EVO'LVFLUS. (From evolvo, the op-
posite to Convolvulus ; referring to the
plants not twining. Nat. ord., Bind-
weeds [Convolvulaceffi]. Linn., -}-Peii-
landrla "-l-Ditfynia. Allied to Convolvu-
For culture see Convo'lnilits. All blue
flowered trailers, except where otherwise
[ m 3
E. NuttaUia'nus(X\itta.n's). %. July. North
E.ceeru'lcus (sky-blue). July. Jamaica. 1845.
lanceola'tus (spear - head - leaved}. June.
South America. 1818.
latifo'lius (broad-leaved). 2. White. June.
purpu'reo-cceru'leus (purplish - blue) . 1 .
July. Jamaica. 1845.
villo'sus (shaggy). 1. July. South America.
E. alsinoi'des (Chickweed-like). . July. East
emargina'tus (end-notched). 1. September.
East Indies. 1816.
gange'ticus (Ganges). 1. July. East Indies.
Jy. South America.
linifo'lius (Flax-leaved). 2. August. Ja-
nummula'ris (Money- wort-like). . Sep-
tember. Jamaica. 1816.
hirsu'tus (hairy). . July.
inca'nus (hoary). ^. July.
seri'ceus (silky). A.
White. July. West
E'XACUM. (From ex, out of, ago, to
drive; supposed virtue of expelling
poison. Nat. ord., Gentianworts [Gen-
tianacege]. Linn., -Tetrandria \-Mono-
yynia. Allied to Chironia.)
Hardy annuals. Sow in April, in a moist
border, in which there is a portion of peat.
E.pulche'llum (pretty). $. Pink. August.
New Jersey. 1826.
tetrago'num (four-angled). 14. Blue. Au-
gust. Nepaul. 1820.
bico'lor (two-coloured). 1. Pale
purple. June. Corcan. 1846.
EXCJECA'RIA. ( From excicco, to blind ;
crops are very few. That wliicb ap-
pears above the point of union between
the scion and stock, is caused by the
former being the freer grower of the
two, and is a warning that should be
remembered, for it curtails the lon-
gevity of the tree, the supply of sap
gradually becoming inefficient. The
j excresences which occur upon the
! branches of some apples, as those of
the codling and June-eating, cannot be
j looked upon as disease, for they arise
from congeries of abortive buds, which
readily protrude roots if buried in the
soil, making those among the few
apples which can be propagated by
cuttings. Of a similar nature are the
huge excrescences so prevalent on aged
oaks and elms. Bulbous excrescences
are formed upon the roots of many
plants if compelled to grow upon a soil
drier than that which best suits them.
This is the case especially with two
grasses, Phle'um prate' use and Alope'cu-
rus yenicula'tus, and is evidently a wise
provision of nature to secure the pro-
pagation of the species, for those bulbs
will vegetate long after the remainder
of the plant has been destroyed by the
excessive dryness of the soil.
EXOGO'NIUM. (From exo, external,
and gonu, a joint ; referring to the
stems. Nat. ord., B'mdiveeds [Convol-
vulacese]. Linn., ^-Pentandria i-Mono-
gynia. Allied to Ipomsea.)
E. purga is the true source of the best kind
of Jalap. A beautiful crimson-flowered green-
house twiner, not a stove climber as mentioned
the j Uice and smoke of burning branches erroneously in books ; we have even flowered it
i; M *U MA D ;.* xi.4 S ,., " j beautifully in the open air. Greenhouse ever-
injure the eye-sight. Nat. ord.. Spuryc-
ivorls [Euphorbiacese]. Linn., 2-
Dicecia 13-Polyandria. Allied to Gus-
sonia and Hippomane.)
Stove evergreen shrubs, with white flowers ;
cuttings in sandy soil, under a bell-glass, in
spring or autumn ; fibry sandy loam. Summer
temp., 60 to 75 ; winter, 48 to 55.
E. Agallo'cha (Ceylon). 5. May. East In-
glandulo'sa (glanded). 5. May. Jamaica.
serra'ta (saw-leaved). 6. May. Chili. 1796.
