lands. 1st the young shoots, as soon
as they are three inches long, springing
from the old tubers (these are the
best) ; ^nd leaves taken off with a
bud at the base ; and 3rd by the
leaves only, without buds. The first
mode may be used when the kind or
variety is plentiful, and the bulbs so
strong as to send out more shoots than
are wanted for flowering ; the second
mode, when the variety is new and
more scarce ; and the last, when it is
more rare still. There is an advantage
in the first and second mode, that the
cuttings, if struck early in the year,
will, with moderate care and attention
to repotting, flower the same year ;
whereas those struck from leaves, or
parts of leaves, will only form small
tubers that season. Eacli kind of cut-
ting requires to be put in sand, under
bell or hand-glasses, in bottom-heat, to
strike them quickly. A moist, Avarm
heat is necessary ; a moist, cold place
would rot the cuttings immediately.
Such species as do not make bulbs
must be propagated by the first kind of
By Seed. To raise new varieties it
is necessary to save seed. Choose the
finest and brightest coloured to save it
from. As soon as it is ripe, gather it
and dry it; keep it very dry till the
March folIoAving, then sow the seed on
the surface of a light sandy compost,
place it in a warm, moist atmosphere,
and as soon as the seedlings are up,
and the plants have attained a leaf or
two, transplant them thinly on the
surface of shallow pots, and let them
grow there during the summer. Allow
them to go to rest in the autumn, and
keep them in the same pots through
the \vinter, giving but little Avater. As
soon as life appears again in the spring,
pot them off singly into small pots,
watering and repotting the same as the
cuttings ; but it is more than probable
they Avill not floAver till the second year.
Soil. Light fibrous loam, turfy peat,
and half-decayed leaves, in equal parts,
Avith a due portion of sand, Avell mixed,
but not sifted.
Summer Culture. To have a suc-
cession of bloom, pot a portion of the
bulbs in January, and place them in
heat, giving a little Avater. Temp., 60
to 80. Pot a second batch about the
middle of February, and another towards
the end of March. These will supply
flowers for several months. Put them
in pots according to the size of the
bulbs ; keep them regularly watered,
but never very wet. They may be
syringed occasionally previously to
flowering, but not much ; for the leaves
are so woolly that they hold moisture
too long if syringed severely. When
the blooming season is over they may
be set out of doors during summer,
but should be sheltered from heavy
rains. They will then gradually go
Winter Culture. All that they re-
quire is to be kept in their pots in a
place where neither frost nor wet can
reach them ; yet the place should never
be below 45, nor above T)5. If the
cold is much lower they will be apt to
rot ; and if higher, to start into
Diseases. The only disease that
these plants are subject to is a kind
of dry rot in the bulbs, which changes
the substance into a soft pulp, destroy-
ing the buds, and so causing them to
perish. There is no cure for it.
GETHY'LLIS. (From getheo, to re-
joice ; referring to the sweetness of the
flowers of some of them. Nat. ord.,
Amaryllids [Amaryllidaceffi], Linn.,
G-Hcxandria I-Monoyynia. Allied to
Here the Amaryllids reach their minimum
stature ; G. ciliaris, if not the smallest, is as
dwarf as any in the order. There are only
three of them in cultivation : Afra, ciliaris, and
spiralis. Greenhouse bulbs from the Cape of
Good Hope, with white flowers. Offsets and
seeds ; sandy loam and peat ; kept nearly dry
in winter. Winter temp., 35 to 45.
G. A'fra (African). . July. 1820.
cilia'ris (hair-fringed). . July. 1788.
lanceola'ta (spear-head-teoverf). 3. July.
spira' Us (spiral-leaved), f. July. 1/80.
mllo'sa (shaggy), f . July. 1787.
GETO'NIA. (Probably the native
name. Nat. ord., Myrobolans [Com-
bretacese]. Linn., IQ-Decandria l-Mo-
noyynia. Allied to Terminalea.)
Stove evergreen climbers. Cuttings of ripened
shoots in sand, under a glass, in bottom-heat ;
sandy peat and fibry loam. Summer temp,,
60 to 80 ; winter, 50 to 55.
