attention^ The strips of lead or wood
that sustain the panes of glass should
run across the frame, and not length-
wise ; they then neither obstruct so
much the entrance, of light, nor the
passing off of rain. The inside of the
frame should be painted white, since
plants generally suffer in them for
want of light : if the accumulation of
heat was required, the colour should
Saisiny the Frames. It is a well-
known difficulty that the gardener has,
in raising the frames so as to keep the
foliage of the plants within them at a
determined and constant distance from
the glass. To remedy this, Mr. Nairn,
gardener to J. Cresswell, Esq., of Bat-
tersea Priory, has introduced the inge-
nious contrivance represented in the
accompanying sketch and references :
A, a moveable frame ; B B, inside lining
of the pit ; c c, outer wall. Between
these the sides of the frame pass, and
are lowered or elevated by racks and
spindles, D D.
with sides of equal depth, and so put j
together as to continue perpendicular |
A more simple plan might perhaps
>e adopted, by having frames of the
ame length and breadth as the origi-
nal, but only from an inch to three
nches, or upwards, deep. These, as
lecessary, might be put on the top,
nd would be kept close by the pres-
ure of the lights ; bolts and nuts might
Iso be easily applied, and the inter-
tices rendered still more impervious to
ir by being faced with list.
(i/<txs find Glazing. See Stove.
Slteltcr for the Glass. In proportion
[ 399 ]
to the number of lights, matting for
shading and sheltering must be at
hand. The usual mode of covering at
night is by laying on mats, and over
these litter, in thickness according to
the severity of the season. Some gar-
deners lay hay immediately in contact
with the glass, and over this the mats.
Every person conversant with these
modes of shelter is aware of their in-
convenience. In rainy weather they
soon become wet, and rapidly chill the
beds; added to which, the trouble
caused in placing and removing them,
and the danger to the glass from the
stones laid on as a resistance to the
wind, are by no means inconsiderable.
Mr. Seton, to obviate these inconve-
niences, employs a particular covering,
which he constructs of four laths, two
of such a length as to exceed a little
that of the frame, and the others in a
similar manner that of its breadth.
These are bound together at right an-
gles, so as to form a parallelogram of
the form and size of the frame ; and
pieces are bound across this at a foot
apart from each other. Over this a
mat is spread, and over the mat a layer
of straw is fastened, laid on level like
thatch, from three to six inches thick,
as may appear necessary. If the breadth
of the frame is, or exceeds, four feet, it
is best to have the covering in two
parts, otherwise it becomes weak and
unwieldy. These pannels, as they may
be called, Mr. Seton also employs in
preserving tender plants through the
winter. A pit of frames, earthed up all
round, and covered with one of them,
or two or three if needful, is com-
pletely impervious to frost.
Substitutes for glass. Oiled paper was
formerly employed ; but this has been
superseded by linen dressed with Whit-
ney's or Tanner's compositions ; or the
gardener may employ the following
preparation : Old pale linseed oil,
three pints ; sugar of lead (acetate of
lead), one ounce; white resin, four
ounces. Grind the acetate with a little
of the oil, then add the rest and the
resin. Incorporate thorougly in a large
iron pot over a gentle fire ; and, Avith a
large brush, apply hot to a fine calico
stretched loosely previously, by means
of tacks, upon the frame. On the fol-
lowing day it is fit for use, and may be
either done over a second time, or
tacked on tightly to remain. Garden-
The quantity made according to this
recipe will be sufficient for about 100
square feet of calico.
FKANCISCE'A. We have referred the
species to Brunsfelsia.
FBANCO'A. (Named after F. Franco,
a Spaniard. Nat. ord., Francoads [Fran-
coaceae]. Linn., 8-Octandria -i-Tetra-
Hardy herbaceous perennials, natives of Chili,
and impatient of wet under cultivation. A few
plants should be kept in cold frames, to replace
such as die off during severe winters. Seeds, in
a slight hotbed, in spring ; plants hardened off
and then transplanted; dry sandy loam suits
them best. In severe weather, they are worth
the labour of sticking a few evergreen boughs
F. appendicula 1 ta (appendaged) . 2. Purple.
ramo'sa (branched). 2. White. July. 1831.
sonchifo'lia (Sowthistle-leaved). 2. Purple:
FKANKE'NIA. Sea Heath. (Named
after Frankenius, a Swedish botanist.