EXCRESCENCE. Independently of
Galls, which are caused by the punc-
tures of insects, and the swellings
which always accompany Canker, the
excreseuces which injure the gardener's I winter, 50 to 55
green twiners ; cuttings of short side shoots in
sandy soil, under a bell-glass, and in bottom-
heat. Summer temp., 55 to 75; winter, 45
E.filifo'rme (thread -shaped). 10. Purple.
October. West Indies. 1823.
pu'rga (purgative. True Jalap). 10. Rose,
purple. September. Vera Cruz. 1838.
repa'ndum (wavy-edged). 10. Scarlet. June.
West Indies. 1793.
EXOSTE'MMA. (From exo, externally,
and stemma, a crown ; referring to the
nower-heads. Nat. ord., Cinchonarix
[Cinchonaceae). Linn., 5-Pcntandria
l-Monor/ynia. Allied to Luculia.)
Stove evergreen tree. Cuttings of ripe younp
shoots, in sand, under a glass, in bottom-heat, ;
loam and peat. Summer temp., 60 to 80;
C 382 ]
E. longiflo'rum (long-flowered). 30. White
June. Caraccas. 1820.
EXOTICS. Plants belonging to
country different from that in which
they are growing.
EXTRAVASATED SAP may arise from
1. The acrid or alkaline state of the
sap, which has been considered already,
when treating of the Canker.
2. Plethora, or that state of a plant's
excessive vigour in which the sap is
formed more rapidly than the circu-
latory vessels can convey it away.
When this occurs, rupture must take
place. If the extravasation proceeds
from this cause, there is but one course
of treatment to be pursued, root-
pruning, and reducing the staple of
the soil, by removing some of it, and
admixing less fertile earthy compo-
nents, as sand or chalk. This must
be done gradually, for the fibrous roots
that are suited for the collection of
food from a fertile soil are not at once
adapted for the introsusception of that
from a less abundant pasturage. Care
must be taken not to apply the above
remedies before it is clearly ascertained
that the cause is not an unnatural con-
traction of the sap vessels, because, in
such case, the treatment might be in-
jurious rather than beneficial. We
have always found it arising from an
excessive production of sap, if the tree
when afflicted by extravasation pro-
duces at the same time super- luxuriant
3. Local contraction of the sap ves-
sels. If the extravasation arises from
this cause, there is usually a swelling
of the bark immediately above the
place of discharge. In such a case the
cultivator's only resource is to reduce
cautiously the amount of branches, if
the bleeding threatens to be injuriously
extensive, otherwise it is of but little
consequence, acting, like temporary
discharges of blood, as a relief to the
A. The extravasation of the sap from
a wound is usually the most exhaust- j
ing, and as the wound, whether con- :
tused or cut, is liable to be a lodgement |
for water and other foreign bodies op-
posed to the healing of the injured
part, the discharge is often protracted.
This is especially the case if the wound
be made in the spring, before the leaves
are developed, as in performing the
winter pruning of the vine later than
is proper. In such case, the vine always
is weakened, and in some instances it
has been destroyed.
5. Heat attended by dryness of the
soil, as during the drought of summer,
is very liable to produce an unnatural
exudation. This is especially notice-
able upon the leaves of some plants,
and is popularly known as honey-dew.
It is somewhat analogous to that out-
burst of blood, which in such seasons
is apt to occur to man, and arises from
the increased action of the secretory
and circulatory system to which it af-
fords relief. There is this great and
essential difference, that, in the case of
plants, the extravasation is upon the
surface of the leaves, and in proportion
consequently to the abundance of the
extruded sap are their respiration and
Azaleas sometimes, but rarely, have
the hairs on their leaves, especially on
their lower surface, beaded as it were
with a resinous exudation. This can
scarcely be called a disease. It is never
found but upon plants that have been
kept in a temperature too high, and in
a soil too fertile. It is an effort to re-
ieve the surcharged vessels, and occurs
n various forms in other plants.
The various successful applications
of liquids to plants, in order to prevent
the occurrence of the honey-dew and
similar diseases, would seem to indicate
hat a morbid state of the sap is the
ihief cause of the honey -dew, for other-
wise it would be difficult to explain the
reason why the use of a solution of
common salt in water applied to the
il in which a plant is growing, can
)revent a disease caused by insects.
