bacilla'ris (rod-branched). 5. Rose. July.
cocci'nea (scarlet). 6. Scarlet, purple.
August. Chili. 1788.
co'nica (conical). 4. Scarlet, purple. August.
cordifo'lia (heart- leaved). 5. Orange.
August. Mexico. 1840.
corymbiflo'ra (cluster-flowered). 6. Scarlet.
August. Peru. 1840.
cylindra'cea (cyYin&ric&i-flowered). 2. Scar-
let. August. Demerara. 1837.
denticulu'ta (toothed). Crimson. August.
di'jic'ndens (pendent-flowered). 4. Crimson.
June. Brazil. 1848.
discolor (two-coloured). 3. Purple, red.
August. Port Famine. 1830.
cA'cortini'ta (barked). 3. Green, purple.
July. New Zealand. 1824.
F.fu'lgem (glowing). 4. Vermilion. July.
gra'cilin (slender). 8. Scarlet, purple.
August. Chili. 1823.
mnltiflo'ra (many -flowered). fi.
Scarlet, purple. August. Chili. 1 824 .
integrifo' lia (whole-leaved). Red. June.
macra'ntfia (large-flowered). 2. Red. April.
niucroste'mon (long-stamened). 3. Scarlet,
purple. July. Chili. 1823.
microphy' lla (small-leaved). 6. Scarlet,
purple. August. Mexico. 1828.
ni'gricans (dark). Dark crimson. Venezuela.
ra'dicans (rooting). 20. Scarlet. September.
scrratifo'lia (saw-edge-leaved). 5. Scarlet,
green. August. Peru. 1844.
simplicicau'Ks (simple-stemmed). Crimson.
specttr'bilis (showy). 4. Scarlet. August.
Andes of Cuenca. 184/.
sple'ndens (splendid). 6. Scarlet, green.
August. Mexico. 1841.
tcne'lla (delicate). 8. Scarlet, purple. Au-
gust. Chili. 1824.
tetrada' ctyla (four- fingered -stigma). 2.
Rose. July. Guatemala. 1842.
tripliy'lla (three-leaved). Crimson. Sep-
tember. Pichinchia. 1842.
venu'sta (beautiful). 6. Purple. October.
virga'ta (twiggy). 4. Scarlet, purple. Au-
gust. Mexico. 1825.
FUCHSIA CULTURE. Propagation : 1j
cuttings. The best time for this is in
February and March. The plants re-
quire a little heat to stimulate them
into growth. The best kinds of cut-
tings are the young shoots taken off
close to the old wood as soon as they
are an inch long. Fill a sufficient num-
ber of 5- inch pots, with a compost of
loam and leaf -mould, in equal parts, to
within an inch of the top; fill the re-
maining space up with silver sand ;
water it gently to make it firm, then
put in the cuttings after trimming off
the lower leaves, give another gentle
watering, and place them in a mild hot
bed, or in a propagating house. If in
the latter, place hand-glasses over
them. The cuttings will soon strike
root, and should then be potted oil 1 into
the smallest pots; shade them from
the sun for a time, and then repot them
into pots two sizes larger.
Ktj .stW. They are as easily ruiM'd
from seeds as by' cult ings. The object.
of raising them in tins way is not so
much to increase the plants as to raise
[ 405 ]
improved varieties. There are two
divisions, in regard to colour, that
should be aimed at light and dark
varieties, and the colours in each ought
to Tie well denned. The light ones
should have the sepals pure white, and
the corolla rich purple ; size is also a
necessary quality, and a good form is
also indispensable. The sepals should
be stout and broad and well reflexed ;
that is, turned upwards to show off the
corolla to the greatest advantage. The
corolla should be large, and protrude
boldly out from the sepals. It should
be round and cup-shaped. The flower-
stalk should be not less than three
inches long, which will allow the flower
to hang down gracefully. The flowers
should be produced abundantly, and
the foliage not too large or coarse.
