the weather
be dry, it is requisite to Avater the
patches moderately, two or three days
after sowing. In four or five days, if
the season be genial, the plants will
make their appearance, and until they
have attained their rough leaves,
should be guarded from the small
birds, who will often destroy the whole
crop by devouring the seminal leaves.
If the season be cold and unfavour-
able, plants may be raised in pots under
a frame or hand-glasses, as directed for
those crops ; to be thence transplanted,
when of about a month's growth, or
when the third rough leaf appears, into
the open ground, shelter being afforded
them during the night. Water must
be given every two or three days, in
proportion to the dryness of the season,
applying it during the afternoon or
early in the morning.
Only three or four plants may be
allowed to grow together in a patch,
and these pressed far apart. The train-
ing must be as carefully attended to as
for the other crops, but stopping is
seldom necessary, as the plants are
rarely super -luxuriant. They will
come into production in August and
To obtain Seed. For the production
of seed, some fruit must be left of the
earliest forced production, as this is
found to vegetate and produce fruit in
much less time than that raised under
hand-glasses, from whence the seed
for the open ground crops is usually
obtained. The fruit that is left to pro-
duce seed should grow near the root,
and upon the main stem, not more than
one being left on a plant. They must
remain as long as the seed can obtain
any nourishment from the plant, which
it does whilst the footstalk remains
green; when this withers, and the rind
of the cucumber lias attained its full
yellow hue, they may be gathered and
reared in the sun until they begin to
decay. The seed then being .scraped
out into a vessel, allowed to remain I'm-
eight or ten days, and frequently stirred
until the pulp attached to it is decayed,
may be cleansed by frequent agitation
in water ; the refuse rises to the top
and passes away with the liquid.
Being thoroughly dried by exposure
to the air for three or four days it
is then fit for storing. Seed three or
four years old is found to be best for
use, producing less luxuriant, but more
Propagation by Cuttings. Cuttings
five or six inches in length, taken from
the tops of bearing branches of vigorous
plants, about the end of September, or
early in October, planted in pots of rich
mould and plunged in a hotbed or bark-
bed in a stove, will take root, if regu-
larly watered, in less than a fortnight,
and may then be planted in a hotbed
for fruiting, Avhich they will do as soon
as the roots can support them, perfect-
ing the fruit before Christmas. They
may thus be had in succession, and
being propagated from year to year,
are rendered as it were perennial. The
plants are less succulent, and conse-
quently less liable to damp off, or suffer
from the low temperature to which they
are liable to be exposed in severe sea-
sons. Mr. Mearns puts four inches
and a half of mould in pots nine inches
deep, in which the cuttings are planted
and watered, the tops of the pots being
covered with fiat pieces of glass, which
answers the purpose of a hand-light,
whilst the sides of the pot afford a suf-
ficient shade until the roots are formed.
When the plants have afforded their
first crop, any small fruit must not be
waited for, but the plants be cut back
to the lowest shoot, the mould gently
stirred, and a little fresh spread over
the surface ; the same attention must
be paid them as before, when they will
shoot afresh and produce a good crop.
Diseases. The cucumber is liable to
be attacked by the mildew, canker, yum-
ntiiHj (extravasated sap), and dvfunnity.
See those articles. The fruit is also
liable to bitterness, an ill quality usually
removed by increasing the temperature,
and exposure to the light. It arises
from an imperfect elaboration of the
juices; those in the neck of the cu-
cumber being least digested, are always
[ 297 ]
more bitter than in any other part of
Insects. See Aphis, steams, and
Thrips. For Melon culture see Melon.
CUCUMBER TREE. Mayno'lla. acumi-
nattt, and Averrho'a bili'mbi.
CUCU'RBITA. Goui'd. (From cnrbifa,
a gourd. Nat. ord., Cucurbits [Cu-
curbitacene] . Linn., 21-Moncecia 10-
Half-hardy trailing annuals, requiring the
same culture as the cucumber.
C. aumnti'aca (orange -fruited). 3. Yellow.
ora'ngina (false orange). 3.
Yellow. July. 1802.
3. Yellow. July. 180'2.
ma'xima (largest). 4. Yellow. July.
melope'po ( melon -pum kin. Squash). 3.
