tetrago'na, (four-angled). Brown. West
urophy'lla (tail-leaved). Brown, yellow.
June. East Indies.
GONO'LOBUS. (From yonia, an angle,
and lobos, a pod ; referring to the
shape of the seed-vessel. Nat. ord.,
Asclepiach [Asclepiadaceoj]. Linn., 5-
Pentandria '2 -Diqynia. )
The hardy species by seeds and divisions, in
species, divisions, by seed, in heat, and by cut-
dry sandy soil. The greenhouse and stove
tings of the young shoots, in sand, under a bell-
glass. The stove kinds require bottom-heat;
peat and loam, with silver sand, and a little
HARDY DECIDUOUS TWINERS.
G. di' scalar (two-coloured). 8. Green. July.
North America. 1809-
macrophy 1 llus (large-leaved). 6. Yellow.
July. North America. 1822.
Nuttalia'nus (Nuttall's). 4. Green. July.
G. Curoline'nsis (Carolina). 6. Purple. July.
Carolina. 1824. Deciduous.
prostru'tus (lying-down). 3. Green. July.
Mexico. 1823. Evergreen.
STOVE DECIDUOUS TWINERS.
G. crispifto'rus (curled-flowered). 2. White,
green. July. South America. 1741.
grandiflu'rus (large- flowered). 10. Green.
July. Trinidad. 1826.
STOVE EVERGREEN TWINERS.
G. hi'spidus (bristly). Black. July. Brazil.
mari'timus (sea-shore). 6. Green. June.
ni'ge.r (black). 6. Dark purple. October.
subero'sus (cork-barked). 6. Green. Au-
gust. South America. 1/32.
GOODE'NIA. (Named after Dr.
Goodenouyh, Bishop of Carlisle. Nat.
ord., Goodeniads [Goodeniacese]. Linn.,
o-Pen tandria 1 -Monoyyn la. )
All New Holland plants, with yellow flowers,
except where otherwise mentioned. Herba-
ceous, by seeds and divisions in spring ; the
shrubby by cuttings, in sand, under a bell-glass,
in April; peat and loam. Winter temp., 40
G. bellidifo'lia (Daisy-leaved). 3. July. 1823.
decu'rrens (running-down-fcauerf). 1. May.
gra 1 tilts (slender). l. July. 1822.
grandijlo'ra (large-flowered). 4. July. 1803.
hedera'cea (Ivy-leaved). $. July. "l813.
hcterophy'lla (various-leaved). 1. Pale red.
inca'na (hoary). $. Blue. May. 1842.
ora'ta (egg-/ZBft. 2. July. 1/Q3.
paniculu'ta (panicled). 1. July. 1823.
ri'gida (stiff). Blue. June.
stelli'gera (star-haired), g. June. 1823,
GOO'DIA. (Named after P. Good, a
collector of plants in Australia for
Kew Gardens. Nat. ord., Leguminous
Plants [Fabacea-]. Linn., IQ-Mona-
delphla (i-Decandna. Allied to Tomp-
Greenhouse evergreen shrubs, with yellow
blossoms, from Van Diemen's Land. Seeds,
and cuttings of the young shoots, in May, in
sand, under a glass ; sandy peat and fibry
loam. Winter temp., 40 to 48. A shady
place for the pots in summer. AH, and espe-
cially latifolia, should be tried against a wall,
with a little protection in winter.
G. lotifo'lia (Lotus-leaved). 3. June. 17Q3.
polyspe'rma (many-seeded). 2. June. 1/90.
pube'scens (downy). 3. June. 1805.
GOODYE'RA. (Named after J. Good-
ycr, a British botanist. Nat. ord.,
Orchids [Orchidaceae], Linn., ;20-
Gynandria l-Monandria. Allied to
Terrestrial orchids. Divisions of the roots ;
peat and loam, with a little decayed wood and
G. pube'scens (downy). . White. July.
North America. 1802.
re'pens (creeping). j. White. July. Scot-
tessella'ta (chequered). . White. July.
North America. 1821.
'scolor (two-coloured). 1. White. No-
vember. South America. 1815.
pro'cera (tall). 2. White. June. Nepaul.
rubicu'ndu (reddish-flowered). Cinnamon.
July. Manilla. 1838.
GOOSEBERRY. (Ri'bes Grnssula" rla} .
