j under a hand-glass, or strong shoots may be
planted in a sheltered place in autumn. Are
line ornaments to a wall in the early summer
months ; common soil.
| D. corymbo'sa (coryrah-flowering), 5. White.
I gra'cilis (slender). White. April. Japan.
j sungui'iwa (red-flowered). Red. April.
sca'bra (rough-leaved). 6. May. Japan.
i stami'nea (AroflwZ-stamened). 3. White.
April. Himalayas. 1841.
DEVOXSIIIRINCT. See Parliuj and
DjlW-BEKllV. jRlt'bllS Ctf'xiltS.
CIACA'LPK. (From dis, two, or double,
and calpis, an urn ; referring to the dis-
position of the spore cases or seed
vessels. Nat. ord., Ferns [Polypodi-
acete]. Linn., %-Crypto(jamia \+FUiiCs.
Allied to Woodsia.)
Stove fern. Division ; peat and loam. Sum-
mer temp,, 60 to 85 ; winter, 50 to 55.
D. aspidioi'des (Aspidium-like). Yellow. July,
DIAXE'LLA. (A classical diminutive
from Diana, the goddess of hunting;
the first discovered species being found
in a grove. Nat. ord., LUyivorts [Lilia
cere]. Linn., (J-Hexandria l-Monv-
Greenhouse or frame bulbs. They would
answer in a mixed border of half-hardy bulbs
in front of a stove or greenhouse, with Anthe-
ricums, Albucas, Blandfordias. Cummingias,
and the like. All from New Holland, and with
blue flowers, except where specified. Seeds
sown in u slight hotbed in spring ; and division ;
loam and peat. Summer temp., 65 to /5 ;
winter, 40 to 48.
D. ceEm'le.a (sky-blue). 2. June. 1783.
r.onge'sta (crowded). 2. June. 1820.
divarica'ta (straggling). 3. July. 1805.
ensifo'lia (sword-leaved). ]. White. Au-
gust. East Indies. 1731.
' Ice' vis (smooth). 2. August. 1822.
longifo'lia (long-leaved). 2. August. 1822.
tiernoro'sa (grove). 2. August. East Indies.
revolu'ta (rolled-back). 2. August. 1823.
strumo'sa (swollen). i.i- March. 1822.
[ 325 ]
DIANTHOI'DIS. (Dianthus-Iike ; so
named from its flowers resembling the
Pink. Nat. ord., Phloxworts [Polemo-
niacepe]. Linn., S-Pentandrht 1-Mono-
Some have ventured to change its name to
Fenzlia, Hardj r annual from California. Seeds
in open border, in April, or in a slight hotbed
in March, to be afterwards transplanted in
patches ; sandy loam.
D. dianthiflo'ra (Pink-flowered). . Purple,
yellow. June. 1833.
DIA'NTHUS. Pink. ( From dios, divine,
and finthos, a flower. Nat. ord., Clove-
worts [C'aryophylaceae], Linn., IQ-De-
cfin drla 2 -Diyyn'ta . )
Seeds, divisions, and cuttings, under a hand-
light, in light soil, any time about midsummer.
The tender hinds should be kept in pots, and
protected in a cold pit during the winter. See
Carnation, Pink, and Sweet William,
HARDY ANNUALS AND BIENNIALS.
D. aggregu'tus (crowded). 1. Pink. June.
Arme'ria (Armeria). 1. Red. June. Eng-
Armerioi'des (Armeria-Kke). 1. Red. June.
New Jersey. 1826.
Chine'nsis (China). 1. Red. July. China.
margina'tus (bordered). J. White. July.
South Europe. 1820. Biennial.
pro'lifer (proliferous). jj. Pink. July.
pube'scens (downy). 1. Red. July, Greece.
velu'ttmt* (velvety \ Red. May. Calabria.
D. a'lbem( whitish). f. Whits. August. Cape
of Good Hope. 1/8/.
arbo'reus (tree). l. Pink." July. Greece.
arbu'scula (little tree). l. Red. July.
China. 1824. Evergreen.
crenaftns (scolloped). 1. Flesh. .August.
Cape of Good Hope. 1817.
frutico'sus (shrubby Carnation), 3. Pink.
July. Greece-. 1815. Evergreen.
-^japo'mcitN (Japanese), l. Pink. June.
jitniperi'mw (Juniper-like). Red. July.
suffnttico'mH (half-shrubby). l. Pink.
August. Siberia. 1804. Evergreen.