Yellow. June. 1597-
moxcha'ttt (musky). 4. Yellow. July.
ovi'fera (egg-shape). 3. Yellow. August.
gri'sea (grey- fruited). 3. Yellow.
pyrifo'rmis (pear-form fruited). 3.
subglobo'sa (subglobe- fruited). 3.
Pe'po (Pumkin). 1(5. Yellow. July. Le-
oblo'nga (oblong-fruited). 6. Yellow.
subrotu'nda (nearly-Tounci-fruited). 6.
Yellow. July. Levant. 1/50.
po'tira (potiron, large-fruited}. 10. Yellow.
gourge'ra (gourd-bearing). 10. Yellow.
vi'ridis (green potiron). 10. Yellow.
verruco'sa (warty). 12. Yellow. June. 1658.
C.ULCA'SIA. (Derivation same as Colo-
eaaia. Nat. ord., Arads [Araceee]. Linn.,
%\-Moncecia. 7-Heptandria. Allied to
Stove climber. For culture, see Colocasia,
C. sca'ndens (climbing). White. Guinea. 1822.
CCLLUMBINE, or COLUMBINE. Aqili-
CUMIN. Layce'cia cinninoi'des.
CUMI'NUM CYMI'NUM. Common Cu-
min, an annual, native of Egypt, bearing
white flowers, and belonging to the
Nat. ord., Uiiibcllifcfs. It is cultivated
for its aromatic seeds. Sow in a warm
situation in March, in a rich light soil ;
the plants flower in June, and ripen
their seeds in the autumn.
CCMMI'NGIA. (Named after the late
L;nh/ Gordon Cummin ff, of Altyre, in
Moray shire. Nat. ord., Lily worts [Lili-
acere]. Linn.. 6-Hexandria 1-Mono-
(jijnla. Allied to Conanthera).
Beautiful little half-hardy bulbs from Chili,
which succeed best in a light rich border in
front of a greenhouse, with Ixias, Brodiseas,
Zephyranthes, Anomathecas, and the like. Off-
sets ; loam and peat.
C. campanula 1 ta (\x\\-flowered). 3. Blue.
tene'lla (delicate). . Blue. November.
trimacula'ta (three-spotted). <J. Blue. De-
CU'XILA, (After a town of that name.
Nat. ord., Labiates [Lamiacea^]. Linn.,
%-Diandria \-Monoyynia. Allied to
Balm and Mint).
North American hardy herbaceous perennials ;
root divisions ; in loam and peat.
C. cocci'nea (scarlet). 1A. Scarlet. September.
Harin'na (Maryland). 1. Red. September.
CUNNIXGHA'MIA. Broad-leaved China
Fir. (In honour of two brothers, ,1.
and A. Cunningham, British botanists
in Australia. Nat. ord., Conifers [Pi-
naceee]. Linn., 21-Moncvcia IQ-Mona-
delphia. Allied to the Spruce Fir.)
Greenhouse evergreen tree, but in some situa-
tions hardy ; light soil, well drained ; cuttings
can be rooted, but seldom make handsome
plants ; seedlings are best.
C. sine'nsis (Chinese). 40. China. 1804.
CUNO'NIA. (Named after .7. C. Cuno,
of Amsterdam. Nat. ord., Cunoniads
[Cunoniaceoe]. Linn., \Q-Decandria 2-
Greenhouse evergreen tree ; loam and peat ;
cuttings in sand, under glass, in heat.
C. Cape'nsis (Cape). 20. White. August. Cape
of Good Hope. 1816.
CUPA'NIA. (Named after F. F. Cit-
pani, an Italian Monk who wrote on
botany. Nat. ord., Soapworts [Sapin-
dacea3]. Linn., 8-Octandria 1-Mono-
yyniu. Allied to Sapindus.)
Stove evergreen trees, all with white flowers ;
loam and peat ; cuttings of half-ripe shoots in
sand, under glass, in heat. Summer temp., Co
to 85 ; winter, 55 to 60.
C. cane'scens (hoary). 16. East Indies. 1818.
denta'ta (toothed). 12. Mexico. 1824.
