A. rtcaM'fe(stemless). 2. Purple. July. Aleppo.
hirsu'ta (hairy). 2. White. July. Britain.
Ludwi'gii (Ludwig's). 2. Pink. July. Sicily.
sineTnsis (China), 1. Red. July. China.
A. caribce'a (caribean). 3. Pink, Stove. April.
West Indies. 1816.
ficifo'lia (fig-leaved). 6. Orange. July.
Frolovia'na (Frolove's). 3. July. Siberia.
pa' llida (pale-flowered). 6. Pale red. July.
ro'sea (the hollyhock). Red. August, China.
bilo'ba (two-lobed H.). 8. Red. July.
Siebefri (Sieber's). 4. Purple. July. Sicily.
stria' ta (striated). 5. White. July.
A. cannabi'na (hemp-leaved). 6. Purple. July.
South of Europe. 1597.
flexuo'sa (flexous). 3. Pink. July. East
harbonc'nsis (Narbonne). 6. Pink. August.
South of Europe. 1780.
nudiflo'ra (naked-flowered). 6. White. July.
officina'lis (officinal. Marsh-mallow). 4.
Flesh. July. Britain.
taurinefnsis (Turin). 4. Red August.
ALTINGIA. (In honour of Alting, a
Grerman botanist. Nat. ord., Conifers
Tinaceae]. Linn. Sys., 22-2)uecia 13-
monadelphia.] Greenhouse evergreens.
Allied to AURAUCARIA. Deep loamy soil.
The best plants are from seeds, although
;hey may be raised from cuttings of the
ialf-ripened wood, under a bell-glass,
in a cold frame.
A. Cunningha'mi (Cunningham's). 30. Apetal.
New Holland. 1824.
exce'lsa (tall). 100. Apetal. Norfolk Island.
ALTITUDE, or elevation above the sea,
has a great influence over vegetation.
The greater the altitude the greater
the reduction of temperature ; so much
so that every 600 feet of altitude are
believed to reduce the annual tem-
perature as much as receding a degree
from the equator, either to the north or
to the south. But this rule is far from
universally applicable ; for the limit of
perpetual snow at the equator is at the
height of 15,000 feet, whereas, in the
35th degree of north latitude, the limit is
at 11,000 feet, being an average of about
120 feet of altitude for every degree of
recession from the equator. In the 45th
degree, the limit is 8,400 feet, being an
average of 146 feet for every degree ; in
the 50th degree, 6,000 feet, or 180 feet
for each degree ; in the 60th, 3,000 feet,
or 200 feet for a degree ; and in the 70th,
from 1,200 to 2,000 feet, or about the
same for each degree as to the 60th de-
gree of latitude. Now we know of no
reason why the temperature of elevations
below the snow-line should not follow the
same gradations ; and if this be so, these
may be taken as a rule. All plants
growing above 7,000 feet under the equa-
tor, ought to grow in the open air, in the
latitude of London. In general, good
vegetation is produced at the same dis-
tance from the snow line in the same
ALUMINOUS, applied to land, means
heavy, owing to the presence of clay.
ALYSSUM. Madwort. (From a, not,
and lyssa, rage, in reference to a fable
that the plant allayed anger. Nat. ord.,
Crucifers [Brassicaceae]. Linn. Sys.,
\5-Tetradynamia). Seeds, cuttings, and
root divisions ; common soil. Mostly
yellow-flowered and hardy. The best
plants of the shrubs are from cuttings
in April and May, and struck in a hot-
bed. They flower next year. The
saxatile is the best white, and for scent
none surpass the white sweet alyssum
of the gardens, which will sow itself
in the ground, and may be sowed several
times during the summer, by the side
of borders, like the Virginia stock. The
evergreen shrubs, as they are called, more
resemble herbaceous plants, they are so
lowly in their growth. They are best pro-
pagated by cuttings of the points of the
shoots, two or three inches in length, in-
serted in sandy loam, early in the season,
and in a shady place. Variagatum is a
little tender. Though all grow freely in
common soil, yet to have them in perfec-
tion, they should be used as rock or hillock
plants. Even when planted in the border
they succeed best, when planted in little
rounds so the varigation makes a free
edging to any brilliant coloured bed.
