FLOWER POTS are of various sixes
and names :
Thimbles and thumbs ; any size under three
inches diameter at the top.
Six-inch . .
Nine-inch . .
Fifteen- inch . .
In addition to the above, there is a
description of flower pots called iip-
riyhts, which are used for growing bul-
bous plants, the roots of which do not
spread laterally but perpendicularly.
They are deeper in proportion to their
width than common flower pots, and
may be thus particularised
Used for growing 7
or a large mass of
Gladioli, and third-
sized bulbs of Japan
lilies ; for ordinary-
sized Alstrsemerias ;
and for large tubers
of Tropoeolum tri-
colorum and its al-
For 5 Hyacinths, Nar-
cissi, or strong early
tulips, like Golden
Standard and Rex
For 3 Hyacinths, or
Narcissi, and for 1
For single Hyacinths,
or Narcissi ; for 5
Ixias or Crocuses ;
and for 4 dwarf early
Tulips, such as the
For sizes larger than 15-inch it is
needless to have any pots but those of
the usual proportions.
Thimbles are sometimes called " small
nineties," and thumbs, "large nineties."
The form and material also vary.
[ 300 ]
Mr. Beck makes them very successfully
of slate ; and the prejudice against
glazed pots is now exploded.
It was formerly considered important
to have the pots made of a material as
porous as possible ; but a more miser-
able delusion never was handed down
untested from one generation to an-
other. Stone-ware and china-ware are
infinitely preferable, for they keep the
roots more uniformly moist and warm.
Common garden pots, if not plunged,
should be thickly painted. Large pots
have been recommended to be em-
ployed, and there is no doubt that this
is a system much abridging the gar-
dener's labour ; but as with due care
small pots will produce magnificent
specimen plants, we cannot recommend
an adoption of large pots, ensuring as
they do such an immense sacrifice of
room in the hot and greenhouses.
Captain Thurtell, one of the most suc-
cessful of growers of the Pelargonium,
never employed pots larger than twenty-
It is usual to have saucers in which
to place flower pots when in the house,
and so far as preventing stains and the
occurrence of dirt, they are deserving
adoption ; but as to their being used
for applying water to plants, they are
worse than useless, except to plants
almost aquatic. The great difficulty
in pot cultivation is to keep the
drainage regular ; and no more effective
preventive of this could be devised
than keeping a pot in a saucer contain-
ing water. No plan for most cultivated
plants could be invented more contrary
to nature ; for we all know that she
supplies moisture to the surface of the
soil, and allows it to descend, thus sup-
plying the upper roots first. For draw-
ings of various flower pots see The
Cottage Gardener, No. 64.
FLOWER FENCE. Poincia'na.
FLOWER STAGES are made for the
exhibition of flowers at shows, in the
greenhouse, and elsewhere. The fol-
lowing are some very judicious observa-
tions on the subject : The first object
in the construction of stages should be
to have them so formed and situated
as to afford facilities for grouping
plants ; the second should be to give
plants more the appearance of growing
in borders than upon artificial struc-
tures; and the third to keep the pot
out of sight. This is requisite for two
reasons : first, because they are no
ornament ; and, secondly, that it is
always desirable to protect the plant
from being scorched by exposure to
the sun. It is also desirable to adopt
another mode of construction, for the
purpose of giving plants that aspect
which is most suited to their habits ;
and, therefore, instead of placing the
stages from the front to the back of
the house, as is generally the case, let
them be placed in groups of stages,
thus producing an effect similar to the
borders in a well - arranged flower-
garden. The spectators, in their pro-
gress from group to group, would be
attracted by the separate display in
each, instead of having their attention
drawn away by a whole blaze of beauty
Mr. Ainger, also, makes these good
suggestions : Stages are frequently
formed of an equal or nearly equal
series of ascents, in consequence of
which the upper plants are by no
means so well seen as the lower ones.
The proper plan is to commence by
small elevations, gradually increasing
as the shelves recede from the eye.