G, floribu'nda (bundle-flowered). 6. Yellow,
green. East Indies. 1815.
nu'tans (nodding). 6. East Indies. 1816.
GE'UM. Avens. (From yeyo, to
stimulate ; the roots of some of them,
and of allied species, have the same
properties as Peruvian bark. Nat. ord.,
Rose worts [Rosace]. Linn., 12-/eo-
sfindria '3-Polyyynia. Allied to Poten-
Hardy herbaceous perennials. Coccinewn is
very showy. Seeds, and dividing the plants in
spring ; sandy loam, with a little leaf-mould.
G. Agrimonioi'des (Agrimony-like). Ij. White.
July. North America. 1811.
a'lbum (white). 1. White. July. North
Atta'nticum (Atlantic). 1. Yellow. July.
South Europe. 1810.
brachype'talum (short-petaled). 1. Yel-
low. July. 1818.
Canade'nse (Canadian). l. Yellow. July.
Chile'nse (Chili). 2. Copper. July. Chili.
loured). 2. Dark blood.
grandiflo'rum (large-flowered). l.
cilia' turn (hair-fringed). I. Yellow. July.
North America. 1818.
heterophy'llum (various-leaved). 2. White.
hy 1 bridum (hybrid). 1. Red, brown. July.
intermedium (intermediate). l. Yellow.
July. Volhinia. 1794.
macrophy'llum (large-leaved). 2. Yellow.
July. Kamschatka. 1804.
niva'le a'lbum (snowy- white). White. June.
nu'tans (nodding). l. Yellow. July.
North America. 1825.
Portenschlagia'num (Portenschlag's). 1$.
Yellow. July. 1820.
Pyrena'icum (Pyrenean). l. Yellow. July.
radio! turn (radiated). 1. Yellow. July.
North America. 18 15.
ranunculoi'des (Ranunculus-like). 1. Yel-
low. July. 1823.
rotundifo'lium (round-leaved). 1: Yellow,.
July. Russia. 1820.
stri'ctum (upright). 1. Striped. June.
North America. 1/78-
virginia'num (Virginian). l. White. July.
GIANT FENNEL. Fc'nda.
GI'LIA. (Named after Gilio, a Spanish
botanist. Nat. ord., PMoxworts [Pole-
moniaceffi]. Linu., &-Peiitandria l-Mo-
Hardy annuals, except G. aggregata. Sown
in September, and slightly protected during
winter, they bloom early in the summer; sow
in the end of March in open border ; common
soil . The greenhouse biennial, sown in August,
potted, and kept over the winter, will bloom
freely the following summer.
G. achWeeKfo'lia (Milfoil-leaved). l. Pink.
August. California. 1833.
aggrega'ta (crowded). Scarlet. July. Ame-
rica. 1822. Greenhouse biennial.
arena'riu (sand-inhabiting). 1. Blue. June.
capita'ta (rownd-headed). 2J. Blue. July.
coro'lla a'lba (white- corollaed). 2.
White. June. Gardens. 1829.
corom>/?i/o'/j(Coronopus-leaved). 2.J. Scar-
let. July, Carolina. 1726.
C 423 ]
G, crassifo'lia (thick-leaved). 2. Yellowish.
June. Chili. 1832.
-gra'cilis (slender). . Pink. July. North
inconspi'cua (inconspicuous). 2. Blue.
August. North America. 1793.
lacinia'ta (cut-leaned). A. Purple. July.
liniflo'ra (Flax-flowered), i. White. June.
mult i can' Us (many - stemmed). 2. Blue.
parviflo'ra (small-flowered). 2. Blue. Oc-
tober. America. 1793.
Pharnaceoi'des (Pharnaceum like). .
White. June. California. 1833.
pulche'lla (pretty). 2&. Scarlet. July.
North-west America. 1826.
pu'ngens (prickly). l. Pink. July. North
pusi'lla (dwarf). . June. Chili. 1833.
tenuiflo'ra (thin-flowered). 2. Rose, violet.
tri' color (three-coloured). 1. Purple, orange.