D, alpe'stris (rock). . Red. June. Europe.
Alpi'nus (Alpine). $. Red. June. Austria.
arena 1 rius (sand). 2. Purple. August.
ft'sper (rough-sfaMrerf). $. Pink. July.
D. atroru'bens (dark-red). 1. Crimson. Au-
gust. Italy. 1802.
attenua'tus (tapering). . Red. July.
Balbi'tiii (Balbis's). 1. Red. August.
barba'tus (bearded. Sweet William}. 1^,
Pink. July. Germany. 15/3.
latifo'lius (broad-leaved). lj. Scar-
let. July. 1826.
bi' color (two-coloured). 1. Pink. July.
biflo'rus (two-flowered). Red. June. Greece.
bre'vis (short). Red. June. Jurassa.
Buchtorme'nsis (Buchtormian). 1. Red.
July. Russia. 1826.
ceR'sius (grey). . Flesh. July. Britain,
campe'stris (field). 1. White, red. .August.
capita' tus (headed). l. Purple. August.
Carolinia'nus (Carolina). 1. Purple. June.
North America. 1811.
Carthusiano'rum (Carthusians'). l. Red.
July. Germany. 1573.
Caryophylloi'des (Clove-like). 1. Red. June.
Caryopliy'llus (Clove). 2. Flesh. June.
flo're-ple'no (double. Carna-
tion}. 2. Crimson. August. England.
frutico'sus (shrubbyCarnation) .
3. Crimson. July. England.
^ imbrica'tns (imbricated. Wheat'
ear}. l. Flesh. August. England.
Cnuca'sicus (Caucasian). 1. Purple. July.
cephalo'ten (headed). l. Pink. July.
cilia 1 tux (hair- fringed). l. Pink. July.
clava'tus (club-shaped). 1; Flesh. July.
colli'nus (hill). . White. August. Hun-
Cy'ri (Cyri's). Red. June. Natolia. 1843.
deltoi'des (triangle), jj. Flesh. June. Bri-
denta'tus (toothed). 1. Red. July. Siberia.
diffu'sus (wide-spreading). l, Red. July.
\ diminutus (small -flowered} . . Pink. July.
South Europe. 1/71.
! di'scolor (two-coloured). 1. Pink. August.
diuti'nus (long-lasting). Red. June. Hun-
divarica'tus (straggling). 1. Purple. Au-
gust. Greece. 1822.
du'bius (doubtful). White rose. May.
e'leguns (eleeant). Red. June. Levant.
erube'scens (blushing). Blush. July. Pyre-
femtgi'neus (rusty). Brown. July. Italy.
14. Sulphur. August. Italy. 1836.
fimbria'tus (fringed). l. Brown. July.
Fische'ri (Fischer's). 1'. Red. June. Russia.
[ 326 ]
D. Fische'rt a'lbus (white). 1 J. White. Au-
gust. Gardens. 1830.
fra'grans (fragrant). 1. White. August.
->furca'tus (forked). 1, Pale red. July.
ga'llicus (French). 3. Purple. August.
giga'nteus (gigantic). 3. Purple. August.
glacia'lis (icy). . Red. June. South
glaucophy' llus (milky-green-leaved). l.
Red. July. 1827.
glau'cus (milky-green). . White. June.
gutta'tus (spotted). 1. Red. July. Cau-
Hendersonia'nus (Henderson's). 1. Crimson.
hi'rtus (hairy). 1. Red. July. France. 1821.
Hornema'nni (Hornemann's). 1. Red.
horte'nsis (garden). ). Red. July. Hun-
Hyssopifo'lius (Hyssop-leaved). -J. Pink.
August. Europe. 1810.
Ibe'ricus (Iberian). A. Purple. July.
latifo'lms (broad-leaved). l. Pink. June.
leptope' talus (fine-petaled). l. White.
June. Caucasus. 1814.
Libano'tis (Rosemary-like). 4. White. July.
Liboschitzia'nus (Liboschitz's). . White.
July. Tauria. 1817.
longicau'lis (long-stemmed). 1. White.
August. Italy. 1820.
monad&lphus (monadelphous). 1. White,
pink. August. Levant.
monspessula'mis (Montpelier). 1. Red.
July. Montpelier. 1/64.
montn'nus (mountain). 3. Red. July.
multipuncta'tus (many-dotted). Spotted.
June. Levant. 1825.
Mussi'ni (Mussini's). . White. June.
na'nns (dwarf). f. Crimson. August.
ni'tidus (shining). 1. Red. July. Car-
ochroleu'cus (yellowish-white). Yellow.