A.atla'nticum (Atlantic). 1. April. Crete. 1817.
gemondnse (German). 1. April. Europe.
obtusifo'lium (obtuse-leaved). 1. April.
orienta'le (oriental). 1. April. Crete.
saxa'tile (rock). 1. June. Candia. 1710.
serpyllifo'lium (thyme-leaved). 1. August.
South of Europe. 1822.
spatula'tum (spatulate). 1. April. Siberia.
verna'le (vernal). 1. June. 1819.
A. hirsiiftum (hairy). 1. June. Tauria. 1817.
umbella'tum (umbellate). 1. July. Tauria.
A. alpe'stre (Alpine). 1. June. South of Europe.
argefnteum (silvery). 1. April. Switzerland.
Bertolo'nii (Bertoloni's). 1. July. Switzer-
cuneifo'lium (wedge-leaved) 1. July. Italy.
diffu'sum (diffuse). 1. July. Italy. 1820.
Marschallia'num (Marshall's). 1. April.
micro' nthum (small-flowered). 1. August.
monta'num (mountain). 1. June. Ger-
mura'le (wall). 1. July. Hungary. 1820.
oly'mpicum (Olympic), 'l. June. 1700.
tortuo'sum (twisted) 1. April. Hungary.
7rarsc/iaWw(Warschald's1. June. Yellow.
South of Europe. 1847.
A. Wuifenia'num (Wulfen's) 1. April. CA-
ALZATE'A. (In honour of a Spanish
naturalist, named Alzaty. Nat. ord.,
Spindle-trees [Celastraceoe]. Linn. Sys.,
5-Pentandria \-monoffynia). Greenhouse
evergreen tree. Cuttings in hotbed ;
A, vcrticilla'ta (verticillate) . 20. Peru. 1824.
AMARA'NTHUS. Amaranth. (From ,
not, and mairaino, to wither, in reference
to the durability , or " everlasting" qua-
lity of the flowers of some species. Nat.
ord., Amaranths [Amarantacese]. Linn.
Sys., 1\-Monoecia 5-pentandria). Hardy
annuals. Rich loam ; seeds sown in
open ground in March and April.
A. atropurpu'reus (dark-purple). 3. Purple.
September. East Indies. 1820.
bi' 'color (two-coloured). 2. Red green.
August. East Indies. 1802.
cauda'tus (love-lies-bleeding). 4. Red.
August. East Indies. ' 1596.
ma'ximus (tree-love-lies-bleeding) .
6. Red. August. 1820.
cruefntus (dark-bloody). 3. Dark red.
July. China. 1728.
fascia' tus (banded). 2. July. East Indies.
fla' vus (yellow) . 4. Light yellow. August.
lancecefo'lius (lance-leaved). 3. Red.
July. East Indies. 1816.
olera'ceus (pot-herb). 6. Pale red. July.
East Indies. 1764.
sangui'neus (bloody). 3. Red. August.
specio' sus (showy). 6. Red. July. Nepaul.
tri' color (three-coloured) 2. Red yellow.
August. East Indies. 1548.
AMARY'LLIS. (A classical name after
Virgil's Amaryllis. Nat. <3K&.,A.maryllids.
[Amaryllidacece]. Linn. Sys., Q-Hexan-
dria l-m&nogynia}. Half hardy. Deci-
duous bulbs. Ever since the day the great
Linnaeus instituted this genus, " with a
playful reason assigned," until the whole
order was arranged by the late Dean of
Manchester, it has been loaded in books
with all kinds of allied plants in an in-
terminable confusion. Every hybrid
usually arranged in this genus is a HIP-
PEASTRUM, and all which we think neces-
sary to mention, will be found under that
genus. Plant in light rich soil, in a shel-
tered place, well drained, and the bulbs
placed at least 6 inches deep.
A. Bellado'nna (Belladonna-lily). 2. Pale
pink. Cape of Good Hope. 1712.
