cannot be increased by division, or, if
they can, several years elapse. If right
means are followed, they may be raised
by seed. This requires a constantly
humid, warm, atmosphere, and little, if
any, sunshine. Procure a wide earthen
pan, a hand or bell-glass that will go
within it and rest on the bottom, and
a shallow wide pot that will stand
within the glass and above the rim
of the pan two or three inches. Fill
this pot half full of potsherds, and
upon them a sufficient number of
small pieces of turfy peat, mixed with
small pieces of sand stone, about the
size of peas, to come up to the rim of
the pot. Then take the frond of any
fern that is full of spores or seeds,
and, with the hand, brush them off
upon the prepared pot, set it in the
pan, place the glass over it, and till the
pan nearly with water. Place the whole
in the warmest part of the stove, shad-
ing it from the sun. The small pieces
of turf and stone can be easily sepa-
rated, and the seedlings on each put
into small pots, without any danger of
destroying them by the process of pot-
ting. In the moist atmosphere of the
orchid-house, several species of fern
will come up spontaneously in the pots,
[ 387 ]
baskets, and upon the blocks. These
may be carefully detached as soon as
they are large enough, and potted in
small pots, placed for a time in a shady
place, and they will soon make nice
Soil. Ferns require a light open
soil. A compost of sandy fibrous peat
two parts, turfy loam one part, and
leaf-mould one part, with a free admix-
ture of sand, will suit them well.
Summer Culture. Temperature, 65
minimum, 75 maximum, by day, and
60 by night.
Time of Potting. Early in March,
drain well, and give a moderate shift.
Small plants may be potted twice, the
second time the first week in July
Watering. Ferns are like heaths, if
they once get thoroughly dry they will
perish, therefore, keep them constantly
well watered, more especially when the
pots are full of roots. Should they by
any chance appear to be suffering se-
verely from drought, take such and let
them stand in a vessel of water, that
will cover the top of the pot, for an
hour or two. This will thoroughly
wet every part of the ball, and often
recover the plant. If such a conveni-
ence is at hand, the smaller ferns, like
other stove plants, will be greatly be-
nefitted by a few weeks sojourn in the
middle of summer in a deep cold pit.
Here they should be well supplied with
water, and nearly every afternoon, about
three o'clock, have a gentle syringing,
shutting them up close afterwards. As
soon as the nights begin to be cold in
September, remove them back again
into the stove, and give them an extra
supply of water for a short time, till
they become used to the drier atmo-
Winter Culture. Temperature, 60
maximum, and 55 minimum, by day;
52 by night. During this season,
rather less water will be required. Ee-
move all decaying fronds, and give
them a top-dressing in December. This
will carry them through till the potting
season arrives in March.
Insects. The green fly and thrip
will frequently appear on them. Smok-
ing frequently with tobacco will destroy
Propagation. The same methods of
increase suit the greenhouse varieties,
and also the same compost. The only
difference is in the temperature. In
summer they may be set out of doors
with the rest of the greenhouse inha-
bitants, and brought into it as soon as
there is any danger of frost. The great
advantage of growing ferns in a green-
house is, that they fill up many a corner
where nothing else will grow.
Propagation : by Division. All that
produce side shoots may be increased
by division. If they are planted out in
a bed, or on rockwork, they should be
taken up and divided into pieces, with
a portion of earth to each. They may
be replanted; but a better plan is to
pot them, and place them in a cold
frame, kept close, and shaded till they
make fresh roots and fronds. Scarce
kinds may be increased by seed. Even
the rare Woo'dsia ilvc'nsis has been in-
creased by seed. Something of the
same method as that described for stove
ferns must be adopted for hardy ones.
If some small sand stones be placed
in a damp shady place, and the fern
seed be scattered upon them, and then
be covered with a hand-glass, the seed
will germinate, and the stones will be
covered with ferns. For the more rare
kinds a little more care will be neces-
sary. Sow them upon rough pieces of
dead turf, place them under a hand-
glass, in a situation where they can
have a close, warm, moist atmosphere ;
a cold frame, kept close in summer,
will answer admirably.