June. Levant. 1821.
pallidiflo'rus (pale-flowered). 1. Purple.
July. Siberia. 1817.
petrat'us (rock). White. July. Hungary
ered). . Pink. June. 1804.
Pniretia'nus (Poiret's). 1. Purple. August.
flo're-ple'no (double-flowered). 1 .
Purple. April. Greece. 1820.
polymo'rphus (many-form). 1. Red. March.
pomeridia'nus (afternoon). 1. Yellow. July.
pluma'rius (feathered). . White, purple.
July. South Europe. 1629.
plumo'sus (feathery). l. White, lilac.
June. M. Bald.
D.prate'nsis (meadow). 1. White, yellow.
August. Crimea. 1820.
prostra'tus (prostrate). . Red. Septem-
ber. Cape of Good Hope. 1824. Ever-
Pseud-Arme'ria (False Armeria). 1. Purple.
August. Crimea. 1820.
pulche'llus (pretty). 1. White, red. June.
puncta'tus (dotted). 1. Pale lilac. August.
pu'ngens (pungent). ). Pink. August.
renews (creeping). Red. Siberia. 1825.
ri'gidus (stiff), g. Red: July. Caspian
fupico'la (rock-inhabiting). 1. Red. June.
ruthe'nimis (Russian). 1. Purple. June.
saxa'tilis (rock). . White. June. South
Seguie'rii (Seguier's). Switzerland. 1832.
sero'tinus (laie-flowering). 1. Purple.
August. Hungary. 1804.
seiTa'tits (saw-edged). 1. Pink. June.
Si'culus (Sicilian). 1. Red. August. Sicily.
spino'sus (spiny). 2. Pink. July. Mount
squarro'sus (spreading) . . White. June.
Sternbe'rgii (Sternberg's). 1^. Red. June.
suave'olens (sweet-smelling). 1. White.
sua'vis (sweet). 1. Pink. July.
supe'rbus (superb). 2. White. August.
sylva'ticus (wood). Ij. Red. June. Ratis-
sylve'stris (wild). 1. Red. July. South
Tau'ricus (Taurian). 1. Pink. July. Tauria.
te'ner (tender). \. Red. August. Europe.
umbella'tus (umbel -flowered). Red. July.
versi'color (changeable-coloured). l. Red.
August. Russia. 1823.
virgi'neus (Virgin). 1. Red. June. Mont-
DIAPE'NSIA. (From dis, two, or twice,
and pcnte, five; five sepals compose
the calyx, and five stamens with petal-
like filaments. Nat. ord., Diapensiads
[Diapensiaeere]. Linn., <)-Pentundr'm
An extremely rare Alpine prostrate little
under shrub, from Lapland, yet it requires the
protection of a frame in winter, to compensate
for the winter covering of snow in its native
climate. Seeds or division of the plant ; peat
and loam ; a dry situation on a bank in sum-
mer ; and a dry corner in a cold pit in winter,
D. Luppo'nica (Lapland). . White. July.
DJASTE'MA. (From dis, two, and
[ 327 ]
stemon, a stamen. Nat. ord., Gesner-
worts [Gesneraceee]. Linn., 1-i-Didy-
namia 2-Anyiospennla, Allied to Con-
Stove herbaceous perennial. Divisions ; cut-
tings of its young shoots, when two or three
inches in length, after commencing to grow ;
peat and loam. Summer temp., 60 to 85;
winter, 48 to 55.
D. ochroleu'ca(jellow-\vhite-Jlowered). 1. Au-
gust. New Grenada. 1844.
DIBBER, or DIBBLE. This
instrument for making holes
in which to insert seeds or
plants is usually very simple
in its construction, being at
the best the head of an old
spade-handle. To secure
uniformity of depth in plant-
ing beans, &c., by this in-
strument, it is useful to have
it perforated with holes to
receive an iron peg, at two and three
inches from the point as in
the annexed outline. It
should be shod with iron ;
for if this be kept bright it
will make holes into which
the soil will not crumble
from the sides. The crum-
bling is induced by the soil's
adhesion to the dibble. For
planting potatoes, a dibble
with a head three inches
diameter at the point, eight
inches long up to the foot-
rest, and with a handle four
feet long, is to be preferred.
For the insertion of seed, a
dibble that delivers the seed
has been invented by a Mr.
Smith, and another, by Dr.
Newington ; the last is the best.