A.pa'llida (pale-flowered). 2. Flesh. Au-
gust . Cape of Good Hope . 1712.
Ua'nda (charming). 1|. June. Whitish.
Cape of Good Hope. 1754.
These are all that we can arrange in
this genus, although we think that Bruns-
vigia Josephine and B. grandiftora are
true amaryllises, having crossed, or pro-
duced fertile seeds, with Amaryllis blanda ;
but as they are very distinct in the ap-
pearance of their leaves and bulbs, no
author but Dr. Herbert has yet ventured
to unite them with amaryllis. Without
aiming at a reform of our botanical
classification, we think it desirable to
keep hippeastrum apart from amaryllis, on
account of the opposite habit of the bulbs
of the two genera, those of amaryllis grow-
ing only late in the autumn ; and through
the winter in Europe, while those of
hippeastrum are under the gardeners' con-
trol, and may be managed to grow at dif-
ferent periods. Our great aim should be
to get crosses between Amaryllis and
Valotta. Thus reduced, Amaryllis would
turn evergreen, or at least produce leaves
and flowers simultaneously. All bulbs
which flower without their leaves are
AMASO'NIA. (In honour of an Ameri-
can traveller, named Amason. Nat. ord.,
Verbenes [Verbenaceae]. Linn. Sys., 14-
Didynamia 1-angiospermia). Stove her-
baceous perennials. Sandy loam; suckers.
A. ere? eta (upright). 2. Yellow. September.
puni'cea (scarlet). 2. Yellow. September.
AM ATE' un. As the true qualification of
an amateur sometimes is questioned at
local horticultural shows, we give our
definition. We consider that person is
an amateur who has a taste for a pursuit
(floriculture, or horticulture, for instance)
but who neither follows it as a profession,
nor for pecuniary advantage.
A'MBURY is a disease peculiar to the
Cabbage- worts, and is known by the va-
rious names of Hanbury, Anbury, and
Club Root. Fingers and Toes, a name
applied to it in some parts, alludes to
the swollen state of the small roots of
the affected plants.
Cabbage plants are frequently infected
with ambury in the seed-bed, which
infection appears in the form of a gall
or wart on the stem near the roots.
This wart contains a small white mag-
it, the larva of a little insect called
e weevil. If the gall and its tenant
being removed, the plant is placed again
in the earth, where it is to remain,
unless it is again attacked, the wound
usually heals, and the growth is little
retarded. On the other hand, if the
gall is left undisturbed, the maggot con-
tinues to feed upon the alburnum, or
young woody part of the stem, until the
period arrives for its passing into the
other insect form, previously to which
it gnaws its way out through the ex-
terior bark. The disease is now almost
beyond the power of remedies. The
gall, increased in size, encircles the
whole stem ; the alburnum being so
extensively destroyed, prevents the sap
ascending, consequently, in dry weather,
sufficient moisture is not supplied from
the roots to counterbalance the trans-
piration of the leaves, and the diseased
plant is very discernible among its
healthy companions by its pallid hue
and flagging foliage. The disease now
makes rapid progress, the swelling con-
tinues to increase, for the roots continue
to afford their juices faster than they can
be conveyed away ; moisture and air are
admitted to the interior of the excres^
cence, through the perforation made
by the maggot ; the wounded vessels
ulcerate, putrefaction supervenes, and
death concludes the stinted existence
of the miserable plant. The tumour
usually attains the size of a large hen's
egg, has a rugged, ulcered, and even
mouldy surface, smelling strong and
offensively. The fibrous roots, besides
being generally thickened, are distorted
and monstrous from swellings which
appear throughout their length, appa-
rently arising from an effort of nature
to form receptacles for the sap. These
swellings do not seem to arise im-
mediately from the attacks of the
weevil. When it attacks the turnip,