But if we admit that the irregular ac-
tion of the sap is the cause of the dis-
order, then we can understand that a
portion of salt introduced in the juices
of the plant would naturally have a ten-
dency to correct or vary any morbid
tendency, either correcting the too rapid
secretion of sap, stimulating it in pro-
moting its regular formation, or pre-
[ 383 ]
serving its fluidity. And that by such
a treatment the honey-dew may be en-
tirely prevented, we have often wit-
nessed when experimentalizing with
totally different objects. Thus we have
seen plants of various kinds, which
have been treated with a weak solution
of common salt and water, totally es-
cape the honey-dew, where trees of the
same kind growing in the same plot of
gound not so treated, have been mate-
rially injured by its ravages.
EYSENHA'EDTIA. (Named after Eysen-
hardt, a Prussian botanist. Nat. ord.,
Leguminous Plants [Fabacese]. Linn.,
17-Diadelphia -Decandria. Allied to
Cuttings of young shoots, in sand, in bottom-
heat, in April or May ; loam and peat. Summer
temp., 60 to 85 ; winter, 50 to 55.
E, amorphoi'des (Amorpha -like). 15. Pale
yellow. June. Mexico. 1838.
FA'BA. Garden Bean. (From phago,
to eat. Nat ord., Leguminous Plants
[Fabaceae], Linn., 17-Diadelphia 4-
Botanists place the garden bean among the
Vetches (Vicia), but for practical purposes, we
prefer keeping it distinct, under the old name,
which now gives the comprehensive designation
Fabacese to this large assemblage of plants.
Hardy annual. For culture, see Bean.
F. vulga'ris (common). 3. White. July. Egypt.
equi'na (horse). 3. Purple. July.
FABA'GO. See Zyyophy'llum.
FABIA'NA. (Named after F. Fabiano,
a Spaniard. Nat. ord., Nightshades
[Solanacese]. Linn., b-Pentandria 1-
Monogynia. Allied to Vestia.)
A half-hardy evergreen shrub, having the
aspect of a Cape heath. Seeds in a hotbed, in
March ; cuttings of firm young shoots in sand,
under a bell-glass, in April; set at first in a
cold greenhouse or pit, and then plunged in a
mild bottom-heat ; sandy peat. Winter temp.,
40 to 48.
F. imbrica'ta (scaly).
White. May. Chili.
FABEI'CIA. (Named after Fabricius,
a Swedish naturalist. Nat. ord., Myr-
tleblooms [Myrtacea]. Linn., 12-Ico-
sandria 1-Monogynia. Allied to Lepto-
Like Melaleucas, Beaufortias, Eucalyptus,
Metrosideros, and other Australian Myrtle-
blooms, they are peculiarly adapted for winter
gardens, either under glass, or for planting
against heated conservatory walls. Australian
evergreens. By seeds, in a hotbed ; but as
the plants thus raised are long in flowering,
more generally by cuttings of the young shoots,
getting firm in summer, under a bell-glass, and
in sand ; sandy loam and peat. Winter temp.,
37 to 45.
F. leeviga'ta (smooth-teaoed). 3. Yellow. June.
myrtifo'lia (Myrtle-leaved). 3. Yellow.
seri'cea (silky). 2. Yellow. 1820.
stri'cta (erect). 3. June. 1827.
FAD YE 'MA. [Named after Dr. Fady-
en, author of a Flora of Jamaica. Nat.
ord., Ferns [Polypodiaceae]. Linn.,
2-Cryptogamia l-Filiccs. Allied to
This must not be confounded with Endli-
cher's Fadgeniu, which belongs to Garryads.
Stove Fern. Division ; loam and peat. See
F. proli'fera (proliferous).
FAGE'LIA. (Named after Fayel, a
botanist. Nat. ord., Leguminous Plants
[Fabaceee]. Linn., 17-Diadelphia 4-
Decandria. Allied to Cajana.)
Greenhouse evergreen twiner. Seeds, steeped
in warm water, sown in light soil, and put in a
mild hot-bed. Cuttings of the points of young
shoots before they get hard, in sand, under a
bell-glass ; peat and loam ; both sandy and
lumpy. Winter temp., 40 to 48.