The same points should appear in
the dark varieties, .except the colour of
the sepals, which should be of the
brightest scarlet or crimson. Though
a fine self-coloured flower, with every
good point, is not to be despised, yet a
purple corolla, with the scarlet or dark
crimson tube, all other points being
present, is the perfection of a good
Saving the seed. Any variety pos-
sessing one or more of the above quali-
ties (form being indispensable) is one
to save seed. from. Supposing a fine
shaped flower, with a tolerably pure
white tube, but deficient in a good
corolla of the right form and colour ;
then take the pollen of a variety that
has a good corolla, and apply it to the
stigma of the one with a good tube
and sepals, and save the seed. The
same principle must be followed to
improve the dark varieties. When the
seed is ripe, gather the berries, crush
them with the fingers, and wash away
all the pulp ; then spread the seed on
a sheet of paper, and expose it to the
sun till it is dry. Then put it up in
brown paper, and store it away till
March ; sow it then in shallow pots,
potting off the plants as soon as they
can be handled, and grow them on till
they flower. Seedlings will flower in
i-inch pots, so that a great number of
them may be grown in a small space.
As soon as they flower, choose such as
have good points ; such give a good
shift into larger pots.
Summer Culture. Pot the old plants
early in the spring. Commence by
shaking off the greater part of the old
soil, reducing the roots and trimming
in the branches, so as to leave them in
a pyramidal form ; pot in the proper
soil, and place them in a heat of 5o
by day and 50 by night. Water mo-
derately, and syringe overhead fre-
quently. When the plants are freely
growing, give weak liquid manure every
other time. Young plants should have
a good shift from 5-inch to 8-inch pots.
The tops should be nipped off, to force
out the lower branches ; the great ob-
ject being the pyramidal form. One
of the upper shoots should be removed
as soon as the lower ones have pushed
a few inches, and the other tied to a
stick to be again stopped when it has
advanced about a foot. Proceed in this
way, with both old and new plants, till
the desired height is attained. The
side shoots, if not sufficiently nume-
rous, should be stopped also, to cause
the right number of side branches to
be produced. The potting should
finish in 12-inch pots, which are suffi-
ciently large to make fine plants fit for
the exhibition tables.
Winter Culture. As soon as the
bloom is over set the young plants out-
of-doors in some open place in the
garden. The older plants may either
I be thrown away, or be planted out in
j the borders, it not being worth while to
t keep them the third year. When the
j frost begins to appear take the plants
under cover, either under the stage of
the greenhouse, or in a back shed, or
even a cellar, where the severe frost
cannot reach them; here they may
remain without water till the potting
time comes round again.
Soil. Mellow, strong, yellow loam
one-half, well-decomposed hotbed ma-
nure one-quarter, and one year old
| decayed tree leaves one quarter, all
thoroughly mixed, will form a suitable
Insects. The green fly and red spider
are very apt .to .find their way to the
! young shoots. See Aphis and Acarus.
OPEN BOEDER .Cm/runE, The whole
[ 406 ]
of those having the habit of the old
coccinea, virgata, conica, gracilis, globosa,
&c., are well-fitted for flower-garden
purposes; requiring no attention, but
cutting them down after the first frost,
and covering the stools with moss,
coal ashes, or other litter, to exclude
the frost; removing it in April, and
thinning the shoots in May. When it
is desirable to keep such kinds as coc-
cinea as dwarf as globosa, raising the
plants out of the ground in May, and
shaking the soil from them before
transplanting them, will be effectual.
This, also, furnishes a good means for
increasing the stock. Good stout cut-
tings of the stems, planted at the end
of October, in the open ground, will
furnish nice little plants in spring, if
the ground is covered with moss or
litter ; for though what is above ground
will be killed, what is below the moss
will be safe. Those likefulgens in their
habit, must be kept dry if left out ; it
is better to take them up and house
them in a shed where frost will not
reach them. Standards of any kinds
for the lawn maybe thus inserted in
dry earth in a shed, and transplanted
again in April or May. Most of the
hybrids will stand the winter in the
open garden, and push strongly in the
spring, if, in addition to being kept
from frost, they are also kept dry.
Though thus endurant of cold, they
will, also, stand a high temperature
and a moist atmosphere when growing,
and, in these circumstances, grow with
great rapidity. F. corymbljlora must
have the wood well ripened, and not be
pruned too close. Spectabilis and serra-
tifolia are late blowers, and must be
treated accordingly. All sorts in pots
look best trained to a sinple stem.