Nat. ord., Frankeniads [Frankeniacese] .
Linn., Q-Hexandria 1-Monogynia.)
Small plants found chiefly near the sea, more
curious than pretty, though useful for rock-
works, or for a collection of Alpines. Seeds,
cuttings, and dividing the roots ; sandy loam,
and a little peat.
HALF-HARDY EVERGREEN TBA1LERS.
F. ericifo'lia (Heath-leaved). $. Bed. July.
nodiflo'ra (knot-flowered). ^. Flesh. June.
Cape of Good Hope. 1818.
pauciflo'ra (few-flowered). 1. Pink. July.
New Holland. 1824.
HARDY EVERGREEN TRAILERS.
F. corymbo'sa (corymbose). . Red. July.
hirsu'ta (hairy). $. Light blue. July.
interme'dia (intermediate). . White.
July. South Europe. 1817.
lee' vis (smooth). . Flesh. July. England.
mo' His (soft). . Red. July. Caucasus.
No'thria (Nothria). . Flesh. July. Cape
of Good Hope. 1816.
pulverule'nta (powdery). . Red. July.
FRANKINCENSE. Pi'nus t&'da.
FRA'SERA. (Named after John Frascr,
botanical collector in North America.
Nat. ord., Gentianworts [Gentianaceee].
[ 400 ]
Linn., -Telrandria 1-Monoyynia* Al-
lied to Chironia. )
Hardy biennial marsh plant. Seeds in spring,
and transplanted ; also by division of the roots ;
sandy peat wih a little turfy loam.
F. Caroline'nsis (Carolina). 4. Green, yellow. I
July. Carolina. 1795.
FRA'XINUS. The Ash. (Fraxinus is
the Latin for an ash-tree. Nat. orcl.,
Ollveworts [Oleacese]. Linn., 23~Poly-
Hardy deciduous trees, with green flowers.
Seeds ripe in October, then to be collected, and
stored in thin layers in the ground, mixed with
sar fly soil, and turned once or twice during the
winter ; the seeds sifted from the soil, and sown
in March or April. Most of the species may
also be propagated by seeds, and the most dis-
tinct of them ; as also the varieties by grafting.
Dry deep loam makes them produce the best tim-
ber. The Weeping, the Silver, and Golden-
barked varieties of F, excelsior are interesting.
F. acumina'ta (pointed. Green). 40. May.
North America. 1/23.
u'lba (white). 30. Green. May. North
amari'ssima (bitterest). 20. May.
America'na (American white). 20. May.
North America. 1723.
latifo'lia (broad - leaved), 20.
ungustifo'lia (narrow-leaved). May. Spain.
appe'ndica (appendaged) . 20. May.
appendicula'ta (appendiculate). 20; May.
arge'ntea (silvery). 15. June. Corsica. 1825.
atro'virens (dark-green). 4. May. Britain.
au'rea (golden). April.
Carolinia'na (Carolina). 30. June. North
cine'rea (grey). 30. May. North America.
cu'rvidens (curve-toothed). May. Caro-
elli'ptica (oval). 30. May. North America.
cpi'ptera (wing-upon-wing). 30. May. North
cxcc'lsior (taller. Common Ask}. 80. May.
arge'ntea (silver-barked). 20. May.
au'rea (golden-barked). 20. May.
att'rca pe'ndula (yellow pendu-
lous). May. Britain.
- ero'sa (gnawed). 20. May. Britain.
fungo'sa (fungous). 20. May.
" horizonta'lis (horizontal). 20. May.
jaspi'dca (Jasper -like. Yellow-
barked}. 30. May.
Kincai'rniai (Kincairney). 40. Muy.