F. bi'tuminosa (pitchy). 4. Yellowish purple.
June. Cape of Good Hope. 1774.
FAGOPY'KUM. (From phago, to eat,
and pyren, a kernel; referring to the
triangular kernel of the nut. Nat.
ord.., Suck wheats [Polygoniaceffi]. Linn.,
S-Octandria 3-Trigynia. Allied to Poly-
Hardy annual. Seed in April. Common soil.
F. cymo'wm (cymed). Pink. July. Nepaul.
FAGE^'A. (Named after Dr. Fa-
grams. Nat. ord., Loganiads [Loga-
niaceee]. Linn., 5-Pentandria 1-Mono-
gynia. Allied to Logania.)
Loganiads stand foremost among the most
deadly poisons in the vegetable kingdom.
Stove evergreen trees. Cuttings of young
shoots beginning to get firm, in April, in sand,
under a bell-glass, and in bottom heat; peat
and loam. Summer temp., 60 to 80 ; winter,
55 to 60.
F. obova'ta (reversed egg-leaved). 20. White.
seyla'nica (Ceylon), 12. White, Ceylon.
FAG [ :584 ]
FA'GUS. The Beech. (From fuyo,
to eat; referring to the edible seeds.
Nat. ord., Mastworts [Corylacese].
Linn., %\-Moncecia Q-Polyandria.}
By seeds, gathered in autumn, dried in the
sun, kept dry during the winter, and sown in
light soil in March. They might be sown in
the autumn, only mice, &c., make havoc among
them ; loamy soil, over chalk, suits them well,
as the roots seldom run deep. The different
varieties are propagated by grafting in March
and April. The male catkins, when sweeped
up, are often used for packing fruit, and filling
pillows for the poor man's bed. The morel and
the truffle are chiefly found under beeches.
F. betuloi'des (Birch-like). 50. Magellan.
Cunninghu'mii (Cunningham's). New Zea-
land. 1843. Half-hardy.
F. anta'rctica (Antarctic). 50. Magellan. 1830.
castanoKfo'lia (Chesnut-leaved). June. North
Comptonieefo'lia (Comptonia-leaved). May.
ferrugi'nea (American rusty). 30. June.
North America. 1766.
Carolinia'na( Carolina). Carolina.
purpu'rea (purple). April. Germany.
sylva'tica (common wood) . 70. June. Bri-
America'na (American). 100. May.
atroru'beus (dark-red leaved}. 30.
arista' ta (crested-Jeaued). 30. May.
fo'Kis arge'nteis (silver-leaved; .
fo'liis au'reis (golden-leaved) . June.
heterophy'lla (various-leaved). 40.
inci'sa (cut-leaved). 10. June.
pe'ndula (pendulous). May. Gar-
FA'LKIA. (Named after Folk, a
Swedish botanist. Nat. ord., Bind-
u-ecds [Convolvulacese]. Linn., o-
I'cntandria 1-Diyynia. )
Greenhouse evergreen creeper. Cuttings,
under a hand-glass, in sandy peat, in April or
May; peat and loam. Winter temp., 35 to 45.
F. rc'pens (creeping). 4. Pink. July. Cape
of Good Hope. 1774.
FALL OF THE LEAF. Dr. Lindley
thus explains this phenomenon. In
the course of time a leaf becomes in-
capable of performing its functions ;
its passages are choked up by the
deposit of sedimentary matter; there
is no longer a free communication
between its veins and the wood and
| liber. It changes colour, ceases to de-
compose carbonic acid, absorbs oxygen
instead, gets into a morbid condition,
and dies ; it is then thrown off. This
phenomenon, which we call the fall of
the leaf, is going on the whole year.
Those trees which lose the whole of
their leaves at the approach of winter,
and are called deciduous, begin, in
fact, to cast their leaves within a few
weeks after the commencement of their
venial growth ; but the mass of their
foliage is not rejected till late in the
season. Those, on the other hand,
which are named evergreens, part with
their leaves much more slowly ; retain
them in health at the time when the
leaves of other plants are perishing ;
and do not cast them till a new spring
has commenced, when other trees are
leafing, or even later. In the latter
class, the function of the leaves are
going on during all the winter, although
languidly ; they are constantly attract-
ing sap from the earth through the
spongelets, and are therefore in a state
of slow but continual winter growth.