VARIETIES. General Dessert kin da.
Champagne, R. and Y. ; Early Green,
hairy, G. ; Golden Drop, Y. ; Kockwood,
Y.; Pitmaston Green-Gage, G.; ^Yar-
rington, or Aston Seedling, R. ; Taylor's
Blight Venus, w. ; Whitesmith, w. ;
Glenton Green, G. ; Walnut, G. ; Early
Sulphur, Y. ; Massey's Heart of Oak,
G. ; Wellington's Glory, w. ; Eumbul-
Late Dessert kinds (for retarding on
trellises). Warrington, R. ; Pitmaston
Green-Gage, G. ; Coe's Late Eed, R. ;
the Champagnes, R. and Y.
BottUng. liumbullion, Y.
Preserving. Hough Eed, Warring-
Large kinds (very good). Prince
Eegent, R. ; Wonderful, R. ; Eoaring
Lion, R.; Top Sawyer, i;.; Tiuckwood,
Y. ; No Bribery, Y. ; Sovereign, Y. ;
Wellington's Glory, w. ; Queen Char-
lotte, w. ; Greenwood, G. ; Glenton
The letters it. Y. G. w. refer to the
colours, red, yellow, green, white.
PROPAGATION: by Cuttings. Large,
straight, and healthy young shoots
should be procured at the end of au-
tumn, and these may be shortened to
about fifteen inches in length, cutting 1
away the weaker portion the point.
All the eyes or buds must be cut out,
except the four top ones, in order to
prevent the future plant from produc-
ing suckers. These should be planted
hi any ordinary garden soil, in a light
situation, but not too sunny. Plant
about four inches deep, and keep them
tolerably moist timing spring and early
, 2 F
t 404 ]
summer. Cuttings of young growing
shoots, also, strike readily under a
Layering is performed as with other
deciduous shrubs ; if in the old wood,
at the same period as the cuttings, and
for the same reasons ; if in the young
shoots, when they have acquired some
strength, about the beginning of July.
Seed. This is the source whence
new varieties may be obtained. The
seed being washed out of the pulp
when ripe, may be sown immediately ;
and in the ensuing spring, if the plants
can be early subjected to a slight bot-
tom warmth, they will be a foot in
height in the first summer, and may,
with good management, be brought to
bear, some in the second year, and all
in the third.
Soil. A deep sandy loam is best
adapted to the gooseberry. Any free
garden soil, of average quality, will pro-
duce them in tolerable perfection, if
well manured, and, above all things,
freed from excess of moisture. Goose-
berries will never thrive in stagnant
soil; they will become hide-bound
speedily, and their stems covered with
moss. Nevertheless, they are very par-
tial to a permanency of surface mois
ture in the growing season, and for
that purpose top-dressings are had re-
course to. Wherever fine gooseberries
are required, the situation must be
totally unshaded ; it, however, becomes
good policy at times to plant some un-
der the partial shade of small trees;
in such situations they will set in a
frosty spring, when those exposed are
Culture in Growing Period. A due
training, especially whilst young, is
necessary. Those who grow them for
exhibition use two sorts of sticks, vix.,
forks and hooks, these are cut out of
any ordinary brush-wood, about half a
yard long, and they must be neatly
pointed. Thus the hooks are made to
draw down refractory shoots, and the
forks to prop up the drooping ones.
It is good practice to apply a top
dressing of half rotten manure in the
beginning of May ; and just before the
fruithave completed their last swelling,
the points of all the longest straggling
shoots may be pinched or dubbed. It
is well to go over the bushes in the
early part of June, and remove much
of the waste spray which chokes the
interior of the bush ; some of the
grosser shoots may be entirely re-
moved, and all others of a doubtful
character may have the points pinched.
This will throw both size and flavour
into the berry, and add to the value of
the remaining wood for the ensuing
Culture in the Root Period. Prun-
ing is the first point, and the sooner
this is performed after the fall of the
leaf the better. It consists, mainly, in
thinning out; when a bush is well
thinned, no two shoots will touch ; in-
deed, they should be, on an average,
three inches apart all over the bush.
Most good cultivators keep the middle
of the bush very open ; this is espe-
cially necessary during the first three
years from striking the cutting ; and
the principle should be attended to,
less or more, at every annual pruning
afterwards. In selecting wood to re-
main, choose that which is strong, but
not over luxuriant; the latter, with all
weakly and inferior wood, may be cut
clear away; cutting away, also, all i-oarse
snags in the interior of the branches.