~ exce'lsu (lofty). 20. Mexico. 1824.
gla' bra (smooth). 14. May. Jamaica. 1822.
sa'pidu (savoury. Akee-tree). 20. Africa.
saponarioi'dcs (Saponaria-like). 6. April.
West Indies. 1810.
C 298 ]
C. setl'gera (bristly). 20. November. C. Moret
tomento'sa (downy). 15. West Indies. 1818.
CU'PHEA. (From kriphos, curved ;
referring to the form of the seed- pods.
Nat. orcl., Loosestrifes [Lythracens].
Linn., 1 1 - Dodecandria 1 - Monoyj/n la.
Allied to Ly thrum.)
Dry rich soil ; seeds ; and cuttings in the
C. circteoi'des (Circae-like). p. Purple. Sep.
tember. South America. 1821, Green-
parviflo'ra (small-flowered). $. Pink. No-
vember. Demerara. 1824. Stove.
procii'mbens (lying-down). 1. Pale purple.
August. Mexico. 1816. Stove.
silcnoi'des (Silene-like). l. Bluish. Sep-
tember. 1836. Hardy.
spica'tu (spiked). Rose. Peru. 1819. Hardy.
viscosi'ssima (clammiest). 1. Purple. July.
America. 1776. Greenhouse.
virga'ta (twiggy). l. Purple. August.
Mexico. 1824. Greenhouse.
STOVE <fc GREENHOUSE EVERGREENS, &C.
C. corda'ta (heart-seated). 1-J. Scarlet. June.
deca'ndru (ten-stamened). 1^. Purple. July.
gra'cilis (slender). 1. Purple. July.
lanceola'ta (spear-head-feawed). l. Purple.
Mexico. 1796. Stove biennial.
Lla'vea (Llave's). l. Purple. June.
Mexico. 1830. Greenhouse.
MeM'lla (Melville's). 3. Scarlet. August.
Guiana. 1823. Herbaceous perennial.
micr ope' tola (small- petaled). 1. Purple.
July. Mexico. 1824.
minia'ta (vermilion-co/OMred flower]. Pur-
ple, crimson. June.
purpu'rea (purple-flowered.') l.
Purplish. June. 1847.
multiflo'ra (many-flowered). 1^. Purple.
September. Trinidad. 1820.
platyce'ntra (broad-centered). 1^. Scarlet,
white. June. Mexico. 1845. Green-
a'lba (white-flowered). 1$. White.
racemo'sa (r&ceme-flowered). 1. Purple.
June. West Indies. 1820.
serpyllifo'lia (Thyme-leaved). 14. Red.
August. Trinidad. 1822.
strigillo'sa (coarse-haired). 1^. Yellow, red.
July. Andes. Greenhouse.
CU'PIA. See Styldco'rync.
CUPRE'SSUS. Cypress. (From kuu,
to produce, and parisus, equal ; in re-
ference to the symmetrical growth of
the Italian cypress C. setnpervirens.
Nat. ord., Conifers [Pinaceee]. Linn.,
2l-MoHcecia \Q-Monadciphlu. i
Evergreen trees ; hardy, unless otherwise
stated ; rich loamy soil ; and readily increased
from seeds ; can be raised from cuttings.
C. Austra'lis (south. Slender-branched). 10.
April. New Holland. Greenhouse.
baccifo'rmis (beny-shaped). 20. May. 1818.
Coulte'ri (Coulter's) . May. Mexico. 1838.
fune'bris (funebral). 50. April. China. 1849.
Govenia'na (Mr. Gowen's). 10. April. Ca-
litsita'nica (Portuguese. Cedar of Gou). 50.
April. Goa. 1683. Greenhouse.
macroca'rpa (large-fruited). 60. California.
pe'ndula (hanging-down). 20. May. Japan.
semperri'rens (com mon evergreen). 20. May.
horizonta'Hs (horizontal). 30.
May. Mediterranean. 1834.
stri'cta (erect). 20. May.
variega'ta (variegated". 20.
May. England. 1848.
thuri'fera (franckincense -bearing). 100.
Tfiyoi'des (Thya-like. White Cedar}. 20.
May. North America. 1736.
/o'/u's - variega'tis (variegated
leaved). April. Ireland. 1831.
lomlo'sa (twisted, Bhotan\ 30. Nepaul.