FALLOWING is needless where there
is a due supply of manure, and a suffi-
cient application of the spade, fork, and
hoe to the soil. Fallowing can have
no other beneficial influence than by
destroying weeds, aiding the decom-
position of offensive exuviae, exposing
the soil to the disintegrating influence
of the air, and accumulating in it de-
composing matter. Now all these
effects can be produced by judicious
J manuring, and a constant application
! of the hoe and fork.
FALSE BLOSSOM is the very erroneous
name applied sometimes to the male
flowers, which containing only stamens,
do not produce fruit, yet are essential
for causing fruitfulness in, what gar
deners call, the true blossoms, which
contain the pistils.
FAN PALM. Co'rypha.
FARA'MEA. (The derivation has not
been explained, probably a commemo-
rative one. Nat. ord., Ciiichonads [Cin-
chonacea?.]. Linn., n-Triaudria \-i\Io-
ii"f/i/n/ii. Allied to the Coffee tree.)
A sweet-scented stove evergreen bush, Joii
known in our gardens as Tctramerium. Cut-
tings of firm young shoots in May, in sand,
[ 885 ]
under a bell-glass, in bottom heat ; peat and
loam, both fibry, with silver sand, and lumps
F. odorati'ssima (most-fragrant). 6. White.
West Indies. 1793.
FARI'NA, a name for the pollen or
fertilizing dust produced by the anthers,
or male organs, of a flower.
FARM-YARD MANURE. See Dung.
FARSE'TIA. (Named after Farseti,
an Italian botanist. Nat. ord., Cmci-
fcrs [Brassicacete]. Linn., \b-Tetra-
dynamia. Allied to Alyssum.)
Hardy annuals sow in border in March or
April ; hardy perennials by division and seeds;
half-hardy evergreens by cuttings, under a
hand-light, in May, in sandy loam. Sandy
loam ; good for rockworks and mounds. The
half-hardy should have the protection of a pit
F. cheimnthifo'lia (Wall - flower - leaved). 1 .
Yellow. July. Levant. 1818. Annual.
clypca'ta (buckler podded). 14. Yellow.
July. South Europe. 1596. Her-
HALF-HARD Y EVERGREENS.
F. cheiranthoi'des (Stock-like). 1. White,
purple. July. Levant. 1788.
erioca'rpa (woolly-fruited). 1. Yellow. July.
lunarioi'des (Lunaria-like). 1. Yellow. July.
suffrutico'sa (sub-shrubby). 1. Violet. April.
FEABERRY. A local name for the
FEATHERS. See Animal Matters.
FE'DIA. (A word of unknown origin.
Nat. ord., Valeriantvorts [Valerianaceffi].
Linn., 2-Diandria l-Monoyynia t Allied
Hardy annuals. Seeds, in the open border,
F. cornuco'picc (cornucopia-fruited). 1. Red.
July. South Europe. 1796.
gracUiflo'rtt (slender-flowered). A. Pink.
FELI'CIA. ( From fdix, happy; from
their cheerful appearance. Nat. ord.,
Composites [Asteracere]. Linn,, U)-Si/ii-
yenesia '2-Fnislranea. Allied to Asters.)
Natives of the Cape of Good Hope. Annuals
sown in open border in April ; evergreens re-
quire the protection of a cool greenhouse, and
may be easily raised by cuttings under a hand-
light in May ; soil chiefly sandy loam.
F; tene'lla (delicate). Violet. June. 1769.
F. angustifo'lia (narrow-leaved). 4. Lilac.
gla'bra (smooth). 6. Blue.
echina'ta (prickly). Yellow. May. 1820.
refle'xa (bent-back). Red, white. February.
Some of the above have been de-
scribed under the genus Aster.
FASCICLE is the name applied to
flowers on small stalks variously sub-
divided and attached to one flower-
stem, and collected into a close bundle,
level at the top, as in the Sweet Wil-
FEMALE FERN. Asple'niumfi'lix-fce'-
FENCES are employed to mark the
boundary of property, to exclude tres-
passers, either human or four-footed,
and to afford shelter. They are either
live fences, and are then known as Jicdyes,
or dead, and are then either lanks,
flitches, palings, or walls ; or they are a
union of two, to which titles the reader-
FENNEL (Ane'lhum fanii'cuhmi) in a
dry soil is longest-lived. It is propa-
gated both by offsets, partings of the
root, and by seed, any time between
the beginning of February and the end
of April. The best season for sowing
is autumn, soon after the seed is ripe,
at which time it may also be planted.