August. California. 1833.
flo'ribus albica'ntibus (whitish). J.
White. July. California. 1833.
GILIBE'RTIA. (Named after Gilibert,
a German botanist. Nat. ord., Ivy-
worts [ Araliaceae] . Linn., 5-Pentandria
1-Monogynia. Allied to Cussonia.)
Stove evergreen shrub. Cuttings of the
young shoots in sand, under a bell-glass, and in
heat; sandy peat and fibry loam. Summer
temp., 60 to 80 ; winter, 48 to 55.
G. palma'ta (hand-leaved). 6. White. March.
East Indies. 1818.
GILLF/NIA. (Named after one Gille-
nhis. Nat. ord,, Rose-worts [Bosacese].
Linn., 12-Icosandria 2-Pentagynia. Al-
lied to SpirsBa.)
Hardy herbaceous perennials, with red and
white flowers, from North America. Division
of the plant ; common soil.
G. stipula'cea (Jarge-stipuled). 2. July. 1805.
trifolia'ta (three-leaved). 2. July. 1713.
_ ma'jor (greater). 3. July.
GILLYFLOWER. Matthi'ola inca'na.
GINGER (Zingi'ber officina'le}. Green
ginger may be easily cultivated two
ways, either in pots, or in a deep pit.
If in pots, take the plants, shake
them out of the pots when at rest
in February, divide them, and pot
each piece into a pot six inches across ;
plunge them, as soon as the heat is
temperate, in a bark pit, or a frame
heated with dung like a cucumber-bed,
the surface being covered with tan deep
enough for the pots. As soon as the
plants come up give a small supply of
water, gradually increasing the quan-
tity as the plants advance in growth.
By August they will be fit to take up
and preserve. If a large quantity is
required, a deep pit of two or three
lights will be necessary, the bottom to
be filled with rich soil to the depth of
a foot ; plant the roots in this soil, and
line the pit with hot dung, renewing it
as the heat declines. The time for
planting in the pit is February or
March. Water whilst growing, give
air in hot weather, and in September
you will have a large supply of fine
ginger roots, equal to foreign.
GINGERBREAD TREE. Parina'rium
GLADI'OLUS. Corn Flag. (From Gla-
dius, a sword, referring to the shape of
the leaves. Nat. ord., Irids [Iridacese] .
Linn., 3-Triandria I-Monogynia.)
Bulbs from the Cape of Good Hope, except
where otherwise mentioned. The hardiest
merely require border room, and are propagated
by seeds, arid by taking up and dividing the
bulbs before growth has commenced. Those
generally designated frame and greenhouse spe-
cies, will thrive very well in dry sandy loam and
peat out of doors, if planted from six to ten
inches deep, according to the strength of the
bulbs. The earliest flowering, such as
blandus, &c., may be planted in the end of
October ; ramosus, formosissimus, &c., in
December ; and Gandavensis, floribundus,
Psittacinus, and splendens, from February
to March, when they will keep blooming all the
autumn. The whole make fine pot plants,
potted in autumn and spring, and kept in a
cold pit until they show flower. They may also
be forced for the greenhouse after the roots
have filled the pots.
G. cequinoctia'lis (sequinoctial) . April. Sierra
ala'tus (winged-flowered). . Scarlet, yel-
low. June. 1795.
Algoe'nsis (Algoa Bay). . Orange.
a'lbidus (whitish). 1. White. June. 1774.
pi'ctus (painted). 1. Red, white.
angu'stus (narrow-leaved). 2. Yellow. June.
bla'ndus (fair), l. Flesh. June. 1774.
brevifo'lius (short-leaved). 1. Pink. June.
Byxanti'nus (Byzantine). 2. Red. July.
campanula' tus (bell-flowered). l. Light
purple. May. 1/94.
cardina'lis (cardinal). 2. Red. July. 1789.
ca'rneus (flesh-coloured). 2. Flesh. June.
Cauca'sicus (Caucasian). Caucasus. 1842.
cochlea'tus (spoon-lipped). ]. White, red.
commu'nis (common). 2, Red. July.
