refle'xa (bent-back-/eai'ed). 4. June. Ma-
stria' ta (streaked). 4. April. Cape of
Good Hope. 1820.
surculo'sa (twiggy). 4. July. Sierra Leone.
termina'lis (terminal). 10. June. East
tessella'ta (chequered). Madagascar. 1816.
umbra culi'f era (umbrella - bearing). 10.
DRACOCE'PHALUM. Dragon's Head.
(From drakon, a dragon, and kephale, a
head ; referring to the gaping flower.
Nat. ord., Lipivorls, or Labiates [Lami-
acesej. Linn., l-Didynamia \-Gym-
nospermia. Allied to Nepeta.)
Annuals, by seed, in the open ground at the
end of March ; perennials by seeds and divi-
sions ; the tender evergreens by cuttings of
young shoots, under a hand-glass, in April or
May ; light rich soil.
D. cane'scens (hoary). 2. Blue. July. Le-
2. Blue. July.
albiflo'rum (white-flowered). 2.
White. July. Moldavia. 1596.
peregri'num (diffuse). 4- Purple. July.
thymiflo'rum (Thyme-flowered). 4- Purple.
July. Siberia. 1752.
D. Canarie'nse (Canary. Balm ofGilead). 3.
Pale purple. August. Canaries. 1697.
chamadryoi'des (Germander-like). . Blue.
July. 1823. Trailer.
origanoi'des (Marjoram-like). &. July. Si-
beria. 1829. Trailer.
D. Altaie'nse (Altaic). 4. Purple. July.
Argune'nse (Argun). 14. Blue. July. Si-
Austri'acum (Austrian), l. Blue. June.
botryoi'des (Botrys-like). 3. Purple. July.
Ibe'ricum (Iberian). 1. Blue. July. Ibe-
integrifo'lium (whole-leaved) . Blue. July.
Mexica'num (Mexican). 2. Blue. July.
mi' tans (nodding). 1. Blue. July. Sibe-
palma'tum (hand-leaved). 14- Purple. July.
D. parviflo' rum (small-flowered). 4- Blue.
July. North America. 1825.
pelta' turn (shield-leaved). 14. Purple. July.
pinna 1 turn (leafleted). Blue. June. Sibe-
Ruyschia'num (Ruysch's). 2. Blue. July.
North Europe. 1699.
SiWricum (Siberian). 1. Blue. August.
DRACO'NTIUM. Dragon. (From dra-
/ton, a dragon ; referring to its spots
and streaks being like those on ser-
pents. Nat. ord., Orontiads [Oron-
tiaceaB]. Linn., 7-Heptandr'ta \-Mono-
gynla. Allied to Pothos and Orontium.)
Stove evergreen creepers. Dividing the roots ;
fibry loam, and a little decayed clung and leaf-
mould. Summer temp., 6o'to 85 ; winter, 48
D.polyphy'llum (many-leaved). 2. May. In-
spino'sum (prickly). 2. April. Ceylon. 1759.
DRACOPHY'LLU^I. (From drakon, a
dragon, and phyllon, a leaf; referring
to the long bracts, which resemble the
young leaves of the Dragon plant, Dra-
c<tna draco. Nat. ord., Epacrids [Epa-
cridacese]. Linn., 5-Pentandria \-Mo-
nogynla. Allied to Sphenotoma and
Greenhouse evergreens from New Holland.
Cuttings of young wood, getting firm at the
base, in April ; peat and loam, both fibry, with
a little silver sand. Temp., winter, 40 to 45.
D. capita' turn (headed). 1830.
longifo'lium (long-leaved). 2. White. June.
secu'ndum (side-flowering) . 2. White. June.
DRACO 'PIS. (From drakon, a dragon,
and opsis, appearance ; referring to the
rays or florets. Nat. ord., Composites
[Asteracese], Linn., \tt-Syngenesia 3-
Superflua. Allied to Budbeckia.)
Hardy annual. Seeds and divisions ; open
D. amplexicau'lis (stem - clasping). Yellow.
July. Lousiana. 1793.
DRAGON. Draco' ntium, and A' rum
DRAGON'S-BLOOD. Caflamvs dra'co.
DRAGON'S-HEAD. Dracoct' 'phahnn.
DRAGON-TREE. Dracce'na dra'co.