DIBBLE'MMA. (Derivation not known.)
A stove fern allied to Parkeria. Division;
peat and loam. Summer temp., 60 to 85;
winter, 50 to 55.
D. Samare'nse (Samarese). East Indies.
DICE'RMA. (From rfi.?,two, and crma,
a prop ; referring to the two bractlets
under the flower. Nat. ord., Legumi-
nous Plants [Fabacea 3 ]. Linn., \l-Dia-
delph la ^-Decandna. )
Stove evergreens with yellow flowers. Seeds
in hotbed, in March ; cuttings of half ripened
shoots, in sand, under a bell-glass, in bottom-
heat, in April or May ; peat and loam. Sum-
mer temp., 60 to 80 ; winter, 50 to 55.
D. biarticula'tum (two-jointed). 2. July. E.
e'legans (elegant). 1. July. China. 1819.
pulche'llumtne&t'). 1. July.' E. Indies. 1/Q8.
DICHI'LUS. (From dis, two, and
chi'ilos, a lip; in reference to two divi-
sions of the calyx being longer than
the rest. Nat. ord., Leyuminom Plmtlx
[Fabacese]. Linn., 16-Monadelphia 6-
Decandria. Allied to Hypocalyptus.)
Greenhouse evergreen. Cuttings of young
shoots getting firm at the base, in sand, under
a bell-glass; sandy peat. Summer temp.,
55 to 80; winter, 40 to 48.
D. Lebeckioi'des (Lebeckia-like). 2j. White,
yellow. April. Cape of Good Hope.
DICHORISA'NDRA. (From <Zw, twice,
chorizo, to part, and aner, an anther ;
referring to the anthers being two-
celled. Nat. ord., Spiderworls (Com-
melynacese]. Linn., Q-Hcxandrla 1-
Monoyynia. Allied to Campelia.)
D. thyrsiflora is the handsomest plant of this
order, and one of the best stove plants in cul-
tivation, for winter or late autumnal flowering.
We have seen it under liberal treatment rise to
ten feet, branched all round, and every branch
ending in a long spike or thyrse of densely set
sky blue flowers. When the flowers begin to
expand, it may be removed to a warm con-
servatory, where it will last in bloom from six
weeks to two months. Stove herbaceous pe-
rennials from Brazil. Division of the plant, when
growth is commencing ; seeds sown in a hotbed
in spring ; peat and loam, with sand and leaf
mould. Summer temp., 6(1 to 80; winter,
45 to 55.
D. di'scolor (two-coloured). September. 1848.
gra'cilis (slender). l. Blue. August.
oxype'tala (sharp-petaled). 2. Red. August.
ovalifo'lia (oval-leaved). Purple. May. 1846.
pi'cta (painted-leaved). . Blue. September.
pube'rula (downy). 3. Blue. August. 1823.
thyrsiflo'ra (thyrse-flowered). 4. Blue. Au-
DICKSO'NIA. (Named after James
Dicksou, a British botanist, who studied
this Nat. order Ferns [Polypodiacea-]-
Linn., %-Cryptogamia l-Filices.)
Who that has visited the first resting place
of the remains of Napoleon Buonaparte, at St.
Helena, did not admire the native tree ferns,
D. arborescens, a little beyond. To transport
this memorial with the weeping willow, to our,
and other shores, any time within a month
before your departure from the island, cut off
all the branches or fronds to within two inches
of the stem, making a clean cut from the under-
side ; clear away the soil till you see the fang-
like roots ; cut them with a chissel and mallet
without moving the stem ; smooth the cut end
of the roots, and the trunk is ready to travel,
packed in a dry case. When the gardener
receives it, let him set the bottom of the trunk
on a bed or box of half sand, and half peat, in a
temperature of 80, and give no water for the
first six weeks, the new leaves by that time
issue from the top, water then in abundance.
Thus, any of the colossal ferns or cacti may be
safely removed. Division of the roots; best
done when growth is commencing ; peat and
loam. Summer temp., 60 to 80, winter, 48
to , r >5.
D. d('aw/oi'rf<?s(Adiantum-like). 2. November.
West Indies. 1828.
anta'rctica (Antarctic). September. New
Holland. 1 824.
arbore'scens (tree-like). 15. September. St.
DuvuUioi'des (Davallia-like). 3. September.
disse'cta (cut-leaved). 3. August. Jamaica.
pilosiu'scula (rather -hairy). 2. August,
North America. 1811.
rubigino'sa (rusty). Brazil.
squamo'sa (scaly). New Zealand.