South Europe. 1596.
G. commu'nis a'lbus (white-flowered). 2. White.
June. South Europe.
ca'rneus (flesh - coloured). l.
Flesh. July. South Europe. 1596.
co'ncolor (one-coloured). 1. Yellow. June.
crispifto 1 rus (curled - flowered). Various.
cuspida'tus (pointed). l. White, brown.
de'bllis (weak). l. White. May.
e'dulis (eatable-roofed). !. White. June.
festi'vus (festive). Pale rose. July. 1844.
flexuo'sus (zig-zag). 1. Orange. June.
floribu'ndus (bundle-flowered). 1. Citron.
gra'cilis (slender). 2. Blue, white. April.
hasta'tus (halbert-shaped). 1. Flesh. May.
hirsn'tus (hairy). l. Pink. June. 1795.
hyali'nus (grass-like). 1. Yellow, red. June.
imbrica't us (imbricated) . 1. Red. June.
involu'tits (rolled-inward), Ij. Pink. June.
Mille'ri (Miller's). 14. Violet. May. 1751.
Morto'nius (Morton's). 14. White. 1837.
Namaque'nsis (Namaque). 2- Orange.
Natale'nsis (Natal). 4. Scarlet, yellow.
August. Natal River. 1830.
oppositiflo'rus (opposite-flowered). April.
permea'bilis (penetrateable). . Orange.
ramo'sus (branching). 5. Rose. July. 1838.
recu'rvus (rolled-back). 2. Striped. May.
se'getum (corn-field). 2. Purple. July.
South Europe. 1596.
tene'llus (tender). J. Yellow. June. 1825.
te'nuis (slender). 1. Red. June. Tauria.
Trichonemifo'lius (Trichonema-leaved). l.
Yellow. June. 1800.
trimacula'tus (three-spotted). 1. Red,
white. June. 1794.
tri'stis (sad). 1. Brown, red. July. 1745.
undula'tus (waved-^ouered). 1. Pink. May.
pa'llidus (pale). 1. Pink. May.
versi'color (various-coloured). l. Brown.
bine'rvis (two-nerved). 1$. Pink.
tenu'ior (slenderer). 1. Variegated.
vipera'tus (viper-like). . Green, white.
Watso'nius (Watson's). 1. Red. March.
variegu'tus (variegated). l.
Red. White. April. 1801.
Propagation : by offsets. The offsets
are produced plentifully round the base
of each bulb. When the bulbs are
taken up, separate the flowering bulbs
from the offsets, and then again divide
the latter into two lots, one of the
larger roots and one of the smaller.
Towards the end of August, prepare a
bed for them in an open situation, and
drain the ground well if damp. Place
a layer of brick rubbish under the soil,
not less than a foot deep, and not
more than fifteen inches ; upon the
drainage place a layer of stable litter,
then throw in the soil, mixing it freely
with well decomposed manure ; let it
settle about a fortnight, then plant the
larger offsets in one bed and the smaller
ones in another; the larger sized four
inches apart in the row, six inches from
row to row, and three inches deep.
Plant by drawing drills across the beds
with a triangular shaped hoe, and put
in the bulbs with the hand, pressing
each pretty firmly down into the soil.
When all are planted, level the soil
with a rake. The small sized offsets
may be planted much thicker, but in
every other respect the same as the
larger sized. The reason for planting
them in two sizes is, because the larger
sized produce such large leaves as
smother the smaller ones ; besides, the
larger sized will produce, after one
year's growth, flowering bulbs, which,
when taken up after the growth is per-
fected, may be sorted to plant with the
older flowering ones. The smaller size
had better remain in the bed for two
years, then be taken up, sorted, and re-
planted in two sizes again, till they are
large enough to flower.
By seed new varieties are obtained.