DRAINING is drawing away the sur-
face water, instead of allowing it to
chill the land by evaporation, and fur-
ther injuring the crops by an excessive
supply of moisture. There is scarcely
a garden existing that would not be
[ 342 ]
benefited by under-draining. Every
gardener knows the absolute necessity
for a good drainage under bis wall-
trees and vines, but few gardeners ever
think for a moment, whether there is
any escape and outfall for the water he
has drained from immediate contact
with the roots of the above-named fa-
voured trees. Every garden should
have drains cut, varying in depth from
two to three feet, according to the depth
of the soil, with an interval of twenty-
four feet between the drains ; twelve
feet will not be too near in clayey soils.
At the bottom of the drains should be
placed one -inch pipes ; these should be
well puddled over six inches deep with
clay, and then the earth returned. They
should have an outfall into a ditch, at
the least elevated side of the garden.
By having the pipes with a bore no
larger than an inch moles cannot creep
in; and that bore is large enough to
carry off all the water, after even the
heaviest rains. For full directions we
refer our readers to Donald's shilling
volume, entitled Land Drainage.
DRAKE 'A. (Named in honour of
Miss Drake, botanical painter for the
Botanical Eegister. Nat. ord., Orchids
[Orchidacese]. Linn., 20-Gynandria 1-
Monandria. Allied to Caleya.)
The only species is an extremely curious
ground orchid, having one flower on the top of
a slender stalk, eighteen inches long, "resem-
bling an insect suspended in the air, and moving
with every breeze." Greenhouse. Divisions;
peat, loam, and rough sand.
D. ela'stica (elastic). Variegated. September.
DRAWN. A plant is said to be drawn
when it is unnaturally increased in
length. This is usually by an excess
of heat and moisture, and a deficiency
of air and light.
DREPANOCA'RPUS. The Sickle-pod.
(From drepanon, sickle, and carpos, a
fruit ; referring to the shape of the
seed-vessel. Nat. ord., Leguminous
Plants [Fabacese]. Linn., \l-Diadel-
Stove evergreen. Cuttings of young shoots
nearly ripe, with its leaves entire, in sand,
under a glass, and in bottom-heat ; peat and
loam, both fibry. Summer temp., 60to80;
winter, 50 to 55.
D. luna'tva (httlf-monn capsuled), 12. White.
South America. 1792.
DRESSING. Putting the borders in
order ; also manuring strawberries, as-
paragus, and other permanent beds.
DRIF"T SAND is the sand washed by
floods into drifts or banks, whether by
the sides of roads or streams.
DRILLING. Scarcely a crop in the
garden should be sown broadcast, for
drilling saves seed and labour ; and
although in some cases it takes more
time to insert the seed in drills, yet
this is more than compensated by the
time saved during the after-culture, for
the thinning and hoeing are greatly
facilitated. (See Broadcast.)
The distance apart appropriate for
the drills for particular crops will be
found under their respective titles ;
they are usually made with a hoe and
line, but the drill-raJie is often used.
The teeth are set six inches apart, and
are broad and coiilter-formed. When
the drills are required to be less than
six inches apart the implement can be
worked diagonally ; but it may be made
with teeth moveable to any desired
Dm 'MIA. (From drimys, acrid ; re-
ferring to the juice of the bulbs. Nat.
ord., Lilyworts [Liliacese]. Linn., 6-
Hexandria 1-Monogynia. Allied to
Little greenhouse bulbous plants from the
Cape of Good Hope ; elegant, though less showy
than the Ixias. Offsets; peat, or leaf-mould,
and sandy loam. Summer temp., 50 to "5;
winter, 35 to 45 ; potted when beginning to
grow, and until then kept dry after the wither-
ing of the leaf.
D. acurnina'ta (pointed). . Brown. August.
alti'ssima (tallest). l. White, green. Au-
cilia'ris (hair-fringed). l. Purple, white.
ela'ta (tall). 2. Red, green. October. 17S9.
lancecefo' lin (spear - leaved). ?. Purple.
lunceola'ta (spear-head-leaved). ^. Yellow,
green. September. 1/74.
longipeduneulu' 'ta (long - flower - stalked).
Green, purple. September. 1800.
me'dia (intermediate). White. August. 1820.
purpura'scens (purplish). . Purple. Au-
pusi'ltu (little). . Green. May. Cape of
Good Hope. 1/93.
undula'ta (waved). . Green-striped. May.
villo'sa (long-haired). Green. August. 1826.
DRI'MYS. (From drimys, acrid ; re-
[ 343 ]
ferring to the " bitter tonic taste " of
the bark, one of the characteristics of
its Nat. orcl., Magnoliads [Magnolia-
cese]. Linn., l'3-Polyandria 4t-Tetra-
The Winter Bark of commerce is that of D.