FUEL is no small item in the annual
expenditure of the stove, greenhouse,
and conservatory departments, and
therefore deserves consideration. The
cheapest of all fuel is the breeze, or
small coke, procurable at gas-works.
The heating quality of the different
coals known in Great Britain are in the
following proportions :
Scotch Cannel 100
Lancashire Wigan .... 100
Yorkshire Cannel .... 188
Newcastle (best Wallsend) . 100
Gloucestershire (Forest of
Welsh (common) .... 25
Hence, if the Scotch Cannel coal
cost 10s., when the Gloucestershire
could be had for 10s. per chaldron, the
latter would be no cheaper; for the
heating powers of the first is as 100 to
108 of the latter. In other words,
108 chaldrons of Scotch would afford
as much heat as 100 chaldrons of
The following are the quantities of
the fuels named, required to heat eight
gallons of water, from 52 to 112 :
Caking coals 1.2
Splint or hard coal . ,
Cannel coal j-
Cherry or soft coal . . .. 1.5
Wood of lime 3.10
oak (chips) . . . 4.20
maple ..... 3.00
. fir 3.52
hornbeam .... 3.37
Peat (average, not compressed) 7.(5
Charcoal of wood .... 1.52
It is essential to good and profitable
fuel that it should be free from moisture ;
for unless it be dry, much of the heat
which it generates is consumed in
converting that moisture into vapour :
hence the superior value of old dense,
dry wood, to that which is porous and
damp. A pound of dry will heat thirty-
five pounds of water from 32 to 212 ;
but a pound of the same wood in a
moist or fresh state, will not similarly
heat more than twenty-five pounds.
The value, therefore, of different woods
for fuel is nearly inversely, as their
moisture : and this may be readily as-
certained by finding how much a pound
weight of the shavings of each loses by
drying during two hours, at a tempera-
ture of 212.
FUGO'SIA. (Named after Bernard
Cien-Fueyos, a Spanish botanist; Nat.
ord., Mallowworts [Malvaceffl], Linn.,
l(}-3fonadc'lphia S-Polyanclria. Allied
Stove evergreen shrubs. Cuttings of the points
of shoots, in April or May, in sand, under a
bell-glass, and placed in a mild bottom-heat ;
peat and loam, with a little silver sand. Sum-
mer temp., 60 to 75 ; winter, 45 to 55.
F. hakectfo'lia (Hakea-leaved). 5. Lilac, red.
August. Swan River. 1846.
Jieteropliy'lla (various-leaved). Yellow, red.
August. St. Martha. 184. r i.
FULL-FLOWER. See Double-flower.
FUMA'RIA. Fumitory. From fumos,
smoke, referring to the disagreeable
smell of the plant. Nat. ord., Funie-
irorfs [Fumariacesej. Linn., 17-Dm-
dcfjihin '^-Hcxandrla. Allied to Cory-
Hardy annuals. If once sown in March or
April, on rockwork, or undisturbed banks, they
will sow themselves annually, and maintain
themselves without care or trouble.
F. capreola'ta (tendrilled). 4. Flesh. July.
Burche'l/ii (Burchell's). 4. April.
Cape of Hope. 1816.
leuca'ntha (white-flowered). l. White.
August. Corsica. 1836.
me'diti (intermediate). 3. Flesh. July.
FUMIGATING is employed for the de-
struction of certain insects ; the inhaled
vapour or smoke arising from some
substances being fatal to them. Tobacco
is the usual substance employed ; and
it may he ignited, and the smoke im-
pelled upon the insects \sylellows; or
the ignited tobacco may be placed
under a box, or within a frame, together
with the atfected plant. The vapour of
spirit of turpentine is destructive to the
scale and other insects, employed in
this mode. Mr. Mills has stated the
following as the best mode of fumi-
gating with tobacco. According to
the sixe of the place to .be fumi-
gated, one or more pieces of cast
iron, one inch thick, and three inches
over, are made red hot (pieces of old
tiles, such as are used for covering
smoke flues, \vould probably answer
equally well) ; one of these is placed
in a twenty-four sized pot, on which is
put the quantity of tobacco considered
necessary to charge the structure with
smoke sufficient to destroy insect life.