Culture. Hardy ferns are found in
various situations, and, consequently,
require various modes of treatment.
Some grow on rocks in exposed situa-
tions ; others in boggy moist ground ;
some grow on hedge banks and shady
woods, whilst others again grow near
waterfalls, where the spray keeps
them constantly moist. To succeed in
cultivating all these in one place, an
approximation must be made to the
circumstances in which they are found
wild. A low, moist soil, at the foot of a
bank of rockwork, will suit those found
[ 388 ]
in a similar situation ; the lower part
of rock will suit those found on hedge
banks. Those found in shady woods
may be planted on the north side of the
rockAvork, near to the ground; whilst
those that grow wild on exposed rocks,
or old walls, may be placed near the
top of the rockwork in chinks between
the stones. The most difficult to ma-
nage are those found within the reach
of the spray of a waterfall. The only
Avay to succeed tolerably with these, is
to place them so as they can be covered
with a hand-glass in the shady side of
the rock, and to keep them moist by
sprinkling them every day through the
rose of a watering-pot, protecting them
in winter by a covering of matting
thrown over the hand-glass in frosty
FERRA'RIA. (Named after Ferrari,
nn Italian botanist. Nat. ord., Irids
[Iridacese]. Linn., IQ-Monadclphia 1-
Triandria. Allied to Pardanthus.)
Very dwarf bulbs, from the Cape of Good
Hope. Seeds, sown when ripe, or kept dry un-
til the following spring; offsets, which are plen-
tifully produced ; sandy loam and a little peat;
bulbs to be kept dry after the leaves have
withered; fresh potted when they begin to
move, and then supplied with moisture. If
planted on a warm border, placed at least six
inches deep, and the soil and young shoots pro-
tected from frost, they may be grown in the
F. angustifo'lia (narrow-leaved). . Brown.
anther o'sa (/arg-e-anthered). . Green,
brown. June. 1800.
atra'ta (darkened). ^. Dark purple. June.
divarica'tu (straggling), i. Brown. June.
donga' ta (elongated). Dark purple. July.
Monte Video. 1828.
obtusifo'lia (blunt-leaved). A. Brown. June.
uncina'ta (hooked). . Brown. June. 1825.
undula'ta(\v&vy -leaved). . Green, brown.
FE'RULA. ^ Giant Fennel. (Pliny's
name for this plaflt. Nat. ord., ITmlcl-
Iifcrs [Apiacece]. Linn., ti-Pentandria
2-Dif/ynia. Allied to Heracleum.)
The giant fennels, like the Cow parsnips, are
peculiarly well fitted to form striking contrasts
near water, on banks, or by the recesses of rock-
work in gardens, besides their interest as fur-
nishing assafcetida from the milky juice of F.
persica, &c. Hardy herbaceous perennials,
with yellow flowers, except where otherwise
specified. Seed in spring; common garden
F. ammoni'aca (ammoniac). 6. White, June.
assafce'tida (assafcetida). 7. July. Persia.
campe'stris (field). 3. June. Tauria. 1829.
ctt;>i#'raj(hair-like). 4. June. Spain. 1820.
Ca'spica (Caspian). 3. July. Caucasus. 181Q.
commu'nis (common). 10. July. South
Ferula'go (Ferulago). 6. July. South
glau'ca (milky-green). 8. July. Italy. 150,6.
longifo'lia (long-lejjved). 4. July. Siberia.
meoi'des (Meum-like). 3. July. Levant.
nu'da (naked). 1. July. Siberia. 182J.
nudicau'lis (naked - stemmed). January.
obtusifo'lia (blunt-leaved). 1. Green. July.
orienta'lis (eastern). 3. July. Levant. 1759-
pauciju'ga (fcw-paired-^eauerf). !< June.
Fe'rsica (Persian). 6. August. Persia.
pube'scens (downy). 1. July. Siberia. 1820.
Sidi'rica (Siberian). 4. July. Siberia. 1816.