Uhdea'na, (Uhde's). 60. Mexico. Green-
CURATE 'LLA. (From kn-rcno, to shave ;
in reference to the leaves being covered
with asperities so hard as to render
them fit for polishing. Nat. ord., />//-
le iiiads [Dilleniacefe]. Linn., l.'J-Pofy-
andi-ia 'l-Uiyyniu. AUied to Delima.)
Stove evergreen shrubs ; sandy loam and peat ;
cuttings in sand, under glass, in heat.
C. ala'ta (winged leaf -stalked}. 8. White.
Americu'na (American). 8. White. South
CURCU'LIGO. (From curculio, a wee-
vil ; the seeds have a point like the
rostrum, or beuk, of the weevil. Nat.
ord., Hypoxids [Hypoxidaceee]. Linn.,
to-Hexandria \-Monoyyniu. )
Hypoxids are distinguished from Amaryllids
by the absence of bulbs, and by their harsh and
hairy leaves. Stove herbaceous perennials, ex-
cept one ; sandy loam and peat ; offsets.
C. brevifo'lia (short-leaved). $. Yellow. June.
East Indies. 1804.
latifo'lia (broad-leaved). 1,^. Yellow. Poolo
Orcftioi'des( Orchis-like). ^. Yellow. June.
East Indies. 1800.
plica'ta (yl&ited-leaved) . l. Yellow. June.
Cape of Good Hope. 1788. Greenhouse.
gla'bra (smooth), li. Yellow. June,
Cape of Good Hope. 1788. Greenhouse.
[ 299 ]
C, recurna'tu (rolled-back-tefl vect), 1. Yellow.
Sumatra'na (Sumatran). 3. Yellow. July.
CUECULIO. This destructive genus
of Beetles are popularly known as
Weevils. The following are some of
the chief species :
C. alliarice. Stem-boring Weevil.
Steel-green colour. Bores the shoots
and grafts of young fruit-trees. Ap-
pears in June and July.
C. bacchus. Purple or Apple Weevil.
Pierces the fruit of the apple, deposit-
ing within it its eggs. June and July.
C. letuleti. Vine Weevil. Colour,
steel-blue. Attacks the leaf, rolling it
up as a nest for its eggs. The pear is
liable to its attacks also. Appears in
June arid July.
C. cupreus. Copper-coloured Weevil.
Attacks the leaves and young shoots of
the plum and apricot, as well as their
fruit. June and July.
C. lineatus. Striped Pea Weevil.
Every gardener must have observed
the edges of the young leaves of his
peas, and sometimes of his beans, eaten
away in scollops, or semicircular pieces.
This is often done by the Sltona tibialis,
but still more frequently by another of
the short-snouted beetles, Cim-nlto
lineatus. In Scotland it is commonly
called "the Cuddy," or Donkey, from
its grey colour. In our drawing it is
magnified, but the line by its side
shows the natural length. The whole
body is grey, and marked with black
lines ; the antennte reddish ; the eyes
black. They survive the winter shel-
tered beneath moss, &c., and in bad
weather at all seasons retire under
stones, only to reappear with the sun-
C. mamlarius. Spotted Weevil. Grey
colour. April. Also destroys the pea.
Soot or lime sprinkled over peas early
in the morning before the dew is off
from them, and so thickly as to cover
the soil about them, would probably
save them. To mitigate the attack of
the weevils upon trees, the only mode
is to spread a sheet beneath them, to
shake each branch, and to destroy
those beetles which fall. They usually
feed at night.
C. nucum. Nut Weevil, of which the
maggot is so frequent in our filberts.
Mr. Curtis thus describes it : " The
insect is brown, with darker bands ; is
about a quarter of an inch long, and
has a long horny beak, about the mid-
dle of which are placed antenna?. When
the nut is in a young state the female
weevil deposits a single egg. The
maggot is hatched in about a fortnight,
and continues feeding in the interior of
the nut till it is full grown, when the
nut falls. The maggot has no legs, nor,
indeed, has it any use for them, being
hatched in the midst of its food ; and
when the nut remains on the tree, it
forces itself out of the hole it eats in
the nut, and falls almost immediately
to the ground. The only remedy we
are aware of is, in the course of the
summer to frequently shake the trees,
which will cause all the eaten nuts to
fall to the ground, when they must be
collected and burned."