To fumigate an ordinary sized eight-
light house, use three heaters, and
three twenty-four sized pots, which I
have placed on the front flue or walk ;
one pound of strong tobacco is put on
the three heaters in equal parts, and
this is found sufficient to fill the house,
so as to destroy all the kinds of insects
that perish by fumigation. The system
lias these advantages : the tobacco is so
quickly consumed, that the house is
completely filled in a very short time,
and but little smoke can escape before
the insects are destroyed, the pure heat
from the iron heaters prevents injury
from gas, and as no blowing is required
there is no dust, it being only necessary
to put the tobacco on the heaters and
leave the house. A better mode is to
soak the tobacco in a strong solution
of saltpetre, and when dry to ignite it.
The combustion is so complete and in-
stantaneous that a smaller quantity is
sufficient. The best of all instruments
for fumigating with tobacco is Brown's
To fumigate with sulphur, paint the
hot-water pipes with some sulphur
mixed with whitewash ; or put this
mixture against the side of the flue
furthest from the furnace ; or put some
sulphur on a hot-water plate, and keep
the water in this boiling by means of a
FU'NKIA. (After H. Finite, a German
botanist, Nat. ord., Lily worts [Lilia-
ceffl]. Linn., 6-Ifexandri.a \-Mono-
<jynl.fi. Allied to Hymerocallis.)
Hardy herbaceous perennials from Japan ;
dividing the roots; sandy loam, and a dry situa-
F. a'lbo-marginu'ta (white -margined). l.
Lilac. July. 1837.
lanceaefo'lla (spear-head-leaved). 1. Lilac.
ova'ta (egg-te?wrf). ij Blue. May. 1/90.
Sieboldia'nn (Siebolds). 1. Lilac. June.
subcorda'ta (slightly - heart - leaved). 1 .
White. August. 1"90.
undula'ta (wa.veA-lea.ved}. 1. Lilac. Au-
variegu'ta (variegated). 1. Lilac. August.
FURCRJ/A. A mistaken name for
FUSTICK. Macln'ra tincto'ria.
r 408 i
GJ/RTNERA. (Named after Dr.
Cf<f')'tncr, a celebrated botanist. Nat.
ord., Loganiads [Loganiacere]. Linn.,
W-Decait tlria \.-Mun-oyyni<i. Allied to
All Loganiads are to be suspected, as no
order is more venomous. Stove evergreen
twiners ; cuttings of firm young shoots in April,
in sand, under a bell-glass, and in bottom heat;
peat and loam. Summer temp., 60 to 75;
winter 48 to 55.
G. obtusifn'lia (blunt- leaved). 20. White.
racemo'sa (racemed). 15. White, yellow.
April. East Indies. 1793.
GA'GEA. (Named after Sir Thomas
Gage. .Nat. ord., Lily worts [Liliacese].
Linn., ti-Hexandria \-Monogynla. Al-
lied to the Tulip.)
All hardy, little, yellow flowering bulbs. They
should occupy the front row of a light-soiled
border, like Crocuses ; offsets in spring or au-
G. Bohe'mica (Bohemian). \. April. Bohe-
bractcota'ris (small -bracted). . April.
bulbi'fera (bulb-bearing). May. Tauria.
chlora'ntha (yellow -flowered). 4. April.
circinu'ta (rounded). $. May. Siberia. 1789.
fasciciila'ris (bundle-flowered). $. April.
glau'ca (milkv-green). $. April. Switzer-
Liota'rdi (Liotard's). May. South Europe.
Podo'llica (Podolian). May. Podolia. 182".
pmi'lla (small). |. April. Bohemia. 1825.
pygma'a (pigmy). . April. Spain. 1825.
sero'tinu (late). . June. Wales.
spathn'aea (sheathed), . May. Germany.
(stella'ris] starry). $. May. Sweden. 175Q.
Sternbe'rgii (Sternberg's).' . May. Swit-
stria 1 ta (streaked). . July. Europe. 1826.
sylua'tica (wood). . April. Europe.
uniflo'ra (one-flowered). . May. Siberia.
villo'sa (shaggy). $. April. Caucasus. 1825,
GAGNEBI'NA. (Probably the native
name of one of the species. Nat. ord.,
Leywninniis Plants [Fabacefe]. Linn.,
W-Decandria l-Motw(/ynia. Allied to
Stove evergreens from Mauritius. Seeds in
hotbed, in spring, after being moistened for
several hours in warm water ; cuttings of half-
ripened shoots, in sand, in April, under a bell-
glass, and in mild bottom-heat ; peat and loam,
both turfy and fibry. Summer temp., 60 to
75 ; winter, 48 to 55.