Winteri, a good substitute for cinnamon.
Greenhouse evergreen trees, with white flowers.
Cuttings of half-ripe shoots, in sand, under a
glass, and, after standing a fortnight shaded
from sun, transferred to a sweet bottom-heat ;
fibry peat and sandy lumpy loam. Winter
temp., 40 to 45.
D. Chile'nsis (Chilian). 12. Chili. 1829.
Winte'ri (Winter's). Magellan. 1827.
DKO'SERA. Sundew. (From droseros,
dewy. Nat. ord., Sundews [Drosera-
eese]. Linn., 5-Pentandria 5-Penta-
The sundews are delicate herbaceous plants,
chiefly inhabitants of marshes ; the whole plant
is thickly clothed with glandular hairs, giving
them the appearance of being studded with
dew-drops. We have often viewed D. rotundi-
folia with amazement, on the opposite side of a
little pool, arrayed in hundreds of little stars,
and sparkling beneath a midday's sun. Seeds,
generally, and divisions ; peat earth, above it
fresh sphagnum moss, in which the tiny plant
is to be fixed, and then the pot is to be set in a
pan of water; when cultivated, they should all
be indulged in the greenhouse.
D. acau'lis (stemless). \. White. July. Cape
of Good Hope. 1823.
America'na (American). . White. July.
North America. 1820.
A'nglica (English). . White, red. July.
bina'ta (twin-leaved). J. White. July. New
erythrorhi'za (scarlet-rooted). White. July.
Swan River. 1843.
filicau'lis (thready-stemmed). Rose. May.
Swan River. 1841.
filifo'rmis (thread- form). . Purple. July.
North Jersey. 1811.
gigante'a (gigantic). White. July. Swan
linea'ris (narrow-leaved). $. Purple. July.
North America. 1818.
longifo'lia (long-leaved). . White, red.
macran'tha (large-flowered). Rose. July.
macrophy'lla (large-leaved). White. July.
Swan River. 1842.
pa'llida (pale). White. July. Swan River.
paucijio'ra (few-flowered). ^. White. July.
Cape of Good Hope. 1823.
rotundifo'lia (round-leaved). . White.
stoloni'fera (creeping-rooted). White. July.
DBOPWOBT. Spires' a JiUpe'ndula and
DRUMMO'KDEA. (Named after Thomas
Dntmmond, who sacrificed his life in
the cause of botany. Nat. ord., Saxi-
frages [Saxifragacese]. Linn., 5-Pe-
tandria 2-Diyynia. Allied to Mitella.)
An Alpine or rock plant from the Rocky
Mountains. Unfortunately Drummondia must
be cancelled, the plant was named Mitellopsis
previously by Meisner. Hardy herbaceous pe-
rennial. Divisions and seeds ; light sandy soil,
in a dry place or rockwork.
D. mitelloi'des (Mitella-like). &. Yellowish.
July. Rocky Mountains. 1827.
DRYA'NDRA. (Named after Dryander,
a Swedish botanist. Nat. ord., Proteads
[Proteacese]. Linn., k-Tetrandria 1-
Monogynia. Allied to Banksia.)
Greenhouse evergreen shrubs, from New Hol-
land, with yellow flowers. Cuttings of firm
side shoots taken off in August, inserted in
sand, under a bell-glass, shaded to keep the
foliage from flagging, and in a fortnight or three
weeks transferred to a mild bottom -heat ; fibry
peat, and fibry loam, with a portion of sand,
broken potsherds, and a few pieces of charcoal ;
pots particularly well drained. Winter temp.,
38 to 45.
D. arctotoi'des (Arctotis-like). 1830.
arma'ta (armed) . 3. 1803.
Baxte'ri (Baxter's). 3. 1824.
bipinnuti'fida (doubly-leafleted). 1840.
fi/ecA!/o'(Blechnum-leaved). !* 1824.
calophy'llu (beautiful-leaved). 1830.
cardua'cea (Thistle-like). 3. April.
angustifo'lia (narrow-leaved). 3.
cunea'ta (wedge-leaved). 3. June. 1803.
brevifo'lia (short-wedge-leaved). 3.
longifo'lia (long- wedge-leaved). 3.
favo'sa (honey-combed). 1840.
ftoribu'nda (many-flowered). 3. 1803.
foliola'ta (leafleted). 1830.
formo'sa (handsome). 4. 1803.