Lastly, shorten every point which ap-
pears weakly or incomplete in charac-
ter, just so far as such inferiority is
manifest. The root must now receive
attention ; some of our show goose-
berry growers open a trench around
their bushes annually, at about the
distance the branches extend ; cutting
away all coarse roots beyond that line.
They then fill in the trench with good
fresh loam and cow dung blended.
Whether this be done or not, a top
dressing of half-decayed manure should
be annually applied; scraping away
the loose surface, and placing the m:i
nure next the top fibres, and then
soiling the whole over.
INSECTS. See Abraxas, Aphis, and
GOBDO'NIA. ( Named after Mr. Gordon,
ii London nurseryman. Nat. ord.,
The ads [Ternstromiaceee]. Linn., 1(>-
[ 435 ]
Monadelpkia 8- Polyandrla. Allied to
Hardy deciduous shrubs, except Hamatoxy-
lon, which is a stove evergreen, and requires
peat soil ; cuttings of young shoots, in sand,
under a bell glass, in heat. The others,
though hardy, flowering late, are ornaments
for the greenhouse ; layers in autumn, seeds in
spring, and cuttings in sandy peat under a
hand light in summer, in a shady place.
Pubescens and Franlelini are the hardiest, but
Lasianthus is the most beautiful, and blooms
chiefly in summer and autumn. Peat, leaf-
mould, and sand, with a trifle of loam, deep,
and on a retentive subsoil, if not naturally so,
puddled with clay ; so that the plant may ob-
tain something of its native position in swampy
G. Frankli'ni (Franklin's). 4. White. Sep-
tember. North America. 1774.
Hcemato'xylon (Red-wood). 40. White.
Lasia'nthus (Hairy-flower). 6. Yellow. Sep*
tember. North America. 1/39.
pubc'sccns (downy). 4. White. July. Caro-
GORTE'EIA. (Named after D. Gorter,
a Dutch botanist. Nat. ord., Compo-
sites [ Asteracece] . Linn., \$-Synyenesia
3-Frutjtranea, Allied to Gazania.)
Greenhouse annual. Sow in common soil in
the greenhouse, in March ; or in the open bor-
der at the end of May.
(i. persona' ta (masked). . Yellow. August.
Cape of Good Hope. 1774.
GOSSY'PIUM. Cotton Tree. (From
//o~, Arabic for a soft substance. Nat.
ord., Mallow worts [Malvaceas]. Linn.,
IQ-Monaddphia S-Polyandria. )
The cotton of commerce is the hairy covering
of the seeds of several species of this genus.
Barbadmse and herbaceum, especially the for-
mer, furnish the best cotton. Stove plants.
Annuals and biennials by seed, in moist heat,
in spring; perennial herbaceous by seed and
divisions in similar circumstances ; shrubs by
cuttings of young shoots, just getting firm, in
sandy soil, nnder a bell-glass, and in bottom
heat ; rich sandy loam. Summer temp., 60 to
85 ; winter, 50 to 60.
G. arborc'um (tree). 12. Yellow. July. East
Indies. 1694. Evergreen shrub.
Barbade'nse (Barbadoes). 5. Yellow. Sep-
tember. Barbadoes. 1759. Biennial.
hcrba'ceum (common-herbaceous). 3. Yel-
low. July. East Indies. 1594. An-
I'ndicum (Indian). 3. Yellow. August.
East Indies. 1800. Biennial.
latifo'lium (broad-leaved). 5. Yellow. July.
1800. Evergreen sbrub.
obtusifo'litiHi (blunt-leaved). 5. Yellow.
July. East Indies. Evergreen shrub.
rcfigio'surn (religious). 3. Yellow. July.
India. 1777- Herbaceous perennial, i
GOUA'NIA. (Named after A. Gonan,
once professor of botany at Montpelier.
Nat. ord., Rhamnads [Rhamnacese].
2%-Potygamia 2-Dicecia. Allied to Try-
Evergreen stove climbers. Cuttings of half-
ripened shoots, in sand, under a bell-glass, in
bottom heat ; fibry peat and sandy loam. Sum-
mer temp., 60 to 80; winter, 50 to 58.