The lowest shelf to be eighteen inches
from the floor, the first rise is six
inches, the next nine, twelve, fifteen,
eighteen, twenty-one, and so on. The
upper shelves should also be broader
than the lower, for larger pots. The
advantage of this arrangement as com-
manding a better view of the flowers
FLUES are pipes formed of brick or
slate, for conducting heated air through
stoves or other buildings where a high
artificial temperature is desired. It
is a mode of heating much less used
than formerly, being superseded by the
much more manageable and effectual
modes of heating by hot water; and
flues have the additional disadvantages,
that they require frequent sweeping,
and that they emit a sulphurous fume
that is injurious to plants and disagree-
able to the frequenters of the structures
I so heated. This has been obviated by
using Valencia slates in the place of
bricks, yet flues under few circumstances
can compare with either the pipe or
tank system of hot water heating. When
flues are employed, they are constructed
inside and near the walls of the build-
ing; each flue eight or nine inches
wide in the clear, by two or three bricks
on edge deep, ranged horizontally one
over the other the whole length of the
back wall, in three or four returns com-
municating with each other, continued
also along the end and front walls in
one or two ranges, to be used occasion-
ally; furnished with a regulator to slide
open and shut as required, the whole
proceeding from the first lowermost
flue, which communicates immediately
from the furnace or fire-place behind
either the back wall at one end, or in
the back part of the end walls; or if
very long stoves, of more than forty
feet length, two fire-places are requisite,
one at each end ; each having its set of
flues ranging half-way ; each set of
flues terminating in an upright chimney
at the end of the back outside. Flues
are merely chimneys horizontal, instead
of being merely upright, terminating,
however, generally in an upright tube
or shaft, which discharges their con-
tents into the open air. They are most
effectual when they traverse the ends
and the front of the house; as if the
back wall is a solid material, there can
be less danger of cold there. Arrange-
ments must be made for a good draught,
by having the bottom of the furnace
two feet below the level of the bottom
of the flue The flue should, after en-
tering the house, rise a little to the
extreme end. It should stand a little
raised above the floor, and never be
placed below it, unless when well sup-
plied with air by cross drains. It should
be constructed of the best brick and
tiles, be plastered over if a strong equal
heat is necessary, and merely white-
washed if a heat is only wanted occa-
sionally. Evaporating basins should
be secured, so that the atmosphere be
supplied with moisture as well as heat.
FLUED WALT,. See Wall.
FLY. See Black Fly.
FGE'TIDA. (From fcetidm, fetid ; re-
ferring to the unpleasant smell of the
leaves and wood. Nat. ord., Barriu</-
loniads [Barringtoniacese]. Linn., 12-
Icosandrla 3-Polygynia. Allied to Gus-
Cuttings of ripe wood, with the leaves re-
maining, in sand, in spring, under a bell-glass,
and in heat ; fibry loam and turfy peat, with
silver sand. Summer temp., 60 to 75 ; win-
ter, 48 to 55.
F. Mauritia'na (Mauritius). 26. White. Mau-
FOGGING-OFF. The same as dampinq-
FOLLICLE, a seed-vessel of one entire
piece, and one-celled, bursting length-
wise, and having the seed on or near
its edges, on a receptacle parallel with
it. Examples are the seed-vessels of
the Perriwinkle and Poaony.
FONTANE'SIA. (In honour of the
French botanist, Des Fontaines. Nat.
ord., Oliveworts [Oleaceffi]. Linn., 2-
Diandria 1-Monoyynia. Allied to
Grafted standard high on the Manna Ash
(Ornus) it would make an interesting object on
lawns. It resembles the common Privet, but
with rough bark. Layers, and cuttings under
a hand-glass in autumn, and by grafting on the
Privet. When grown to a single stem it has a
graceful appearance, owing to its slender droop-
F.j9A%roi'des(Phillyrea-like). 12. Yellow.
August. Syria. 1787-
FORCING is compelling culinary vege-
tables to be edible, flowers to bloom, and
fruits to ripen, at unnatural seasons,
being the very contrary of the object
for which our greenhouses and hot-
houses are constructed ; viz. to secure
a temperature in which their tenants
will be in perfection at their natural
seasons. Under the heads of Hotbeds,
and of each particular plant, will be
found directions for forcing, and it will
be sufficient here to coincide with Dr.
Lindley in saying, that as forced flowers
are always less beautiful and less fra-
grant ; and forced vegetables and fruits
less palatable and less nutritious than
those perfected at their natural periods
it is desirable, at the very least, to
devote as much effort and expence to
obtain superior produce at accustomed
times, as to the procuring it unseason-
[ 395 }
ably. Rarity is good, but excellence is
FORE-EIGHT SHOOTS are the shoots
which are emitted directly in front of
branches trained against a wall, and
consequently cannot be trained in with-
out an acute bending, which is always
in some degree injurious.