Frase'ri (Eraser's). 1840.
longifo'lia (long-leaved). 2. 1803.
mucronula'ta (small-sharp-pointed). 3. 1824.
nervo'sa (large -nerved). 2. 1824.
ni'vea (snowy-leaved). 2. 1805.
no'bilis (noble). 1840.
obtu'sa (blunt-leaved). 2. 1803.
plumo'sa (feathered). 3. 1803.
proteoi'de.t (Protea like). 1840.
pteridifo'lia (Pteris-leaved). l. 1824.
stupo'm (heavy). 1840.
tenuifo'lia (fine-leaved). 2. April. 1803.
DRY'AS. (From Dryades, the god-
desses of the woods, to whom the oak
was sacred. The leaves of D. octopetala,
a Scotch plant on which the genus was
founded by Linnceus, resemble small
oak-leaves ; and he, in a playful mood,
made Dry as the badge of Virgil's Dry-
acles, after the manner of the Scottish
clans. Nat. ord., Bosewoyts [Roseacea].
~Linn.,U.Icosandria %-Polycjynla. Allied
to Coluria and Cowania.)
All the species, but D. Drummondi, have
white flowers, blooming in July. Divisions,
and seeds, in spring ; cuttings under a hand-
light in summer ; a peat border, or still better,
in pots, and protected during winter in a cold-
D. interme'dia (intermediate). . North Ame-
octope'tala (eight-petaled). . Britain.
America' na (American). . North
D. decape'tala (ten-petaled.) North America.
depre'ssa (depressed). |. Ireland.
mi'nor (smaller). . North America.
D. Drummo'ndi (Drummond's). J. Yellow.
North America. 1828.
integrifo'lia. (whole-leaved). . Greenland.
tene'lla (delicate). . Canada. 1820.
DRYMOGLO'SSUM. The Wood-tongue.
(From drymos, a wood, and glossum, a
tongue ; alluding to the place of growth
and form of the fronds. Allied to
Polypodium.) See Ferns.
Spores yellow. Division ; peat and loam.
Summer temp., 60 to 80 ; winter, 48 to 55.
D. carno'sum (fleshy). Australia.
lanceola'tum (spear-head). June. India.
piloselloi'des (Pilosella-like). June. East
spatula'tum (spatulate). East Indies.
DRYMO'NIA. (From drymonia, wood-
land ; their habitation. Nat. ord., Ges-
nerworts [Gesnerace]. Linn., 14-
Didynamia 2-Anyiospermia. Allied to
Stove evergreen climbers. Cuttings in sandy
soil, in bottom-heat; rich sandy loam. Sum-
mer temp., 60 to 80 ; winter, 50 to 55.
D. bi'color (two-coloured). 6. Purple. West
punctu'la (spotted-^owemf). g. Yellow,
violet. May. Guatemala. 1843.
DRYNA'RIA. (From drys, a tree ;
dwelling among trees.)
A large genus of stove ferns, with brownish
yellow spores. Allied to Dryostachyum. Divi-
sion ; peat and loam. Summer temp., 60 to
80 ; winter, 50 to 55.
D. a' Ibido-squnma' ta (white- scaled). June.
Isle of Luzon.
Billardieri (La Billardiere's). 1. June.
New Holland. 1824.
-~ caspito'su (tufted). April. India. 1841. |
D. capitella'ta (small headed). July. South
coria'cea (leathery). June. India. 1840.
co'ronans (crowned). June. West Indies.
crassifo'lia (thick-leaved). August. West
cuspidiflo'ra (pointed-flowered). June. Isle
diversifo'lia (various-leaved). July. Aus-
du' bin (doubtful). June. Isle of Luzon.
glau'ca (milky-green). Isle of Luzon.
hemioniti'dea (Spleenwort-like). 2. Yellow.
March. East Indies. 1843.
Horsfi'eldii (Horsfield's). Yellow. Java.
irioi'des (Iris-like). 3. June. East Indies.
juglandifo'lium (Juglan's-leaved). l. May.
South America. 1822.
leiorhi'za (smooth-rooted). March. East
lomarioi'des (Lomaria-likel. Isle of Luzon.
lo'ngifrons (long-fronded). Isle of Luzon.
lo'ngipes (long-stalked). East Indies. 1823.
longi'ssima (longest leaved). Isle of Luzon.
lorifo'rmis (strap-like). March. East In-
negle'cta (neglected). Isle of Luzon.
norma'lis (normal). March. Nepaul.
palma'ta (hand-shaped). Isle of Luzon.
plantagi'neu (Plantain-like). June. East
propi'nqua (allied). May. East Indies.
pustula'ta (pimpled). 1. March. Manilla.
quercifo'lia (Oak-leaved). l. March. Isle
of Luzon. 1.
ru'bida (red). Isle of Luzon.
rupe'stris (rock). Isle of Luzon.
sesquipeda'lis(foot-a.nA-a.-ha\f). May. Nepaul.
stenophy'lla (narrow-leaved). March. Java.
subfalca'ta (rather-sickle-shape). Isle of
tenuilo'ris (slender- thonged). Mindanao.
undula'ta (waved-leaved). Isle of Luzon.
vulga'ris (common). March. West Indies.