Insert the plants a foot apart, and
the seed in drills, six or twelve inches
asunder, according as it is intended
that the plants are to be transplanted
or to remain.
When advanced to the height of four
or five inches, if they are intended for
removal, the! plants are pricked out
eight inches apart, to attain strength
for final planting in autumn or spring.
Water must be given freely at every
removal, and until established, if the
weather is at all dry.
The stalks of those that are not re-
quired to produce seed must be cut
down as often as they run up in sum-
mer. If this is strictly attended to the
the roots will last for many years ; but
those which are allowed to ripen their
seed seldom endure for more than five
[ 386 ]
FE'NZLIA. See JDiauthoi'dis.
FERNANDE'ZIA. (After Fernandez, a
Spaniard. Nat. ord., Orchids [Orchi-
dacese]. Linn., 20-Gynandria l-Monan-
dria. Allied to Brassia.)
Stove orchids, with yellow flowers. Divi-
sions ; turfy peat and potsherds, raised in the
pots, and well drained. Summer temp., 65 to
90, with moist atmosphere ; winter, 60, and
F. acu'ta (acute leaved). &. June. Trinidad.
e'legans (elegant). . June. Trinidad.
longifo'lia (long-leaved). July. Merida.
luni'f era (crescent-lipped). July. Manilla.
robu'sta (robust). May. Guatemala. 1841.
FERNE'LIA. (Named after J. Fernel,
a French physician. Nat. ord., Cin-
chonads [Cinchonacese]. Linn., 4-7V-
trandia \-Monoyynia. Allied to Con-
Stove evergreen shrubs. Cuttings of firm
young shoots in May, in sand, under a bell-
glass, and in bottom heat ; peat and loam,
lumpy and sandy. Summer temp., 60 to 80 ;
winter, 50 to 55.
F. buxifo'lia (box-leaved). Isle of France. 1816.
obova'ta (reversed - egg - leaved). Isle of
FERO'NIA. (After Feronia, the god-
dess of the groves. Nat. ord., Citron-
worts [Aurantiacese]. IQ-Decandria
\-Monogynia. Allied to the Orange.)
The young leaves, when bruised, are said to
be deliciously fragrant ; the flowers and wood
also partake of the fragrance of the orange and
citron. Stove evergreen. Cuttings of ripe
young shoots, in spring or summer, in sandy
peat, under a bell-glass, and in bottom heat ;
loam, peat, rotten dung, and a little sand.
Summer temp., 60 to 80 ; winter, 48 to 65.
F. elepha'ntum (Elephant-ajop/e). 4. Blush.
April. East Indies. 1804.
FERNS. STOVE FERNS.
Propagation : by Division. Any spe-
cies of Fern that sends out stolons, or
creeping stems underground, readily
increases by division. This requires
considerable care. They should never
be divided till the parts to be di-
vided have a portion of roots to each.
Turn the plants out of the pots, and
with a sharp knife divide the plants
into as many parts as have roots and
a small ball; pot them into pots only
u little larger than the little ball ; drain
them well, give a gentle watering, and
place them in a shady place till they
begin to grow again, and send up fresh
By Young Buds on the Fronds. Se-
veral species produce miniature or em-
bryo plants on the fronds. These should
be pegged down in a pot filled with the
proper soil, and placed so near to the
parent plant, as to allow the fronds to
remain attached to it. When the buds
have made roots into the new soil, and
pushed forth some new fronds, they
should be detached from the parent,
and potted into 2^-inch pots, gently
watered, and placed in a shady place.
Some few kinds have these buds or
knobs so strongly developed, that they
may, when in a sufficiently forward
state, be cut off and potted at once.
Examples of this kind of bud may be
observed in Pteris palma'ta, P. eff'u'sa,
Dare' a rhizophy'llwn, and Woodwardia
By Seed. Several of the finest Ferns