FORE - SHORTENING. A method of
pruning back fruit-trees in summer,
and of pruning forest trees at any time,
by which the lower branches are short-
ened, without removing them altoge-
FORGET-ME-NOT. Myoso'tls pahcstris.
FORK. This instrument is preferable
to the spade, even for digging over
open compartments, for the soil can be
reversed with it as easily as
with the spade ; the labour is
diminished, and the pulverisa-
tion of the soil is more effec-
tual. (See Digging.') For stir-
ling the soil in plantations,
shrubberies, and fruit borders,
a two-pronged fork is often
employed, but that with three
prongs is quite as unobjection-
able, and a multiplicity of tools
is an expensive folly. The ac-
companying is a sketch of
what is termed Dr. Yellojy's
fork, and is certainly a good
working implement. Entire
length, three feet three and a
half inches ; handle's length,
two feet two inches ; its dia-
meter one and a half inch;
width of the entire prongs
seven inches at the top; width
at the points six inches ; prongs thir-
teen and a half inches long, and at the
top seven-eighths of an inch square,
tapering to a point. The straps fixing
the head to the handle are eleven
inches long, two inches wide, and half
an inch thick, feathering off; weight of
fork, eight pounds.
Leaf-fork. Mr. Toward, of Bagshot
Park, describes a very serviceable im-
plement of this kind ; he says : One
person with this implement will take
up with greater facility more leaves
than two persons could do with any
other tool. It is simply a large four-
tined fork, made of wood, shod with
iron ; the tines are eighteen inches
long, and are morticed into a head
about seventeen inches long, and one
and a half inch by two and a quarter
inches thick. The tines are one inch
in width, and one and a half inch in
depth at the head, gradually tapering
to a point with a curve or bend up-
wards. The wood of which they are
formed ought to be hard and tough ;
either oak or ash will do, but the
Robinia Pseudo-Acacia is preferable to
either. The head should be made of
ash, with a handle of the same, and
should be two feet four inches long.
Its recommendations are its size and
lightness, the leaves also do not hang
upon it as on a common fork, the large
size of the tines tearing them asunder.
FORMI'CA. See Ant.
FORSY'THIA. (In honour of Mr. For-
syth, royal gardener at Kensington.
Nat. ord., Oliveworts [Oleacere]. Linn.,
2-Diandria l-Monogynia. Allied to Fon-
Hardy deciduous shrubs. Cuttings or layers ;
common sandy loam. F. viridissima requires a
F. suspe'nsa (hanging-down). Yellow. Japan.
viridi'ssima (greenest). 10. Yellow. March.
North China. 1845.
FORSYTH'S PLAISTER for healing the
wounds and restoring to vigour decayed
trees, was as follows : One bushel of
fresh cowdung ; half a bushel of lime
rubbish, that from ceilings of rooms is
preferable, or powdered chalk ; half a
bushel of wood ashes ; one-sixteenth of
a bushel of sand ; the three last to be
sifted fine. The whole to be mixed
and beaten together until they form a
fine plaister. There is nothing in this
compound sufficiently differing from
others recommended by his contem-^
poraries and predecessors to have en-
titled him to call it his invention.
FORTUN^'A. (Named in compliment
to Mr. Fortune, botanical collector in
China. Nat. ord., Juglands [Juglan-
dacese]. Linn., 2l-Moncecla Q-Poly-
A curious plant with the aspect of a Sumach.
By seeds, and probably by grafting on smaller
species of the Walnut and Hickory. Likely to
F. Chine'nsis (Chinese). 30. Green. June.
North China. 1844.
[ 390 ]
FOTHERGI'LLA. (Named after Dr.
Fotherglll. Nat. ord., Witch Hazeh
[Hamamelidacene]. Linn., IS-Icosan-
Hardy little shrubs from North America,
their white, sweet-scented flowers, appearing
before the leaves. Seeds, which frequently
ripen in this country, sown in spring:, in a peat
border, or in pans, and transplanted ; layers in
March and August ; sandy moist peat.
F. alnifo'lla (Alder-leaved). 4. May.
- acu'ta (^cute-leaved). 4.
- ma'jor (larger), 4. May. 1/65.
- obtu'sa (blunt-leaved). 4. June.