All that is wanted are a few square yards
of ground, a few roots of the best
kinds, but as dissimilar in habit as
possible, and then, when in bloom, to
exercise a little taste and discernment
in hybridizing, by impregnating the
finest form as the breeder of seed, with
the pollen of the highest and most
distinct coloured male parent, removing
the pollen of the breeder before it
bursts, and applying the pollen of the
male parent as soon as the anthers
open. When the seed is ripe, gather
it, and keep it dry till spring ; then sow
it in shallow pots or boxes; place them
in a gentle heat and when the seed
GLA [ 4
lings are up give plenty of air, and very
moderate supplies of water. As soon
as the weather will permit, set them in
the open air, and as the leaves advance
in size give more water, and allow
gentle showers to fall upon them, but j
shelter them from heavy rain. When j
the leaves are all decayed, take the soil
and carefully sift it through a fine
sieve, picking out every bulb, however
small. Prepare a bed in the same
manner, and of the same materials, as
is described above for offsets. Plant j
the seedling bulbs in it the first week '
in September, in the same way as the
small offsets. Let them remain in
tills bed for two years ; then take them
and replant them in a bed fresh pre-
pared. It is likely that some of the
strongest will then flower, and the
very worst will be worth planting in
Summer Culture. The bulbs want
very little attention during summer.
Keep them clear of weeds, and when
the flower-stems are a foot high plaee
a stick to support them, as the winds
are apt to twist them off close to the
bulbs. When the bloom is over, and
the leaves turn yellow, take them up,
dry, and sort them, separating the
bulbs that are large enough, to flower
from the offsets ; put them away in
drawers marked with the name of each
variety, keeping them dry and cool till
the planting season arrives again.
Winter Culture. In September pre-
pare the beds by throwing out all the
soil to the depth of fifteen inches ; if in
the same situation as beds were before,
examine the drainage. If it is open
and ready to work well, it will need
nothing doing to it, but if it be choked
up, remove it entirely ; sift it, throwing
in the rough, and removing the fine
eai'thy part; add some fresh rubble,
and then cover it with litter ; mix a
goodly portion of thoroughly decayed
dung with the soil, or, which is better,
renew it entirely ; level the bed, leaving
it a few inches higher. Plant the first
week in October, three inches deep,
giving each of the bulbs six inches
square to grow in. Place a thin layer
of half rotten dung upon the bed, to
protect the bulbs in severe frost. They
5 ] GLA
will require no other care during this
Vermin. Mice, wireworms, and the
red spider prey upon them. Wire-
worms may be caught with slices of
potatoes buried in the soil, and taken
up occasionally. The red spider, hap-
pily, only appears when there is a long
continuance of dry weather. Watch
for its first appearance, and as soon
as it is perceived causing the leaves
to appear spotted, let every leaf be
sponged over with water impregnated
with flower of sulphur. If dry wea-
ther prevails much, syringe the plants
every evening severely.
Diseases. The bulbs sometimes are
attacked by a kind of dry rot, which
turns them into a powdery substance,
prevents them sending forth roots, and
then the tops, if they have made any,
turn yellow, and the whole plant
perishes. There is no known remedy.
To prevent its spreading, remove the
infected bulbs, and a portion of the soil
GLASS is the best agent employed by
the gardener to exclude the cold, whilst
the light is admitted to his plants which
are natives of hotter climates than that
in which he cultivates them. Now that
the excise- duty is removed from glass,
the gardener is enabled to employ the
best, and a thicker kind than formerly,
when the duty was high in proportion
to the good quality and weight. Anxiety
to obtain the best glass for hothouses,
&c., is every way laudable ; but the bene-
fit sought for is frustrated if it be not
constantly well cleansed. The best
glass, if dirty, allows fewer rays of light
to pass through than inferior glass kept
bright. A thorough cleansing should
| be given both to the outside and inside
twice annually, during the first weeks
of February and of October, and a third
cleansing, on the outside only, at the
end of June. In proportion to the de-
ficiency of light does the plant under
glass become, in the gardener's phrase-
ology, drawn ; that is, its surface of
leaves becomes unnaturally extended,
in the vain effort to have a sufficient
elaboration of the sap effected by means
of a large surface exposed to a dimi-
nished light, for which a less surface
[ 420 ]
would have been sufficient if the light
were more intense. Taking into con-
sideration the consequences of break-
age, and other contingencies to be
avoided as well as secured, we consider
glass of 21 ounces to the square foot,
and in panes of 18 inches by 12 inches,
the substance and size most desirable.