Songa'rica (Songarican). August. Siberia.
stri'cta (erect). 2. July. Cape of Good
sylva'tica (wood). 3. June. Podolia. 1829.
t/iyrsiflo'ra (thyrse-flowered). 1. June.
tingita'na (Tangier). 8. July. Barbary.
villo'sa (shaggy). 1. White. July. North
FESTOON. An arch curving down-
wards, and the most graceful form for
training climbers, either out of doors
or in the conservatory.
FESTU'CA. Fescue Grass. A genus
of grasses containing some of the best
of our pasture grasses, such as Sheep's
Fescue, jP. ovina, and Hardish Fescue,
FJCA'RIA, Pilewort. (From fit-its, ;i
fig ; in reference to the fig- shaped little
tubers of the root. Nat. ord., Cro-w-
foots [Kammculaceae]. Linn., Ift-Poly-
andr'm C>-Polyyynia. Allied to Ranun-
One of the prettiest of our native early spring
flowers. Hardy tubers. Division of the tube-
rous roots at any time, but best when the plant
is pushing afresh. The garden varieties, as
well as the common one, do best under the
shade of trees.
F. vc'rnu (spring). $. Yellow. May. Britain.
pa'llida (pale-flowered) , . Pale
_. ple'na (double-flattered), &. Yellow.
[ 389 ]
Fi'cJrs. Fig-Tree. (The fig-tree has
nearly the same name in all the Euro-
pean languages, and is supposed to he
derived from the Hebrew name fag.
Nat. ord., Morads [Moracese]. Linn.,
Besides the cultivated figs, there are a vast
number of other species belonging to Ficus, all
natives of the tropics, where they arrest the
attention of the traveller either by their grate-
ful shade, their enormous growth, or by their
manner of sending down roots from their
branches to support and extend their distorted
arms, as in the Banyan tree. By layers and
cuttings ; by the latter mode in the case of
greenhouse and stove species. In either case
dry the cut ends before inserting them in
sandy soil, but not removing more of the leaves
than those at the joint cut through ; in each
case place a hand-light over them. For the
stove species there should be the addition of a
hotbed ; peat and loam will suit them well, the
latter should preponderate when compactness
of growth is desirable. F. elastica is the Indian
rubber plant. F. Cnrica, the cultivated fig, is
the only one hardy enough to bear our climate.
Most of the stove species will do in a warm
greenhouse. See Fig,
F. Cape'nsls (Cape). 4, Cape of Good Hope.
Ca'rica (Carian. Common fig). 15. June.
South Europe. 1548. Deciduous.
corda'ta (heart-leaved). 6. Cape of Good
macrophy'lla (large-leaved). 14, New
jfu'mila (dwarf). . China. 175Q. Trailer.
stipula'ta (stipulate). $. China. 1/71.
F. arbutlfo'lia (Arbutus-leaved). March. 1825.
auranti'aca (Orange-like). 10. 18*24.
Benjami'na (Benjamin-tree). 10. East
coria'cea (leathery-teaped). 10. East In-
corona 1 ta (crowned). 6. June. 1800.
crassine'rvia (thick- nerved). 10. South
dumo'sa (bushy). 6. 1825.
elu'stica (elastic-gwrn). 20. East Indies.
eUi'ptica (oval). 20. South America. 1824.
Hooke'ri (Hooker's). 6. West Indies. 1816.
infecto'ria (staining). 15. West Indies.
leeviga'ta (polished). 6. West Indies. 1823.
leucato'ma (white-cleft), 20. East Indies.
Lichtenstci'nii (Lichtenstein's). 3. Cape of
Good Hope. 1824.
Loga'nii (Logan's). 20. Caraccas. 1824.
longifo'lia (long-leaved). 20. East Indies.
myrtifo'lia (myrtle-leaved) . 4. 1824.
nymplnBifo'lid (Water-lily-leaved). 10. East
F. oltusifo'lia (blunt-leaved). 20. Mexico,
oppositifo'lia (opposite-leaved). 4. East
pertu'sa (piercer-leaved). 8. South Ame-
popu'lnea (Poplar -leaved). 12. South Ame-
recemo'sa (racemed). 4. East Indies. 175.
religio'sa (religious. Banian-tree). 25. East
re'pens (creeping-summed). . East In-
dies. 1805. Creeper.
rubine'rvia (red-nerved). 10. Brazil. 1824.
sagitta'ta (arrow-head-teawed). . East
Indies. 1810. Creeper.
tincto'ria (dying). 14. May. Society Isles,
urophy'lla (tail-leaved). 2. June. India.
veno'sa (veiny-leaved). 10. East Indies.
viscifo'lia (clammy-leaved). 10. 1820.