- sero'tina (late-flowering). 4. Au-
FOUNTAINS, or, as they are sometimes
called, Jets d'eau, surprise by their
novelty, and the surprise is propor-
tioned to the height to which they
throw the water ; but these perpendi-
cular columns of water have 110 pre-
tence to beauty. The Emperor foun-
tain at Chatsworth is the most sur-
prising in the world, for it tosses its
waters to a height of U67 feet, impelled
by a fall from a reservoir 881 feet
above the ajutage, or mouth of the
pipe from which it rushes into the air.
The supply of water, either naturally
or artificially, is brought from a higher
level than the discharging pipe ; but
the water will not rise so high as the
level from whence it came, which is
owing to the resistance of the air at
the discharging point, its own gravity,
and the friction of the sides of the
pipe in which it is conveyed. What-
ever be the form in which the water is
discharged, if it is designed to throw it
up in a perpendicular direction, the
pipe must be so narrowed where the
water issues out as not to be above
^one-fourth the diameter of the con-
FOURCRO'YA. (Named after M.
Fotircroy, a celebrated chemist. Nat.
ord., AmarylUds [ Amaryllidacene].
Linn., 6-Hexandria 1-Monoyynia. Al-
lied to Littsea.)
Amaryllids reach their maximum grandeur in
Fourcroya longa-na, whose flower-stem rises to
40 feet, whilst that of F. gigantca does not
exceed that of a moderate-sized Agave, and
both would thrive in the open air with us in
summer. There are only two species intro-
duced ; the following synonymes belong to F.
gigantca fvtida, txberosa, Cul/ensis, rigida,
Aust rails t Madagascariensis, and Cantata.
They are increased by imported seeds or by
F. giga'ntea (gigantic). 20. Green. August.
South America. 1690.
longce'va (long-lived). 40. White. May
FOX-BANE. Aconi'tum vulpa'ria.
FRACTURES. If an immaterial branch
is broken, it is best to remove it en-
tirely, but it sometimes happens that
a stem or branch which cannot be re-
placed, is thus injured, in which case
it is advisable to attempt a reduction
of the fracture ; and if it be only partial,
and the stem or branch but small, the
parts will again unite by being put back
into their natural position, and well
propped up. The cure may be expected
not to succeed if the fracture is accom-
panied with contusion, or if the stem
or branch is large. And even where it
succeeds, the woody fibres do not con-
tribute to the union ; but the granular
and herbaceous substance only which
exudes from between the wood and
liber, insinuating itself into all inter
stices, and finally becoming indurated
in the wood. Splints extending at least
a foot above and below the fracture,
should be bound very firmly all round,
and a plaster of grafting-clay to exclude
wet be placed over all ; and every pre-
caution adopted to prevent the surfaces
of the wound being moved by the force
of the wind.
FRAGA'RTA. The Strawberry. (From
fragrans, perfumed ; in reference to the
flavour of the fruit. Nat. ord., Rose-
worts [Rosacese]. Linn., 12-Icosandria
Hardy evergreens. Seeds, sown early in a
slight hotbed, and planted out early, will in
many cases produce fruit in the autumn of the
same season. Plants are most easily obtained
by detaching the runners. Deep loam suits
them. See Strawberry.
F. Bonarie'nsis (Buenos Ayres). 2. Apetal.
June. Buenos Ayres.
Bresli'ngii (Bresling). 1, White. May.
calyci'na (fcwg-e-calyxed). 1. White. April.
Canude'nsis (Canadian), ij. White. May.
Clnle'nsis (Chili). . White. May. South
T- colli'na (hill. Green Pine'}. 1. White. June.
[ 81)7 ]
F. ela'tior (taller. Hautboi&}. 1|. White.
grandiflo'ra (Pine. Great-flowered). 1.
White. May. Surinam. 175Q.
1'ndica (yellow Indian). 1. Yellow. July.
majau'fea (Majaufe de Champ). 1. White.
monophy'lla (one-leaved). 1. White. May,
2>latanoi'dcs (Plane-like). 1. Ked. May.
ve'sca (edible. Common wild). 1. White.
Virginia'na (Scarlet. Virginia). 1. White.
April. North America. 1629.
FRAMES are structures employed
either in forcing, or in protecting
plants, and are of various sizes.