C. oblonym. Oblong Weevil. Red-
dish-brown colour. Feeds on the young
leaves of the peach, apricot, plum, pear,
and apple. Appears in May.
C. picipes is a dull black, and is very
injurious in the vinery.
C. pomorum. Apple Weevil. Colour,
dark brown. Attacks the blossom of
the apple, and often destroys the whole
crop. More rarely it attacks the pear
blossom. Appears in March and April.
C. pyri. Pear Weevil. Dark brown,
very like the apple weevil. April.
C.snlcatus. During the winter months,
succulent plants, such as Sedums, &c.,
become sickly, and die apparently with-
out a cause. They are thus destroyed
by a small, footless grub feeding upon
them just below the surface of the
earth. This grab is about half an inch
[ 300 ]
long, colour dirty white, fleshy, slightly
curved, bristly, and without legs, but
furnished at the sides with tubercles,
which aid it in moving. At the latter
part of May, these grubs enter the
chrysalis state, becoming white, and
having the appearance of the body of a
beetle stripped of its wings, and in a
mummy state. From this state the
perfect insect comes forth, at the end
of June, in the form of a small beetle,
as pictured in the accompanying draw-
ing, but not longer than the curved line
by its side. It is black, slightly glossy,
numerously granulated, so as to re-
semble shagreen, and a few pale-grey
hairs scattered over it. The best mode
of saving succulents from this pest is
to have it very assiduously sought for
among them during the month of June.
If the beetles are allowed to deposit
their eggs, the mischief is done.
C. tanebricosus infests the apricot.
Mr. Curtis says, that " every crevice in
old garden-walls often swarms with
these weevils; and nothing would
prove a greater check to their increase
than stopping all crevices or holes in
walls with mortar, plaster of Paris, or
Roman cement, and the interior of hot-
houses should be annually washed with
lime ; the old bark of the vines under
which they lurk, should be stripped off
early in the spring, and the roots ex-
amined in October, when they exhibit
any unhealthy symptoms from the
attacks of the maggots of (7. sttlcatus.
When the larva} are ascertained to re-
side at the base of the wall, salt might
be freely sprinkled, which will kill thorn
as readily as it will the maggots in
nuts ; strong infusions of tobacco-
water, aloes, and quassia are also re-
CURCU'MA. Turmeric. (From kur-
ktun, its Arabic name. Nat. ord., Giu-
gcrworts [Zinziberacesc]. Linn. 1-
Most of the species possess the same aro-
matic stimulating properties in the roots, or
rhizomes, and seeds, as the common ginger, and
are objects of some beauty from their coloured
bracts. Stove herbaceous perennials ; rich
sandy loam ; root division.
C. eerugino'sa (bronzed). 5. Red, yellow. May.
East Indies. 1807.
nma'da (Amada-ginger). 2. Red, yellow.
April. Bengal. 18HJ.
j amari'sshna (most bitter). Red, yellow.
April. East Indies. 1822.
| ungustifu'lia (narrow-leaved). 3. Yellow.
July. East Indies. 1822.
I aroma' i tea (aromatic). 2. Yellow. June.
East Indies. 1804.
cai'sia (ffrey). 1. Yellow. May. Bengal.
como'tta (tufted-flowered}. 2. Red, yellow.
May. East Indies. 181Q.
ela'ta (tall). 3. Crimson. May. East Indies.
ferrugi'nea (rusty). 1. Yellow. May. East
latifo'lia (broad-leaved). 12. Yellow. May.
East Indies. 1820.
leucorhi'za (white-rooted). 1. Red, yellow.
May. East Indies. 1819.
lo'nga (\oi\s-rooted). 2. August. East
tnonta'nu (mountain). 2. Red, white. May.
East Indies. 1824.
parvifln'ra (small-flowered). J. White,
violet. January. Prome. 1S28.
petiolu'ta (frmg'-nower-stalkcd). 2. Blue.
August. Pegu. 1822.
Roscam'na (Mr. Roscoe's). 1. Scarlet.