_ n lu'tea (yeUowe<%erf). 20. May.
F. cxcc'laior na'na (dwarf). 10. May. Britain.
pe'ndula (pendulous) . 20. May.
stria' ta (streaked). 20. May. Britain.
verruco'sa (warted - barked). 60.
verruco'sa pe'ndula (pendulous-war-
I - verticilta'ris (whorled). 20.
expa'nsa (expanded). 30.
fu'sca (dark brown). 30.
heterophy'lla (various-leaved). 30.
- - varicgn'ta (variegated-teawed).
12. May. Ireland. 1836.
juglandifo'lia (Walnut-leaved). 40. May.
North America. 1783.
- subintege'rrima (nearly en-
tire). 40. May.
lacinia'ta (jagged-leaved). May. North
la'ncea (lance-leaved). 30. May. North
lentiscifo'lia (Lentiscus-leaved). 6. May.
- - pe'ndula (pendulous). 20. June.
longifo'lia (long-leaved). 30. May. North
lu'cida (shining). 20. May.
macrophy' lla (large-leaved). 40. May.
Mexica'na (Mexican). 30. Green. May.
mi'jcta (mixed). 30. May. North America.
monstro'sa (monstrous). July. Britain.
na'na (dwarf). 6. June.
ni'gra (black-branched). 30. May. North
ova'ta (egg-shaped). 30. May. North
oxyca'rpa (sharp-fruited). 20. May. Cau-
- oxyphy'lla (sharp - leaved). 20.
1 South Europe. 1821.
pa'llida (pale). 30. May. North America.
panno'sa (cloth-leaved). 30. May. Ca-
parvifo'lia (small-leaved). 20. May. Levant.
platyca'rpa (broad-fruited). 30. May. North
polcmoniifo'lia (Great Valerian - leaved).
April. North America. 1812.
pube'scens (downy). 20. April. North
- latifo'lia (broad - leaved). 20.
- - longifo'lia (long-leaved). 20.
- subpubc'scem (slightly- downy).
pulverule'nta (powdery). 30. May. North
quadrangula'ta(four-&ngled.-blue). 30. May.
North America. 1822.
- nervo'sa (nerved). 30. May.
Richu'rdi (Richard's). 30. May. North
F. rubicu'ndu (ruddy -veined'. 30 May. North
ru'fa (rusty). 30. May. North America.
sambucifo'lia (Elder-leaved). 30. May.
North America. 1800.
cri'spa (curled). 30. May.
tamariscifo'lia r (T amarisk - leaved). April.
versi' color (many-coloured). May. Britain.
vi'rens (green). 20. May.
variega'ta (variegated). 20. April.
v-i'ridis (green) . 30. May. North America.
,ran*Ao.r#toi'<fc?s(Achee-tree-like). North of
FREE-STONE peaches and nectarines
are those with fruit, the flesh of which
parts freely from the stone.
FREEZING. See Frost.
FREZIE'RA. (Named after A. F. Fre-
::ier, a French traveller in South Anie- j
rica. Nat. ord., Thcads [Ternstrb'niia-
cee]. Linn., 1'3-Polyandria \-Mono-
jynia. Allied to Lettsomia.)
Greenhouse evergreen shrub, with the habit
of a Laurel. Cuttings of half-ripened shoots in
sandy soil, in heat, under a hand-light; lumpy
peat and tibry loam, with a little sand. Summer
temp., 60 to 75 ; winter, 50 to 58.
F. thceoi'des (Tea-like). 4. White. Septem-
ber. Jamaica. 1818.
FRENCH BEAN. See Kidney Bean.
FRENCH MARIGOLD. Taye'tes pa'tula.
FRIE'SIA. (Named after Dr. Fries,
of Lund. Nat. ord., Llndenblooms [Ti-
liaceee], \\-Dodecandria 1-Monogynia.
Allied to Ekeocarpus.)