According to the good practical rules
of Abercromhie : The onc-Uykt frame
may be about four feet and a half in
width from back to front, and three feet
six inches the other way ; iifteen or
eighteen inches high in the back, and
nine in front, with a glass sash or light,
made to fit the top completely, to slide
up and down, and move away occa-
The two-light frame may be seven
feet long, four and a half wide, and
iifteen or eighteen inches high in the
back, with bars reaching from it at top
to the front, serving both to strengthen
the frame and help to support the
.lights; the two lights to be each three
feet six inches Avide, made to lit the
top of the frame exactly.
The three-light frame should be ten
feet six inches long, four and a half
wide, and from eighteen inches to two
feet high in the back, and from nine to
twelve or fifteen inches in front ob-
serving that those designed principally
for the culture of melons, may be rather
deeper than for cucumbers, because
they generally require a greater depth
of mould or earth on the beds ; though
frames, eighteen, or twenty inches in
the back, and from nine to twelve in
front, are often made to serve occa-
sionally, both for cucumbers and me-
lons. Each frame should have two cross
bars, ranging from the top of the back
to tli at of the front, at three feet six
inches distance, to strengthen the
frame, and support the lights ; and the
three lights should be each three feet six
inches wide ; the whole together being
nade to fit the top of the frame
exactly, every way in length and Avidth.
Sometimes the above sort of frames
are made of larger dimensions than be-
;ore specified ; but in respect to this it
should be observed, that if larger they
are very inconvenient to move to dif-
ferent parts Avhere they may be occa -
ionally Avanted, and require more heat
to Avarm the internal air : and in re-
spect to depth particularly, if they are
but just deep enough to contain a due
depth of mould, and for the plants to
have moderate room to groAv, they will
be better than if deeper, as the plants
Avill be then always near the glasses,
Avhich is an essential consideration in
early Avork and the internal air will be
more effectually supported in a due
temperature of warmth. For the deeper
the frame, the less in proportion Avill
be the heat of the internal air, and the
plants being far from the glasses Avill
be some disadvantage in their early
growth. Besides, a too deep frame,
both in early and late Avork, is apt to
draw the plants up Aveakly; for they al-
Avays naturally aspire towards the
glasses, and the more space there is,
the more they will run up ; for which
reason the London kitchen-gardeners
haA*e many of their frames not more
than fouiteen or fifteen inches high
behind, and seven in front, especially
those which are intended to winter the
more tender young plants, such as
cauliflower and lettuce, and for raising
early small salad, herbs, radishes, &c.
The woodwork of the back, ends,
and front should be of inch or inch
and a quarter deal, as before observed,
which should be all neatly planed even
and smooth on both sides ; and the
joints, in framing them together, should
be so close that no Avet nor air can
enter. The cross-bars or bearers at
top, for the support of the glasses,
should be about three inches broad
and one thick, and neatly dovetailed
in at back and front even with both
edges, that the lights may shut doAvn
close, each having a groove or channel
I along the middle to conduct off all wet
falling betAveen the lights. At the end
of each frame, at top, should be a thin
slip of board, four inches broad, up to
[ 398 ]
the outside of the lights, being neces
sary to guard against cutting wind
rushing in at that part immediate!}
upon the plants, when the lights are
occasionally tilted hehind for the ne
cessary admission of fresh air, <fcc.
With respect to the lights, the wood
work of the frame should he incl
and a half thick and two and a hal:
hroad ; and the hars for the immediate
support of the glass-work should he
ahout an inch hroad, and not more
than inch and a half thick ; for if too
broad and thick they would intercept
the rays of the sun, so should he only
just sufficient to support the lights and
be ranged from the back part to the
front, nine or twelve inches asunder.
All the woodwork, both of the frames
and lights, should be painted, to pre-
serve them from decay. A lead colour
will be the most eligible ; and if done
three times over, outside and in, will
preserve the Avood exceedingly from
the injuries of weather, and from the
moisture of the earth and dung.
Mr. Knight has suggested an import-
ant improvement in the form of frames.
He observes, that the general practice
is to make the surface of the bed per-
fectly horizontal, and to give an incli-
nation to the glass. That side of the
frame which is to stand towards the
north, is made nearly as deep again as
its opposite : so that if the mould is
placed of an equal depth (as it ought
to be) over the whole bed, the plants
are too far from the glass at one end of
the frame and too near at the other.
To remove this inconvenience, he points
out the mode of forming the bed on an
inclined plane ; and the frame formed
when on the bed, as represented in the
There are several minor points in
the construction of frames that deserve