DIOLI'PTERA. (From dis, twice, and
Ids to, to shut ; referring to the two-
celled capsule or seed vessel. Nat.
ord., Acanthads. Linn., 2-DianJria 1
Monoyynia. Allied to Justicia.)
Annuals by seed in a hotbed in spring 5 pe-
renmals by cuttings of side shoots, or the points
ot shoots, in sandy soil, in bottom-heat, with a
hand-light, not so close as a bell-glass. Loam
and peat, open and fibry, with a little rotten
leaf.mould. Summer temp., 6o to 85) win-
ter, 48 to 55.
D. Jtexangula'ris (six-angled). 2. Red. July
South America. 1733.
- resupina'tn (lying-back). 1*. White, purple.
March. South America. 1805.
D. CMne'nsis (China). Pale blue. September.
Kast Indies, 1816, Herbaceous
vertirilla'ris (\vhor\-_ftou'ered). l. Purple.
May. Cape of Good Hope. 1826.
STOVE EVERGREENS, ci'C.
D. assu'rffem (rising). 2. Red. July. West
biva'Ms (two-valved). A. Purple. June.
East Indies. 1818.
Martimce'nsis (Martinique; . 2. Purnle
July. West Indies. 1818.
pectina'tu (comb-like). 1$. Blue. June
East Indies. 1793.
Peruvia'na (Peruvian). 2. Purple. June
retn'sa (abrupt-ended). 2. Purple. July.
West Indies. i-Ji, Herbaceous.
scorpioi'des (scorpion-like). 3. July. Vera
^-ftpino'sa (spiny). 2. Yellow, April. Mau-
DICTA'MNUS. Fraxinella or Dittany.
(Dictanmus, a name adopted from Vir-
gil; Fraxinella, a diminutive offraxinns,
the ash, from the similarity of their
leaves. Nat. ord., Rueworts [Rutaoea> .
Linn., 10-Decandria 1-Monof/ynia.)
This is one of the oldest and best border
plants of our cottage gardens. Instances are
known where the "Fraxinella" has outlived
father, son, and grandson in the same spot,
without increase, all attempts at multiplying it,
to give away a rooted slip to a newly married
member of the family, having failed ; yet the
Fraxinella is easily increased from seeds." Sow,
as soon as they are ripe, in the common soil of
the border, and cover one inch deep ; they will
not sprout till the following April. If they are
kept over the winter, and sown in the following
spring, they will remain twelve months before
they sprout, and not one seed out of a hundred
sprouts at all. When the seedlings are two
years old, transplant them where they are to
remain, and they will flower the third season.
They prefer a deep rich border, on a dry bot-
tom, and all flower in June.
D. a'lbus (white). 3, White. Germany. 1596.
ungiistifo'lius (narrow-leaved). 2. Lilac,
Frax'me'lla (Fraxinella\ 3. Purple. Ger-
DICTYOGLO'SSUM. See Acro'stichum
DICTY'MIA attcnua'ta. A very pretty
fern, brought from Ne\v Holland in
1828 ; requires only the shelter of a
greenhouse and the usual cultivation.
DICTYG'PTERIS. (From dictyon, net-
work, and ptcris, a fern ; referring to
the leaves or fronds.)
Greenhouse Ferns. See Ferns.
D. attenud'tn (tapering). June. Australia.
lunceola'ta (spear-head-fettuerf). June. Mau-
ritius. 1824. Stove.
macrodo'nta (large-toothed). May. Aus-
pterol'des (Brake-like). June.
DIDYMOCA'RPUS. (From didymos,
twin, and carpos, fruit ; referring to a
double division along the centre of the
seed vessel. Nat. ord., Gesncrn-ort*
[Gesneraceee]. Linn., 1-i-Didynamiu
2-siiiyiospermia. Allied to Chirita.)
This must not be confounded with its ally,
Streptocarpus. Stove herbaceous. Division ;
cuttings of young shoots, when commencing
growing, in sandy soil, in bottom-heat ; peat
and loam, with sand, a little turf-mould, and
rotten cow-dung. Summer temp., 60 to 80 ;
winter, 45 to 55.
1), rrini'tns (/OH,?- haired). 1. White, yellow.
June. Pulo Penang. 1945.
[ 339 ]
DIDYMOCHTJF/XA. (From dhlymos,
twin, and chhiimt, a cloak ; referring to
the coverings of the spore-cases, called
seed-vessels. Nat. ord., Ferns [Poly-
podiacere]. Linn., S-i-Crifptogamia 1-
Handsome stove ferns, allied to Oxygonium.