G. turiUa'ris (axillary). 6. Yellow. 1824.
tamari'scina (Tamarisk-like). 6. Yellow.
G-AILLA'KDTA. (Named after M.
(laillurd, a French patron of botany.
Nat. ord., Composites [Asteracercl.
Linn., I9-$yng#nt#M -l-Fnistnau'a. )
This, like many other composite genera, is
inclined to sport from seeds, and, therefore,
may be expected to yield double flowers some
day. Hardy herbaceous plants, with the ex-
ception of coronata, which requires a cold pit
in winter. In cold, damp situations, cuttings
of bicolor and picta, may also be saved in a
similar manner. Cuttings under a hand light
in summer, and division of the root in spring ;
G. arista' ta (awned). 1. Orange. August.
North America. 1812.
bi' color (two-coloured). 2. Yellow. August.
North America. 1787.
eorona'ta (crowned). Red, brown. July.
| Drummo'ndii integt'rrima (Drummond's
whole-feared). 2. Carnation, yellow,
August. Lousiana. 1833.
pi'cta (painted). Yellow. August. Loui-
Richardso'ni (Richardson's). 1 . Orange
July. North America. 1829.
GALA'CTIA. (From yala, milk ; in
reference to the milky juice of some of
the species. Nat. ord., Leguminous
Plants [Fabacese], Linn., Yi-Diadcl-
phia ^-Decandria. Allied to Glycine.)
Deciduous, by division of the plant, and
grown in sandy loam. Stove, by cuttings of
short stubby side-shoots, in sand, in April,
under a bell-glass, and plunged in a hotbed ;
sandy loam and peat. Summer temp., 60 to
75; winter, 48 to 55.
HAEDY DECIPUOUS TWINERS.
G. globe 1 Ha (smoothish). 3. Purple. July.
mu'llis (soft). 3. Purple. July. North
STOAT. EVERGREEN TWINERS.
G. Cube'nsis (Cuban). Rose. July. Cuba. 1826.
pe'ndula (pendulous). 6, Red. July.
seri'cea (silky). 6. July. Bourbon. 1824.
ITALACTI'TES. (From ynla, milk
referring to the juice and to the milk-
white veins on the leaves. Nat. ord.,
Composites [Asteraceft'j. Linn., 10-
Synfffttefia ll-Fntstranca. Allied to
Hardy annuals requiring to be sown in the
flower borders, in March or April.
G. austra'lis (southern). 1. Purple. July.
New Holland. 1824.
tomento'sa (woolly). l. Purple. July.
South Europe. 1738.
[ 40U j
GALACTODE'NDRON. Cow Tree. (From
gala, milk, and dendron, a tree. We
introduce this name as being in com-
mon use ; but the true name of the
Cow Tree is Broximum utile, to which
( I ALAN G ALE . Komipfe 'rio,
GALA'NTHUS. Snowdrop. (From
yalfi, milk, and anthos, a flower. Nat.
ord, Amaryllids [Amaryllidacefe].
Linn., fi-Hexandriu l-Monogynla.}
Hardy bulbs. Offsets ; division of masses of
bulbs ; common garden soil ; should be lifted
every four or five years.
G, niva'lis (Common. Snow). . White. Feb-
plica' tus (plaited). . White. February.
rejie'xus (bent - backed - pet tiled) . White,
green. Mount Gargarius. 1844.
fiALATE'LLA. (A diminutive of gala,
milk, literally, milky ; referring to the
colour of the leaves. "Nat. ord., Com-
posites [Asteracese]. Linn., 19-Syn-
gencsia 3-Frustranea. Allied to Aster.)
Hardy herbaceous. Division in spring ; com-
mon garden soil.
G. puncta'ta (dotted-leaved). 2. Violet, yel-
low. August. Hungary. 1815.