a large excrescence appears below the
bulb, growing to the size of both
hands, and, as soon as the winter
sets in, or it is, by its own nature,
brought to maturity, becoming putrid,
and smelling very offensively. The
parent weevil is of a dusky black
colour, with the breast spotted with j
white, and the length of the body one
line and two-thirds. The ambury of
the turnip and cabbage usually attacks
these crops when grown for successive
years on the same soil. This is precisely
what might be expected, for where the
parent insect always deposits her eggs,
some of these embryo ravagers are to be
expected. The ambury is most fre-
quently observed in dry seasons. This
is also what might be anticipated, for
insects that inhabit the earth just be-
neath its surface, are always restricted
and checked in their movements by its
abounding in moisture. Moreover, the
plants actually aifected by the ambury,
are more able to contend against the
injury inflicted by the larva of the wee-
vil, by the same copious supply. Char-
coal-dust spread about half an inch
deep upon the surface, and just mixed
with it by the point of a spade, it is
said, prevents the occurrence of this
disease. Soot, we have reason to be-
lieve, from a slight experience, is as
effectual as charcoal-dust. Judging from
theoretical reasons, we might conclude
that it would be more specifical; for
in addition to its being, like charcoal,
finely divided carbon, it contains sul-
phur, to which insects also have an
antipathy. A slight dressing of the
surface soil with a little of the diy hydro-
sulphuret of lime from the gas-works,
would prevent the occurrence of the
disease, by driving the weevils from the
soil. It would probably as effectually
banish the turnip fly or beetle, if sprinkled
over the surface immediately after the
seed is sown. For cabbages, twelve
bushels per acre would not, probably, be
too much, spread upon the surface, and
turned in with the spade or last ploughing.
To effect the banishment of the turnip
beetle, we should like a trial to be
made of six or eight bushels spread over
the surface immediately after the sow-
ing and rolling are finished. Although
we specify these quantities as those
we calculate most correct, yet in all ex-
periments it is best to try various pro-
portions. Three or four bushels may be
found sufficient ; perhaps twelve, or even
twenty, may not be too much. In cab-
bages the ambury may usually be avoid-
ed by frequent transplantings, for this
enables the workman to remove the ex-
crescences upon their first appearance,
and render the plants altogether more
robust and ligneous ; the plant in its
tender sappy stage of growth being most
open to the insect's attacks.
AMELA'NCHIER. (This is the Savoy
name for the medlar, to which this genus
is closely allied. Nat. ord., Apple worts
[Pomacete]. Linn., \1-Icosandria'2-Di-pen-
tagynia). Hardy deciduous shrubs, closely
allied to the Medlar. Layers ; common
rich loam. Small trees cultivated for
their showy white flowers, which are
produced early in the season. They are
also propagated by grafting on the haw-
thorn or on the quince.
A. botrya'pium (grape-pear). 12. North Ame-
flo'rida (flowery). 12. North America. 182C.
parvifo'tia (small-leaved). 3.
ova' Us (oval-leaved) . 8. North America. 1800.
semi-integriftftia (half-entire leavd) .
subcorda'ta (subcordate - leaved).
sangui'nca (bloody). 4. North America. 1800.
vulga'ris (common). 6. South of Europe.
AME'LLUS. (A name employed by
Virgil for a blue aster -looking plant
growing on the banks of the river Mella.
Nat. ord., Composites [Asteracese]. Linn.
Sys., W-Synffenesia, 2-SupcrJlua). Allied
to aster. The first is a greenhouse
evergreen shrub, and the other two hardy
herbaceous perennials. Loamy soil ; cut-
A. lychni'tis (lychnitis). 1. Violet. July. Cape
of Good Hope. 1768.
spinulo'sus (spinulose). 2. Yellow. Au-
gust. Missouri. 1811.
villo'sus (long-haired). 1. Yellow. Au-
gust. Missouri. 1811.
AMEKICAN ALOE. Agave Americana.