Eough plate glass is desirable, because
without diminishing the light it reduces
the danger of scorching the leaves.
GLASS-CASES are of various kinds.
One is formed of glazed wooden
frames, fitting together, to protect es-
paliers, wall-trees, or shrubs, too large
to be covered with a hand-glass.
Another glass-case is made for pro-
tecting a single branch. It is thus de-
scribed by Mr. Maund, the author of
that most useful periodical the Botanic
grown on open walls in
the midland counties are
rarely well ripened; there-
fore I provide a small
glazed frame, a sort of
narrow hand-glass, of the
shape shown in the an-
nexed outline, to fix
against the wall, and in-
close one branch of the
vine with its fruit and
foliage. The open part,
which rests against the
wall, is thirteen inches
wide, and may be of any
length required to take
|in the fruit. The sides
are formed of single panes of glass,
seven inches wide, and meet on a bar
which may represent the ridge of a
roof, the ends enclosed by triangular
boards, and having a notch to admit
the branch. This is fixed on the
branch a month before the vine is in
flower, and brings it a week earlier
than the exposed. The frame is not
fitted closely to the wall, but in some
places may be a quarter of an inch
from it. The lateral branches being
shortened before it is fixed, it does not
require removal even for pruning, be-
cause I adopt the long-rod mode of
training, which is peculiarly adapted to
my partial protection system. The tem-
perature within the frame is always
) higher than without, sometimes at mid-
day even from 20 to 30. By this
simple protection I find grapes may be
ripened from three weeks to a month
earlier than when wholly exposed, and
this saving of time will, I believe, not
only secure their ripening well every
year in the midland counties, but also
that such advantage will be available in
the north of England, where grapes
never ripen on the open walls."
Lastly, there is the Wardlan-case^ to
cover plants growing in rooms, pre-
serving to them uniform moisture and
excluding dust. To prevent the dew
which is occasionally deposited inside
the glass, it is only necessary to open
the case frequently, for a few minutes,
to render the temperature within simi-
lar to that outside. They are not in-
tended to exclude the air, and are now
made very ornamental.
GLASTONBURY THORN, a variety of
GLAU'CIUM. Horn Poppy. (From
glaukos, greyish green ; referring to
the colour of the leaves. Nat. ord.,
Poppyworts [Papaveracese]. Linn., 18-
Polyandria \-Monoyynia. Allied to
Seeds, in common borders, in March or April.
G.fla'vum (yellow). 2. Yellow. August.
fu'lvum (tawny). 2. Orange. August.
South Europe. 1802.
G. Ara'bicum (Arabian). Red. June. Arabia.
Pe'rsicum (Persian), l. Red. August.
phceni'ceum (purple). 2. Purple. July.
[ 427 ]
G. plianVceum flavifio'rum (yellow-flowered).
2. Yellow. July. Tauria. 1823.
ru'brum (red). 1. Red. July. Greece. 1818.
tri' color (three-coloured). 1. Red. July.
GLAUCOUS. Greyish, or milky, green.
GLAU'X. (From glaukos, greyish
green. Nat. ord., Primeworts [Primu-
lacetfi]. Linn., 5-Pentandria \-Mono-
(fynia. Allied to Soldauella.)
Hardy British perennial trailers, found in
marshes near the sea. Sandy moist soil ; seeds.
G. mari'tima (sea). Flesh. June.
a'lba (white-lowered). J. White.
GLAZING. See Greenhouse and Stove.
GLECHO'MA. See Nepe'ta.
GLEDI'TSCHIA. (Named after Gled-
Usch, a German botanist. Nat. ord.,
Leguminous Plants [Fabacere], Linn.,
23-Polyyamia 2-J)icecia. Allied to Cera-
Ornamental hardy deciduous trees. Seed
imported from America, and the South of
France, where tricanthos, fyc., ripen their seeds.
Sinensis inermis, &c., are generally grafted on
the other. The seed should be sown in March,
after being soaked twelve hours in warm water.