FIE'LDIA. (Named after Baron Field,
once chief judge of New South Wales.
Nat. ord., Gesnerworts [Gesneraceoe].
Linn., 14:-Didynamia \-Gymnospermia.
Allied to Cyrtandra.)
Greenhouse climber*; cuttings of points of
shoots getting a little firm, or, better still, firm
side shoots, about two inches in length, in sandy
soil, under a bell-glass, kept shaded, and after
a fortnight placed in a mild bottom-heat ; peat
and loam, with a little sand, and pieces of char-
coal. Winter temp., 40 to 48.
F. austra'lis (southern). 1. White. July. New
FIG. (Fi'cus ca'rica}.
Varieties. For forcing, we recom-
mend the Brown Turkey, or Lee's Per-
petual, Pregussata, and White Marseilles.
The Nerii is also well spoken of. To
plant out-doors, the Brunswick, Brown
Turkey, Brown Ischia, Black Ischia, and
Propagation. The fig roots so firmly
by cuttings, that few resort to any other
mode. They propagate, however, as
freely by layers. Some persons, also,
have raised them from seed, hut it does
not appear that they are valuable, though
new kinds have been originated by such
means. Cuttings of ripe wood, about
three or four inches long, planted
in pots in January or February, and
plunged in any ordinary bottom-heat,
will make very nice plants during the
same summer. Those for forcing in
pots or boxes, must be potted off when
rooted, and again plunged in bottom
warmth, and the highest course of cul-
[ 390 ]
ture pursued, shifting them when ne-
cessary. Those who plant on the open
walls, should do so in the middle of
March ; and if the plants are from pots,
the roots must be uncoiled and spread
nicely out. Many persons who have esta-
blished trees, merely take suckers away
from them ; such only need fastening
in the soil, and, it may be, a slight
shading when they begin to grow.
Soil. The fig will thrive in almost
any ordinary garden soil, but is said to
prefer a chalky loam. When planted
against walls out-of-doors, care must
be taken not to make the soil rich, for
invincible grossness would be the con-
sequence. A plain "maiden" soil is
quite good enough for general pur-
Culture in Growing Period. Out-door
culture consists in an early disbudding
of all superfluous shoots ; this is per-
formed when the young shoots are
about three inches long, reserving all
those which are short-jointed and com-
pact-looking. Care must be taken to
reserve shoots for blank places. This
disbudding is generally performed at
twice or thrice during the season ; for
waste and watery-looking spray will
continue to spring up until August,
especially in moist summers, and when
the plants are gross. Such disbudding
should be carried out until almost
every leaf of the future year's bearing-
wood obtains a free exposure to sun-
shine, say by the middle of August.
About the end of this month it is
accounted good practice to pinch the
ends of all growing shoots, or rather
to squeeze them with the thumb and
finger. Nothing more is needed as
summer culture, except a timely train-
ing of all reserved shoots, in order to
obtain all the sunlight possible.
Culture in Rest Period. This merely
consists in protection from frost, and
in pruning. Towards the beginning
of December, some protection ought
to be given, as mats, straw, fern fronds,
or spruce boughs. Before closing
them, or, indeed, at the end of Octo-
ber, every fig which has become as
large as a horse-bean, should be pulled
away, for such rob the trees, and are
sure to perish. The trees must be un-
covered again in the end of February,
if matted, otherwise, such -materials as
fern or straw may remain on a little
longer ; the spruce until pruning time.