Walli'chii (Wallich's). March. East In-
DRYOBA'LANOPS. Camphor Tree.
(From drys, a tree, and ballo, to now;
from the tree yielding much sap. Nat.
ord., Lindenblooms [Tiliacese], Linn.,
13-Polyandria 1-Monoyyn in. )
A stove tree, which produces the chief of the
natural camphor imported. We say natural
camphor, because camphor is now manufactured
D. ca'mphora (camphor). 100, Yellow. Su-
DRYO'PTERIS. (From dnjs, a tree,
and pteris, a fern. A genus of Stove
Ferns. Allied to Pteris.)
Division; peat and loam. Summer temp.,
60 to 80 ; winter, 50 to 55.
D, sugittifo'lia (arrow-leaved). Yellow. April.
[ -345 ]
DRYOSTA'CHYUM. (From drys, a tree,
and stachys, a spike. A genus of Stove
Ferns with yellow spores. Allied to
Divisions ; peat and loam. Summer temp.,
60 to 80 ; winter, 50 to 55.
J>. cauda'tum (tailed). May. Celebes. 1842.
pilo'sum (hairy). May. Isle of Luzon. 1841.
sple'ndens (shining)." May. Isle of Luzon.
DRY'PETES. (From drypto, to lace-
rate ; being a spiny shrub. Nat. ord.,
Spuryeworts [Euphorbiaceo 1 .]. Linn.,
2->.lJiceda i-Tctrundria. Allied to Sar-
Stove evergreen shrub. Cuttings in sandy
loam, under a glass, in heat; peat and loam,
both fibry and sandy. Summer temp., 60 to
80 ; winter, 50 to 55.
D. cro'cea (copper-coloured). 6. June. West
DRY'PIS. (From drypto, to lacerate ;
leaves armed with spines. Nat. ord.,
Cloveworts [Caryophyllacese]. Linn.,
5-Pentandria %-Trigynia. Allied to
Hardy evergreen. Seeds; cuttings under a
hand-light in the early summer months ; re-
quires a dry situation, and equal portions of
loam, peat, and rough sand.
D. spino'sa (prickly). $ Pale blue. June.
DEY-STOVE is a hothouse devoted to
the culture of such plants as require a
high degree of heat, but a drier atmo-
sphere than the tenants of the Bark-
stove. Consequently, fermenting ma-
terials and open tanks of hot water are
inadmissible ; but the sources of heat
are either steam or hot-water pipes, or
flues. See Stove.
DUBBING is a gardener's term for
clipping. The dubbinys of a hedge are
the parts clipped off with the shears.
DUMA'SIA. (Named after M. Dumas,
one of the editors ofAnnales des Sciences
Natnralles. Nat. ord., Leguminous
Plants [Fabacese]. Linn., 17-Diadel-
phia -Decandria. Allied to Clitoria.)
Greenhouse evergreen twiners, from Nepaul ;
both introduced in 1824. Seeds sown in a hot-
bed in spring; cuttings of young shoots getting
firm, under a glass, and in sand, in a little bot-
tom heat, in April ; sandy peat and fibry loam.
Summer temp., 55 to /5 ; winter, 45 to 50.
D. pube'scens (downy). 6. Yellow. October.
*-=- villo'sa (long-haired). 6. Pale yellow. Oc-
DuMB-CANE. Cala'diam Segni'mnn.
DUMERI'LIA. (In honour of Constant
Dumeril, a French naturalist. Nat.
ord., Composites [Asteracere]. Linn.,
Stove evergreen shrub. Cuttings in sandy
soil, under a bell-glass; sandy loam. Summer
temp., 60 to 80 ; winter, 45 to 55.
D, panicula'ta (panicled). 3. Purple. August.
DUNG. Under this title our attention
must be confined to the faeces and
urines of animals, and that one most
common compound, stable dung.