AMERICAN BLIGHT. The insect at-
tacking our apple-trees, and known by
this name, is the Eriosoma lanigera of
some entomologists, and E. mali and
Aphis lanigera of others. Its generic
characters are, having an abdomen (belly)
without tubercles, antenna?, or horns,
short and thread form, and the whole body
more or less cottony or tomentose. The
presence of these insects is shewn by the
white cottony matter in the cracks and
excrescences of apple-tree branches in
the spring. When crushed they extrude
a reddish fluid. These insects are in-
jurious by piercing the sap- vessels of
the tree, sucking the juice, and causing
juice, and causing wounds which ulce-
rate and finally destroy the hranch at-
tacked by corroding through all the sap-
vessels. The cottony matter is abundant ;
and, wafted to other trees, conveys to
them infection by bearing with it the
eggs or embryo insects. Such, however,
is not the exclusive mode of diffusing the
disease ; for although the females are
usually wingless, yet some are probably
produced with wings at the season propi-
tious to colonization : the males are
uniformly winged. In the winter these
insects retire underground, and prey
upon the roots of the apple-tree. A tree
thus ravaged at all seasons will soon be
killed, if prompt and vigorous remedies
are not adopted. The affected roots may
be bared and left exposed for a few days
to the cold ; and the earth, before being
returned, be saturated with ammoniacal
liquor from the gas-works. In early
March the branches should be scraped
and scrubbed with the same ammoniacal
liquid, or a strong brine of common salt ;
but, whatever liquid is employed, the
scraping and hard bristles of the brush
should penetrate every crack in the bark.
We have foxmd spirit of turpentine, ap-
plied thoroughly to every patch of the
insect by means of an old tooth-brush,
the most effective destroyer of these in-
sects. The spirit must be applied care-
fully, because it kills every leaf on which
it falls. The codlin and June eating-
apple trees are particularly liable to be
infected ; but we never observed it upon
any one of the russet apples, and the
Crofton pippin is also said to be exempt-
ed. Our woodcut represents the insect
of its natural size as well as magnified.
The head, antennae, and proboscis by
which it wounds the sap-vessels, are still
AMERICAN COWSLIP. Dodeca' tkeon.
AMERICAN CRANBERRY. Oxy coccus
macroca rpus. Soil light, and occasion-
ally manured with rotten leaves. Peat has
been considered indispensable by some
cultivators ; but we much question whe-
ther this be not a mistaken impression,
and should not be allowed to deter per-
sons from planting in any ordinary dark
vegetable matters, soft alluvium, or hu-
mus, which may happen to be within
reach. On making an artificial compost,
we would advise one third peaty or other
dark and unctuous material, one third
leaf-soil or old decayed weeds, and one
third light and sandy loam or ordinary
soil. Situation : It requires a constant
supply of water ; and on a south bank,
where this supply can be obtained, it
may be planted in rows four feet apart
each way, and the water made to circu-
late in a small ditch between the rows.
But the edge of a pond will suit it almost
as well, provided that a little soil of a
proper character is introduced round the
margin. It is well to state, however,
that a very considerable amount of suc-
cess has been attained in beds of a peaty
character, without any system of irriga-
tion. After-culture : The shrubs require
no other attention than to be kept free
from weeds. A top-dressing annually in
November of heath-soil or rotten leaves
has been stated to prove of much service.
The American cranberry is considered of
easier culture than the English, or Oxy-
co'ccus plaustris; the latter requiring
more moisture than the American. Pro-
duce : The fruit, used for tarts and pre-
serving, is so abundant, that a bed six
yards long is sufficient for the largest
family. Propagation: suckers, cuttings,
or seeds ; the two former planted early
in the autumn.
AMERICAN CRESS. Barbce'rea pre'cox.
Soil and Situation : For the winter
standing crops, a light dry soil, in an
open but warm situation ; and for the
summer, a rather moister, and shady bor-
der in neither instance rich. Sow every I
six weeks from March to August, for
summer and autumn ; and one sowing
either at the end of August or beginning
of September, for a supply during winter
and spring. Sow in drills nine inches apart .
Culture : Water occasionally during dry
weather, both before and after the appear-
ance of the plants. Thin to three inches
apart. In winter, shelter with a little
litter, or other light covering ; supported
by some twigs bent over the bed, or some
bushy branches laid among the plants ;
keep clear of weeds. In gathering, strip
off the outside leaves, which enables suc-
cessional crops to become rapidly fit for
use. When the plants begin to run,
their centres must be cut away, which
causes them to shoot afresh. To obtain
Seed, a few of the strongest plants, raised
from the first spring sowing, are left un-
gathered from. They flower in June or
July, and perfect their seed before the
commencement of autumn.