GA'LAX. (From gala, milk, referring
to the milk-white flowers. Nat. ord.,
Wintergreens [Pyrolacere]. Linn., ;">-
Pentandria \-Monogynla. Allied to
Little bog-earth plants. Divisions in spring ;
moist sandy peat ; may be treated as an Alpine,
as it is subject to casualties in the border.
G. aptiy'lla (leafless). . White. July. North
G ALA'XIA. ( From galaktido, to abound
in milk, referring to the juice. Nat.
ord., Irids [Iridaeeeel. Linn., l(J-Mo-
nade-lphia l-Triandria, Allied to Pater
Greenhouse bulbs from the Cape of Good
Hope. Offsets ; sandy peat, with a little fibry
loam. In a state of rest keep in the greenhouse
or cold pit. If planted in a sheltered place, out
of doors, the roots must be protected from frost.
Light yellow .
G. grami'nea (Grass-leaved). 4-
yellow. July. 1799-
ova'ta (escg-leaved). $. Dark yellow. July.
versi 1 color (various- coloured). . Purple.
GALEA'NDRA. ( From yulea, a helmet,
and aner, a stamen, referring to the
crested male organ on the top of the
column. Nat. ord., Orchids [Orchi-
dacece]. Linn., 20- Gynandrla l-Monan~
drift. Allied to Eulophia.)
Stove terrestrial orchids. Fibry peat, and a
little turfy loam, with some broken pots, and
pieces of charcoal. Summer temp., 60 to 85,
with moisture ; winter, 48 to 55 b , and rather
G. Bau'eri (Mr. Bauer's). ^. Pink. August.
crista'ta(crested-anthered). Purple. May.
Devonia'na (Duke of Devonshire's). 2. Pink,
white. May. South America. 1840.
gra'cilis (slender). 2. Green, yellow. May.
Sierra Leone. 1822.
GALE'GA. Goat's Ptue. (From gala,
milk, referring to an old idea that the
herbage was superior for milk-cows,
goats, c. Nat. ord., Leguminous plants
[Fabacece]. 16-MonadeIphia Q-Decan-
Hardy herbaceous, rather rambling perennials.
Seeds sown in spring ; division of the plant at
the same time ; common soil.
G. bilo'ba (two-lobed). 3. Blue. July. 1823.
officina'lis (shop). 4. Blue. July. Spain.
a'lba (white-lowered). 4. White.
orienta'lis (eastern). 4. Blue. July. Levant.
Pe'rsica (Persian). 2. White. July. Persia.
lila'cina (Lilac). 3. Lilac. June.
tri' color (three-coloured). 3. Blue. July.
GALEO'BDOLON. Dead Nettle. (From
gale, weasel, and bdolos, foetid, referring
to the strong disagreeable odour of the
plant. Nat. ord., Labiates, or Lipivorts
[Lamiaceae]. Linn., 14,-Didynamia 1-
This herbaceous British plant has so long
gone by the name Galeobdolon, that we have
retained it, but it is only a species of Lamium.
Division in spring ; moist common soil.
G. lu'teum (yellow). 1. Yellow. June.
vuriega'tum (variegated-/u>ed). 1.
GAUPE'A. (The Indian name in
South America. Nat. ord., Hue worts
[Rutacese]. Linn., 2-Diandria l-Mo-
nogynla. Allied to Almeidea.)
The Angostura bark is that of trifoliata.
Stove evergreen shrubs. Cuttings of ripened
shoots in sand, under a bell-glass, in April, and
in heat; peat and loam. Summer temp., 60
to 75; winter, 48 to 55.
[ 410 ]
G. odomti'ssima (most-fragrant). 2. White.
May. Rio Janeiro.
trifolia'ta (three-leaved). 4. Green. Guiana.
GA'LIUJL Bed Straw. (From gala,
milk, referring to the flowers of G.
verum having been used to curdle milk.
Nat. ord., Stellates [Galiacece]. Linn.,
i-Tetrandria ~L- Monoyynia. Allied to
Few of these plants are interesting to the
gardener, except to cover rock or root work.
They possess, in a more or less degree, the
dying qualities of Madder. Of the following
selected species, all are herbaceous perennials,
except G. suaveolens, which is an annual.
Annuals merely require to be sown in the com-
mon border, in March ; and the perennials
divided at the same time.
G. campanula' turn (bell-flowered). . White.
June. South Europe. 1821.