The latter operation should not be per-
formed until the young buds are begin-
ning to swell, when wood of a proper
character may be distinguished readily
from that which is useless. All the
latter must be cut away, unless re-
quired for blank spaces ; but if summer
disbudding has been properly perform-
ed, there will be little for the pruner to
do. After this, they must be duly
Forcing. Some build houses for the
fig, but most prefer growing them in
tubs or large pots. The general princi-
ples of forcing them so closely resemble
those for the vine, that it will be needless
to go into details. As to general tem-
perature, although they will bear much
heat, yet most cultivators agree that
one intermediate, between the peach-
house and the forcing vinery, is the
most congenial. It requires, however,
a little more excitement to bring the
fig into leaf than the peach. Under
good house culture, it will produce two
satisfactory crops in one year. A first
crop may be obtained as early as
May, and after a couple of months or so,
the second will commence ripening; the
latter being those on the wood of the
current season. The first crop, or the
embryo fruit of the previous year, are
very apt to fall prematurely, and much
care is necessary. Kegular waterings
the moment they are dry, and an avoid-
ance of atmospheric extremes, are the
best preventives. Most good culti-
vators make a point of pinching the
ends of the young shoots when about
six or eight eyes or buds in length ;
this soon causes the fruit to form in
the axils of the leaves. Frequent
syringings should be practised in the
growing season ; and when at rest they
should never be subjected to a lower
temperature than 40. Under all cir-
cumstances, the fig delights in a soil
somewhat moist : a neglect of watering
when necessary, even for a day, may
cause them to cast their fruit.
Fruit. Its use is almost entirely
confined to the ripe state, as dessert ;
C 391 ]
as for keeping, if such is attempted,
it must be on the retarding system,
by partial shade, and a lowering of
temperature just before ripening.
Insects. The Bed Spider and the
Brown Scale alone cause any alarm to
Fig-cultivators. The spider must be
combatted by the syringe, by an occa-
sional dusting of sulphur, and by dress-
ing the shoots all over, before com-
mencing forcing, with soap water and
sulphur ; three ounces of soft soap to
a gallon of warm water, well beat up,
adding four handsful of sulphur, will
make a mixture, which, brushed into
every crevice, will extirpate both scale
and spider. Sulphur, however, should
be used on the pipes during the grow-
FIG MARIGOLD. Mesembrya'nthcmnm.
FiGURE-OF-8 MOTH. Epi'sema.
FIMBEIA'RIA. (From Jimlria, fringe ;
a second name for Schwannia, a fine
shrub with fringed leaves ; hence the
synonyme. Nat. ord., Malpighiads
[Malpighiacese]. Linn., 10-Decandria
4-Pentaqynia. Allied to Camarea.)
Stove evergreen climber. Cuttings of ripe
shoots, in sand, under a bell-glass, in spring or
summer, and plunged in a sweet bottom-heat ;
sandy loam, turfy peat, a little silver sand, and
a few pieces of charcoal. Winter temp., 50 to
55 ; summer, 60 to 85.
F. e'legam (elegant). Yellow. South America.
FINGERS-AND-TOES. See Amlury.
FINOCHIO, or Azorean Fennel (Ane'-
thum Azo'ricum) cannot be cultivated
successfully in this country.
FIR. Pi' mis.
FIRE. See Furnace.
FISH. See Animal Matters.
FISCHE'RIA. (Named after Dr. Fischer
of St. Petersburg!!. Nat. ord., Ascle-
j/t<ls [Asclepiadaeese]. Linn., 5-Pen-
tandria 2-Digynia. Allied to Gono-
Stove evergreen climber. Cuttings of shoots,
young or old, in light open soil, and in heat ;
peat and loam, with broken bricks and charcoal
mixed with the compost, in addition to good
drainage. Summer temp., 60 to 80; winter.
48 to 55.
F. sca'ndens (climbing). Green, yellow. May.
South America. 1826.
FLACOU'RTIA. (Named after E. Fla-
court, a French botanist. Nat. ord.,
Bixads [Flacourtiacese] . Linn., 22-
Stove evergreens with white flowers, the fruit
of which are wholesome. Cuttings of half-ri-
pened shoots, in April, in sand, and in heat,
under a bell-glass ; peat and loam. Summer
temp., 60 to 85 ; winter, 50 to 55.