AMERICAN PLANTS. These comprise
many very different species ; which, re-
sembling each other in requiring a well-
drained peaty soil and abundance of
water, are usually cultivated in a sepa-
rate department, where the garden esta-
blishment is extensive; and, wherever
grown, should have a compartment to
themselves, a very acutely sloping bank,
facing the north or east ; and some of
them, as the Rhododendron, Andromeda,
and Azalea, do not object to being over-
shadowed by trees. The soil, as already
stated, should, if possible, be peaty ; and
the best annual dressings that can be
applied are such matters as decayed
leaves, and the bottom of old wood
stacks ; or any other mixture of decayed
woody fibre ; and, in fact, these tribes
in general have been well grown in an
artificially compounded soil, such as rot-
ten leaves, old and spent tan, or saw-
dust, and ordinary light soil, with some
sand ; using twice as much of the ve-
getable matter as of the others. A cover-
ing of moss also will be beneficial.
AMERI'MNUM. From a, not, and me-
rimna, care ; in reference to the little care
needed by the houseleek, to which this
name was applied by the Greeks. Nat.
ord., Leguminous plants [Fabacea?]. Linn.
\S-Monadelphia Q-Decandria) . Stove
evergreen shrubs. Cuttings of the young
shoots in sand and gentle heat, rich
A JBro'icnei (Brown's). 10. White. West
strigulo' sum (strigulose) . 20. White. Trini-
AMETHY'STEA. (From amethystos, the
amethyst ; in reference to the blue colour
of the "flower. Nat. ord., Labiates, or Lip-
worts [Lamiaceae]. Linn., W-Decandria,
l-monoffynia) . Hardy annual. Seed; peat
and sandy loam.
A. cceru'lea (blue-flowering). 2. Blue. July.
AMHE'RSTIA. (In honour of the Coun-
tess Amherst. Nat. ord., Legwninou.a
plants [Fabacese]. Linn., \7-Diadelplii a,
1-triandria). Allied to JONESIA. This
splendid flowering tree, " the cream of
the Indian Flora," was first flowered in
England by Mrs. Lawrence in 1849. The
individual flowers sustain the praise la-
vished on this tree ; but they are so
ephemeral, lasting hardly three days, as
to render its cultivation less desirable.
Stove evergreen tree. Eich strong loam ;
cuttings of half-ripened wood, in sand,
under a bell-glass, in heat.
A.ru/bilis (noble). 40. Rich vermillion. East
AMI' CIA. (In honour of B. Amid,
physician. Nat. ord., Leguminous plants
[Fabacea?]. Linn. \1-Monadelphia, 3-
hcxandria). Stove evergreen climber.
Rough sandy loam ; cuttings in sand,
under a bell-glass.
A, zigo'meris (two-jointed-podded). 8. Yel-
low. June. Mexico. 1826.
AMIA'NTHIUM. See HELONIAS.
AMMO'BIUM. (From ammos, sand, and
bio, to live ; in reference to the sandy soil
in which it thrives. Nat. ord., Composites
[Astcracesel Linn., IQ-Syngcnesia, 1-
cequalis). Half-hardy herbaceous peren-
nials. Cuttings and seed ; common soil.
A. ala'tum (winged). 2. White. June. New
plantagi' ncum (plantain-leaved). 1. White.
August. New Holland. 1827.
AMMOCHARIS. See BRUNSVI'GIA.
AMMODE'NDRON. (From ammos, sand,
and dendron, a tree ; in reference to the
situation it grows in. Nat. ord., Legu-
minous plants [FabaceaBJ. Linn., IQ-Ue-
candria, \-monogynia}. A hardy ever-
green tree. Allied to SOPIIORA.
A. Sieve' rsii (Siever's). 4. Purple. June.
AMMOGE'TON. (From a-mmos, sand, and
geton, near, the situation it likes. Nat.
ord., Composites [Asteracese]. Linn., 19-