Divisions ; peat and loam. Summer temp.,
60 to 85; winter, 50 to 55.
D.pulcJte'rrirna (fairest). July. Brazil.
trunca'tiila (little tree). 4. June. Brazil.
DIET.Y'TRA. ( From (//.v, two, ande/y-
tron, a slieath ; referring to the two
sepals, which embrace the flowers in
this order, and give the remarkable
brilliancy to the flowers of D. spccta-
bilis. Nat. ord., Fumeu-orts [Fiuna-
riacese]. Linn., \l-Dladdpltia 'i Hcx-
unrlrta.' Allied to Corydalis.)
D. spectabilis is the most brilliant hardy
plant added to our collections for many years,
but furnishes the most obvious example of the
remarkable economy of the sexual organs of its
race. The flowers of Fumitories never open,
and their peculiar construction seems to offer
no means for the pollen to escape ; but, by a
peculiar contrivance connected with the parts,
fecundation is effectually and simply brought
about. We have failed, .however, to effect the
process artificially with D. spectabilis. This
most beautiful plant was described by Linnseus
from dried specimens, but was not seen alive by
any European until Mr. Fortune found it in
gardens in the north of China, and sent it, in
18i6, to the London Horticultural Society. It
is a spring-flowering, deciduous herbaceous
plant, with large lleshy roots; the stalks and
leaves rise to 18 inches or two feet, and look
like a small-leafed tree-pceony; the flowers are
produced on spikes from four to six inches long,
and hanging down gracefully on one side. It
requires rich light soil, and is readily increased
by dividing the crown of the roots early in
spring, or by cuttings after the plant is in
growth. It. will find its way, like the China
rose, into every cottage garden. All hardy
herbaceous, and flowering in June ; the same
culture is applicable to all the species.
D. brncteo'sa (bracted). 1. White. N. Ame-
Canade'nsis (Canadian), jf. White. N.
ciiculla'riu (Monk's-hood). ?. White. N.
exi'mia (choice). 1J. Flesh. N. America.
formo'sa (handsome). 1. Flesh. N.Ame-
laclienuliteflo'ru (Lachenalia-flowered). l.
Purple. Siberia. 1826.
specio'sa (showy). 1. Flesh. 1810.
specta'bilis (remarkable). 1. Purple. Si-
temiifo'lia (fine-leaved). J. Pink. Kamt-
DIERVI'LLA. (Named after M. Dier-
ville, a French surgeon. Nat. ord.,
i Gaprifalh [Caprifoliaceae]. Linn., f>-
: Pentnndria l-Jfonoyynia. Allied to
A creeping rooted hardy shrub. Suckers
from the roots ; cuttings in the open ground, in
autumn; common moist, shaded, garden soil.
D. lit' tea (yellow-flowered). 3. June. N. Ame.
DIE 'TIS. See Movafa.
DIGGING with the spade or fork has
for its object a loosening of the soil so
as to render it more fit for the reception
! of seeds or plants. Begin at one end
of the piece of ground, and with your
spade open a trench quite across, one
good spade wide and one deep, carrying
the earth to the end where you finish ;
then, keeping your face to the opening,
proceed to dig one spade deep regu-
larly from one side of the piece to the
other, turning the spits neatly into the
trench, and the next course against
these; and so keep digging straight
back, spit and spit, still preserving an
open trench, a good spade width and
depth, between the dug and undug
ground, that you may have full room
to give every spit a clean turn, taking
all the spits perpendicularly, and not
taking too much before the spade, espe-
cially in stiff land, or where the surface
is full of weeds, or is much dunged;
so giving every spit a clean turn, the
top to the bottom and the bottom to
the top, that the weeds or dung on the
surface may be buried a due depth,
and that the fresh earth, may be turned
up. As you proceed, break all large
clods, and preserve an even surface,
carrying both sides and middle on
i equally, unless one side shall be hol-
; low ; then carry on the hollow side
first in a gradual sweep, inclining the
i spits of earth rather that way, which
will raise that side and reduce the high
one, observing the same if both sides
I are high and the middle hollow, or
! both sides hollow and the middle high,
! always keeping the lower ground ad-
i vancing gradually before the higher,
i by which you will always maintain a
! uniform level.
> The same should also be observed
I in beginning to dig any piece of
[ 330 ]
ground, that if one corner is much
lower than another, carry on the lower