F. cataphra'cta (all-armed). 4. East Indies.
flave'scens (yellowish). 15. Guinea. 1780.
ine'rmis (unarmed). 20. East Indies. 181Q.
Ramo'ntchi (Ramontchi). 12. July. Mada-
rhamnoi'des (Rhamnus-like). 4. Cape of
Good Hope. 1816.
rotundifo'lia (round-leaved). 12. East In-
sa'pida (well-tasted. Esculent). 10. East
sepia'ria (hedge). 6. East Indies. 1816.
FLAGELLA'RIA. (From Jlagello, to
whip or scourge ; in reference to the
long flexible shoots Nat. ord., Spider-
worts [Commelynaceae]. Linn., 6-
Stove evergreen climber. Cuttings in sand,
under a bell-glass, but chiefly by suckers ; peat
and loam ; more curious than beautiful ; leaves
F. I'ndica (Indian). 7- White. June. India.
FLAKE is the term by which a carna-
tion is distinguished that has two
colours only, and these extending
through the length of the petals.
FLAME LILY. Pyroli'rion.
FLAX - STAR. Lysima'chia li'num-
FLINDE'RSIA. (Named in honour of
Capt. M. Flinders, R. N., who explored
the coast of New Holland, in the be-
ginning of this century. Nat. ord.,
Cedrelads [Cedrelacese]. Linn., 10-
Decandria \-Monogynia. Allied to
A greenhouse evergreen tree. Cuttings of
the ripened shoots in sand, under a bell-glass,
in spring; loam and peat. Winter temp.,
38 to 45.
F, Austra'lis (southern). 60. White. New
FLORESTI'NA. (Derivation not ex-
plained. Nat. ord., Composites [Aste-
raceoe]. Linn., 19-Synyenesia l-^qualis.
Allied to Bahia.)
Seeds of callosa in the open ground, in April ;
[ 30-2 ]
seeds of pedata in a hotbed in March, and
transplanted in May to a sheltered situation, or
grown in a cool greenhouse.
F. eallo'sa (hardened). 1). White. June.
peda'ta (double-lobed-leaved). White. July.
FLORETS. The small stalkless flowers
united on a common undivided recep-
tacle, and enclosed in one common
calyx to form a compound flower.
FLORIST. A dealer in flowers, flower-
ing shrubs, and their seeds.
FLORISTS' FLOWERS are those which,
by their beauty or fragrance, power to
produce permanent varieties, and faci-
lity of cultivation, are so largely in
demand as to render them especially
worthy of cultivation as an article of
Mr. Glenny has justly enumerated
the necessaiy characteristics of a flo-
rist's flower to be 1st. The power to
be perpetuated and increased by slips
and other modes independent of its
seed. 2ndly. The power to produce
new varieties from seed, capable, like
their parent, of being perpetuated ;
and, 3rdly, it must possess sufficient
interest and variety to be grown in
At present the chief florists' flowers
are the Amaryllis, Anagallis, Anemone,
Auricula, Calceolaria, Carnation, Chry-
santhemum, Cineraria, Crocus, Dahlia,
Fritillary, Fuchsia, Gladiolus, Hyacinth,
Hydrangea, Ixia, Iris, Lily, Lobelia,
Narcissus, Pansy, Pieony, Pelargonium,
Petunia, Phlox, Pink, Polyanthus, Ra-
nunculus, Rhododendron, Rose, Tulip,
FLOWER. See Bloom.
FLOWER FENCE. Poinciu'na.
FLOWERING ASH. O'rnus.
FLOWER OF JOVE. Ly'chnis Jlo's
FLOWER-GARDEN is that portion of
the ground in the vicinity of the resi-
dence disposed in parterres and bor-
ders, tenanted by flowers and flowering
shrubs, and among walks and lawns,
so that the occupiers of the house may
have ready access to what is so beau-
tiful in form, colour, and fragrance.
SeeLantlsctipr Gardatiii//, Plantation, &c.