A fit plant for training against a conservatory
wall. Cuttings of young shoots, rather firm, in
sand, under a glass, in April ; turfy loam and
fibry peat, with a little sand. Winter temp.,
38 to 45.
F. peduncula'ris (preduncled). 6. White,
Van Pieman's Land. 1818.
FRINGE-TREE . Chiona'n thus.
FRITILLA'RIA. Fritillary. ( From ./><-
tillits, a chess-board ; referring to the
chequered flowers of some species. Nat.
ord., Lily worts [Liliacese], Hardy
bulbs, in close affinity with the true
Lilies. Linn., G-Hexandria l-Mono-
F. a'lba (white. American}. 1. White. May.
cit'prea (copper-coloured). 1$. Copper. July.
imperiu'lis (Crown imperial). 4. Dark yel-
low. April. Persia. 15'j6.
' fla'va (yellow -flowered). 4. Yellow.
April. Persia. 1596.
ru'bra, (red - flowered) . 4. Red. April.
F. scu'tidens (climbing). Yellow. April. Si-
Kotschya'na (Kotschy's). . April. Ha-
lanceola'ta (spear-head-leaved). 2. Dark
purple. May. Kamtschatka. 1759-
latifo'lia (broad-leaved). 1. Red. May.
leuca'ntha (white-flowered. Russian). 1.
White. May. Siberia. 1822.
Lttsita'nica (Spanish). 1. Brown, purple.
June. Spain. 1825.
lu' tea (yellow -flowered). I. Yellow. May.
melea'gris (Guinea-fowl-like). 1. Purple.
meleagrdi'des (Meleagris-like). 1. Purple.
May. Siberia. 1824.
Messane'nsis (Messina). 1. Brown, purple.
June. Italy. 1825.
mi' nor (smaller). 1$. Purple, spotted.
April. Altai Mountains. 1830.
nervo'sa (nerved-/eauerf). 1^. Dark purple.
May, Caucacus. 1826.
ni'gra (black). 1. Yellow, purple. May.
obli'quu (tv/isted-leaved). 1. Brown, purple.
Pe'rsica (Persian). 1$. Brown. May.
. mi'nima (least. Persian). . Brown.
May. Persia. 1596.
pra'cox (early white). 1. White. May.
pudi'ca (chaste). 1. Purple, yellow. May.
North America. 1824.
Pyrena'ica (Pyrenean). l. Dark purple.
June. Spain. 1605.
Ruthe'nica (Russian). 1. Purple. May.
tene'lla (slender). 1. Purple. May. Cau-
tulipifo'lia (Tulip-leaved). 1. Brown, purple.
May. Crimea. 1822.
verticilla'ta (whorled). 1. Purple. April.
FRITILLARY AS A FLORIST'S FLOWER.
Propagation- : by offsets. The offsets
are produced round the old bulbs ;
these should be detached every third
year when the bulbs are taken up, and
be planted in a bed of light rich earth,
each variety by itself, where they may
remain till they are large enough to
flower. Then take them up, and plant
them in October either in r>-incli pots
three or four bulbs in a pot, or plant
them in patches near the front of the
mixed flower-border. The above re-
marks apply only to the smaller kinds
of FritUlaria. The noble F. imperuilis,
when the bulbs attain a certain size,
produce two flower stems, and each
stem perfects a bulb. They may then
be taken up, divided, and replanted.
This species, on account of flowering
early, may be planted when divided
into beds in the grouped flower-garden,
which they will highly ornament, and
will die down early enough to be suc-
ceeded by summer flowers. This spe-
cies is too large for pots.
3uil. The Crown Imperial, with its
varieties, should be planted in a deep
rid i soil, well drained. If the soil is
not rich, it must be made so by the
addition of a good dressing of well-de-
composed manure. The stems send
out, just above the bulbs, a large num-
ber of young strong shoots. The plants
will be benefited in that stage by a top
dressing of very decayed duiig placed
close to the stems.
If. the smaller species be cultivated
in pots, the proper soil for them will be
a compost of turfy loam, peat, and
vegetable mould in equal parts.