September. East Indies. 1837.
recUna'ta (leaning). . Pink. April. East
rube'scens (blushing). 3. Red. July. East
rubrictui'lis (red-stemmed). 1. Yellow.
May. East Indies. 1822.
viridijlo'ra (green-flowered). 2. Yellow,
green. July. Sumatra. 1822.
xanthorhi'xa (yeliovv-rooted). 4. Red. May.
xcdoa'riii (Zedoary). 3. Red. July. East
zeru'mbet (Zerumbet). 3. Yellow. July.
East Indies. 1807.
CURRANTS. THE RED, JH'be's ru'-
brum ; THE WHITE, R. rn'brum, var.
album; and THE BLACK, or li. ni'tjrum,
are all deciduous shrubs. The culture
of the RED and WHITE differs in some
degree from that of the BLACK.
lied Varieties. The following are
the best j
C 301 ]
Eccl Dutch. Fine fruit ; bunch very
White Dutch. Very large and juicy
Knight's Sweet Eed. As its name
Knight's Large Eed. Said to be
larger than Eed Dutch.
Houghton Castle Eed or Goliath.
Said to be both late and fine.
Eed Dutch. A good kind ; bushes
short, but berries large and sweet.
While Varieties. Common White ;
Pearl White; and White Dutch, the
last being the largest and best.
Propagation : by Cuttings. This is
the ordinary way. Young shoots of the
most vigorous and straight wood are to
be preferred ; shoots of this description
should be preserved at the early au-
tumn pruning, and all the immature
portion at the point being pruned away,
the best of the remainder must form
the cutting, and it should be at least
one foot in length if fourteen inches,
all the better; blind all the eyes or
buds below the surface of the ground,
to prevent suckers springing up; for
these cuttings will emit roots from the
internodes or points between the joints.
Cuttings placed in a somewhat shaded
situation, and fastened tolerably firm
in the soil, will make two or three
shoots the first summer. They may be
put in rows eighteen inches apart ; the
cuttings about eight inches apart in
the rows. In the succeeding autumn
prune the shoots they have made back
to about four or five eyes or buds on
each, and by the succeeding autumn
they will be fine bushes, possessing
some six or eight shoots each, from
which a selection must be made, for on
this depends the future form of the tree.
It is seldom that more than five shoots
can be retained; indeed, sometimes
the shoots are produced so irregularly,
that not more than three can be saved
standing of course nearly in a trian-
gular form. However, only those
should be reserved which are really
well placed, not only with regard to
form, but their distance apart. In
forming the bush, let there be no cen-
tral shoot left, but let the whole, if
possible, form either a triangle, if
three; a square, if four; or a bowl- like
character in fact, about the form of a
good tulip, if more than four. The
trees are now ready for their final des-
tination, if necessary, or they will stand
another year before final removal.
By Layers. This is seldom resorted
to ; if, however, any one should possess
a choice seedling of which he is de-
sirous to make much profit, he might
elevate the soil to the branches, as in
the act of layering carnations, and lay
the shoots for propagation fiat on the
surface, cutting a notch below each
bud, pegging the shoot down, and soil-
ing it over about an inch; every bud
becomes a shoot with a root.
By Seed. This is resorted to for the
sake of raising new varieties. Sow the
seeds as soon as ripe, and in the spring
place them in a hotbed; the plants
Avill grow above a foot high the same
season. Many of them fruit at two
years old, and nearly all at three.
Suckers. They grow readily from
suckers ; there is little doubt but that
plants thus reared are more liable to
produce suckers than those from cut-
Soil. The Eed and White currants
love a free upland soil ; a clayey soil is
too cold, and a very sandy one is too
hungry. Water lodgments they are
quite averse to.
Culture in growing period, In the
first place, if the soil is liable to suffer
from drought, let a top-dressing of half-
decayed manure, or littery material, be
spread three inches thick over their
roots, at the end of May, after rain.
The next point is " stop," or remove,
what is termed the watery wood. All
shoots growing into the interior of the
bush, to the exclusion of light and air,
may be cut back when about nine inches
in length ; far enough to render the
centre of the bush completely open.
This will be necessary about the mid-
dle of June. In about another fort-
night, the watery or wild-looking breast
spray all round the exterior, may be
pruned back to within four inches of
their base. This leaves a regular tuft