Night-soil is the richest of these ma-
nures. It is composed of human fseces
and urine, of which the constituents
are as follows : Faces. Water, 73.3 ;
vegetable and animal remains, 7 ; bile,
0.9 ; albumen, 0.!) ; peculiar and ex-
tractive matter, 1.2 ; salts (carbonate
of soda, common salt, sulphate of
soda, ammonia- phosphate of magnesia,
and phosphate of lime), 2.7 ; insoluble
residue, 14.0. Urine. Urate of am-
monia, 0.208 ; sal-ammoniac, 0.459 ;
sulphate of potash, 2.112 ; chloride of
potassium, 3.674 ; chloride of sodium
(common salt), 15.060; phosphate of
soda, 4.267 ; phosphate of lime, 0.209 ;
acetate of soda, 2.770 ; urea and colour-
ing matter, 23.640 ; water and lactic
After stating the above analyses in
his excellent work On Fertilizers, Mr.
Cuthbert Johnson proceeds to observe,
that the very chemical composition
therefore of this compost would indi-
cate the powerful fertilizing effects
which it is proved to produce. The
mass of easily soluble and decom-
posable animal matters and salts of
ammonia with which it abounds, its
phosphate of lime, its carbonate of
1 soda, are all by themselves excellent
fertilizers, and must afford a copious
supply of food to plants.
The disagreeable smell may be de-
j stroyed by mixing it with quick-lime,
I or still better with either chloride or
| sulphate of lime ; and if exposed to
i the atmosphere in thin layers in fine
! weather, it speedily dries, is easily pul-
! verized, and in this state may be used
i in the same manner as rape cake, and
I delivered into the furrow with the seed\
[ 346 ]
From the experiments of M. Schub-
ler and otbers, the relative value of
night-soil is as follows :
" If a given quantity of the land
sown without manure yields three
times the seed employed, then the
same quantity of land will produce five
times the quantity sown when manured
with old herbage, putrid grass or leaves,
garden stuff, c. ; seven times with
cow-dung, nine times with pigeon's-
dung, ten times with horse-dung, twelve
times with human urine, twelve times
with goafs-dung, twelve times with
sheep's-dung, and fourteen times with
human manure, or bullock's blood.
But if the land be of such quality as
to produce without manure live times
the sown quantity, then the horse-dung
manure will yield fourteen, and human
manure nineteen and two-thirds the
Fowl-dung, if composed partly of that
of the duck, which is a gross feeder, is
nearly equal to guano. This, and that
of the pigeon contain much ammonia,
and all abound in phosphate of lime,
mixed with decomposing organic mat-
ters and uric acid, all highly valuable
Stable or Farm-yard Dung is usually
composed of the following matters :
Horse-urine. Water and mucus, 94 ;
carbonate of lime, 1.1 ; carbonate of
soda, 0.9; hippurate of soda, 2.4: chlo-
ride of potassium, 0.9 ; urea, 0.7. But
besides the above, it contains common
salt, phosphate of lime, and sulphate
of soda. Cow-urine. Water, 66 ; phos-
phate of lime, 8 ; chloride of potassium,
and sal ammoniac, 15 ; sulphate of
potash, 6 ; carbonate of potash, and
carbonate of ammonia, 4 ; urea, 4.
One thousand parts of dry wheat
straw being burnt, yielded M. Saussure
forty-eight parts of ashes ; the same
quantity of the dry straw of barley
yielded forty-two parts of ashes. The
portion dissipated by the fire would be
principally carbon (charcoal), carbu-
retted hydrogen gas, and water ; one
hundred parts of these ashes are com-
posed of Various soluble salts, prin-
cipally carbonate and sulphate of pot-
ash, 22$ ; phosphate of lime (earthy
salt of bones), 6$ ; ckalk (carbonate |
of lime), 1 ; silica (flint), 61; metal-
lic oxide (principally iron), 1; loss,
7 4.5ths. The straw of barley contains
the same ingredients, only in rather
The solid excrements of a horse
fed on hay, oats, and straw, contain,
according to the analysis of M. Zierl,
in 1000 parts : Water, 698 ; picromel
and salts, 20 ; bilious and extractive
matter, 17 ; green matter, albumen,
mucus, etc., 63 ; vegetable fibre and
remains of food, 202.
These, when burnt, yielded to the
same chemist sixty parts by weight of
ashes, which were composed of Car-
bonate, sulphate, and muriate of soda,
5 ; carbonate and phosphate of lime,
9 ; silica, 46. Jo-urn . Hoy. Agr. Soc.,
vol. i., p. 489.
There have been many arguments