Growing Season. All the smaller
kinds of the Fritillary will flower beau-
tifully in pots. Pot them in October
in 5-inch pots, four bulbs in each, in
a light rich compost. Plunge the pots
in coal ashes in a bed, and protect
them through the winter with hoops
and mats. There they may remain till
they flower, and then be removed into
the greenhouse. When intended to
bloom in the open ground, plant them
in patches in the mixed flower- border.
Resting Season. As soon as the
blooming season is over and the leaves
decayed, take the bulbs up and keep
them in a cool, rather moist place, till
the season for planting arrives again.
FROG ORCHIS. Gymnadc'nia vi'ridis.
FROST. If a plant be fro/en, and
though some defy the attacks of frost,
others are very liable to its fatal influ-
ence, death is brought upon them as it
is in the animal frame, by a complete
breaking down of their tissue ; their
vessels are ruptured, and putrefaction
The following contingencies render
a plant especially liable to be fro/en.
First. Moisture renders a plant sus-
ceptible of cold. Every gardener
knows tliis. If the air of his green-
house he dry, the plants within may
be submitted to a temperature of -'52
without injury, provided the return to
a higher temperature be gradual.
j Secondly. Gradual decrements of
I temperature are scarcely felt. A myrtle
i may be forced and subsequently passed
to the conservatory, to the cold-pit, and
j even thence to an open border, if in
the south of England, without enduring
any injury from the cold of winter;
but it would be killed if passed at once
from the hothouse to the border.
Thirdly. The more saline are the
juices of a plant, the less liable are they
to congelation by frost. Salt preserves
vegetables from injury by sudden tran-
sitions in the temperature of the at-
mosphere. That salted soil freezes
with more reluctance than before the
salt is applied, is well known, and that
crops of turnips, cabbages, cauliflowers,
&c., 'are similarly preserved is equally
Fourthly Absence of motion enables
plants to endure a lower degree of
temperature. Water may be cooled
down to below 82 without free/ing,
but it solidifies the moment it is agi-
The seeds of some plants are bene-
fited by being frozen, for those of the
rose and the hawthorn never germinate
so freely as after being subjected to
the winter frosts.
Free/ing is beneficial to soils, not
only by destroying vermin within its
bosom, but by aiding the atmosphere
to pervade its texture, which texture is
also rendered much more friable by the
frost. A soil in our climate is rarely frozen
to a depth of more than four inches,
and in extremely hard winters it does
not penetrate more than six inches in
light soils, and ten inches in those
that contain more clay, or an excess of
If a plant lie frozen, dip it into the
coldest, water, or syringe it, and put it
into a dark cold cellar, so that it may
FROST, degrees of. When a gardener
uses this phrase, he means degrees of
cold below 32, the freezing point of
FROTH-FLY. See Tcttigo' nhi.
FRUIT -ROOM. Fruit for storing
should be gathered before it is quite
mature, for the ripening process, the
formation of sugar, with its attendant
[ 403 ]
exhalation of carbonic acid and water, |
goes on as well in the fruit-room as in j
the open air at the season when the
functions of the leaves have ceased,
and the fruit no longer enlarges. In
gathering fruit, every care should he j
adopted to avoid bruising ; and, to this
end, in the case of apples, pears,
quinces, and medlars, let the gathering
basket be lined throughout with sack-
ing, and let the contents of each basket !
be carried at once to a floor covered :
with sand, and taken out one by one,
not poured out, as is too usual, into a J
basket, and then again from this into
a heap, for this systematic mode of in-
flicting small bruises is sure to usher
in decay, inasmuch as that it bursts the
divisional membranes of the cells con-
taining the juice, and this being extra-
vasated, speedily passes from the stage
of spirituous fermentation to that of
putrefaction. To avoid this is the prin-
cipal object of fruit storing, whilst at
the same time it is necessary that the
fruit shall be kept firm and juicy. Now
it so happens, that the means required
to secure the one also effects the other.
The following, we think, will be found
safe principles to guide the inexpe-
Site. A somewhat low level, with a
subsoil perfectly dry, or rendered so.
We have said low, because we feel
assured that by keeping the floor, if
possible, even a little below the ground
level, less fluctuation of temperature
will be experienced. Sooner, however,
than be liable to much damp, we Avould
go as much above the level as is neces-
sary in order to avoid it. Concrete
should be used for the flooring, and a
portion of the foundation walls done in
cement, to prevent the transmission of
damp upwards by capillary attraction.
The rats and mice are great annoy-
ances ; the cement and concrete would
keep them at arm's length. A pre-
ventive drainage may be applied also i
round the exterior, if the locality be
Aspect. An easterly ornortherly one;
any point but south or south-west.
Frost. -The house to be rendered per-
fectly secure against this. We would
never have the general store-room sink
below forty or rise above fifty degrees. To
create an artificial warmth, and merely
to keep out the cold, or rather to pro-
cure, as much as possible, the amount
of warmth which the interior posesses,
are two very different affairs. The
preservation of the natural interior
warmth in winter is best effected by
double walls, possessing a cavity of
some three inches in width. The power
of what are termed holloAV walls, as
non-conductors of heat, is well known.
Neither can exterior damps be readily
transmitted; and, moreover, such are
cooler in summer; for the sluggish
agency of such walls in transmitting
heat is as much in keeping out sum-
mer heats as the colds of winter. If
the roof is an exterior one, it should
either be double, or other means taken
to keep out the summer heat.
Air. The power of thorough venti-
lation when necessary, and equally the
power of rendering it almost hermetri-
cally sealed is necessary. Of course a
very liberal ventilation is needed when
much fruit is housed in the autumn.
There should, therefore, be a special pro-
vision for both the egress of moisture,
and for the ingress of fresh and dry air.
The higher the level at which the latter
enters, the brisker will, in general, be
Liyht. Windows to admit light, of
course, for the sake of operations in
the room ; generally speaking, however,
a fruit-room cannot be kept too dark.
Most good practitioners agree in the
nec&ssity of excluding light as much as
possible. Scientific men say, that the
surface skin of fruits perspires exactly
as the surface of leaves ; and that light
is a prime agent in inducing such per-
spiration : hence, heat and light are
conjoint causes of shrivelling. The
windows or other apertures, therefore,
must be provided with close fitting
shutters, and these should be double,
even as the walls. During severe
weather, mats enclosing hay may be
fastened' over the exterior.
As to .artificial heat, we think every
good general fruit store-room should
open into : a small closet, which should
be so fitted up as to produce an artificial
warmth when necessary. If adjoining
[ 401 i
a mushroom house on the one side, or
any place where a surplus of heat was
available, such would be readily accom-
plished without extra expense in fuel.
Some persons have advocated the
placing piping to convey heat inside the
cavity of the exterior walls : this sounds
somewhat philosophical, inasmuch as
in such a situation, with a slight amount
of controllable ventilation, the non-con-
ducting cavities might be kept dry and
warm. The situation of pipes or other
apparatus, however, should depend on
the arrangement made for the fruit;
the heating source, pipes, &c., being as
far removed from them as possible,
and certainly not immediately beneath
them. Such a little closet might possess
merely a stand for drawers down the
centre ; which stand should be an exact
counterpart of a stand in the centre of
the general store-room ; and the best
pears, or other tender fruits, being
placed in parcels in the general store,
might be removed in portions to this
ripening room, a whole drawer at once,
without moving the fruit.
FU'CHSIA. (Named after Leonard
Fuchs, a German botanist. Nat. ord.,
Onograds [Onograceee]. Linn., 8-Oc-
When gardeners discover the way to improve
the size and flavour of fruits, we cannot doubt
but that those of the Fuchsia and Cactus will
be among the first novelties in the dessert.
F. alpe'stris (mountain), 20. Crimson. August.
ape'tala (no-petaled). 10. Purple. Sep-
tember. Chili. 1824.
arbore'scens (tree-like). 16. Pink. October.