G. cordifo'lia (heart-leaved). 10. Yellow. Rio
Dominge'nsis (St. Domingo). 10. Yellow.
West Indies. 1739.
integrifo'lia (entire-leaved). 10. Green,
Mauritia'na (Mauritian). 10. Green, yel-
low. Mauritius. 1823.
tili&fo'lia (Lime-tree-leaved). 10. Yellow.
July. East Indies. 1810.
tomento'sa (woolly). 10. Green, yellow.
West Indies. 1823.
GOVE'NIA. (Named after J. JR.
Gowen, a distinguished horticulturist,
and cross-breeder of plants. Nat. ord.,
Orchids [Orchidacese]. Linn., 20-
Gynandria 1-Monandria. Allied to
Stove terrestrial orchids. Divisions of the
plant; peat and loam, with a little charcoal
and silver sand. Summer temp., 60 to 85 ;
winter, 50 to 55.
G. fascia! tu. (banded-cowered). l. Yellow.
January. Mexico. 1843.
Ga'rdneri (Gardner's). 2. Green, yellow.
December. Organ Mountains. 1837.
lageno'phora (bottle-bearing). l. White.
January. Mexico. 1844.
lilia'cea (Uly-flowered). 1. White. July.
supe'rba (superb). 5. Yellow. March.
utricula'ta (bladdery-s/teaMed). l. Cream.
August. Jamaica. 1843.
GRTE'LLSIA. (Name unexplained.
Nat. ord., Crucifers [Brassicacese].
Linn., \b -Tetrad yuamia. Allied to
Hardy herbaceous plant, suited for rock
work ; common sandy soil ; division, and
cuttings, under a hand light, in sandy soil, iri
G. saxifragafo'lia (Saxifrage-leaved). 3. White.
July. Persia. 1844.
GRAFF OR GRAFT. This, also called
the scion, is the portion of a branch
selected to be inserted, or grafted upon
a stock, or rooted stem, to form the
heatl of the future plant. See Grafting
[ 436 ]
GRAFTING is uniting a scion of one
plant to the root, branch, or stem of
another. The scion and stock must be
of nearly related species.
The objects of grafting are: 1st.
To increase choice kinds. 2nd. To
increase the vigour of delicate kinds.
5rd. To reduce the vigour of those
which are too gross, -ith. To accele-
rate the period of fruiting. ;">th. To
adapt kinds to soils for which they
would be unfitted on their own roots.
6th. To renovate old kinds.
We now proceed to give a series of
cuts, illustrative of all the modes which
arc usual in general horticulture
1. WHIP GRAFTING, called also splice,
and tomjue grafting. This is the most
common mode, and is that almost uni-
versally adopted in our nurseries ; and
when the stock and scion are equal in
size, is perhaps the handiest. The
head of the stock is pruned
off at the desired height, and
then a slip of bark and wood
removed at the upper portion
of 1 he stock, with a very clean
cut, to fit exactly with a cor-
responding cut which must
be made in the scion. A
very small amount of wood
must be cut away, and the
surface made quite smooth;
care must be taken that no
dirt he upon the cuts in this,
and, indeed, in all the other
modes. The scion must now
be prepared ; this should
have at least three or four
huds, one of which should,
where possible, be at the lower end, to
assist in uniting it to the stock. A
sloping cut must now he made in the
scion; this cut must correspond with
that on the stock, and a slit made to
fit in a cleft made in the stock when
heading it. This slit serves to main-
tain the scion steadily in its place until
properly fastened, and is more u matter
of convenience than anything else.
Care must be taken that the scion fits
hark l.o bar If, on one side at least, for
Ji is not the old or existing portion of
wood that forms the union, but a tissue
-which has to be produced, just as when
the sides of a wound have to be re-
united. This power exists in the albur-
nous matter, which lays next the inner
bark ; and the substance which forms
the union, and which is secreted by
the returning sap, is termed cambium.
Where the stock and scion disagree in
point of size, of course only one side
can touch, and great care should be
taken in this part of the operation ;
and, in the case of a young scion on
an old tree, some allowance must be
made for the ruggedness of the bark.
The scion being thus adjusted, the
whole is bound close, but not too tight-
ly, witli a shred of bass mat, care being
taken that the inner barks coincide.
The clay is now applied, in order to
keep the parts moist, and some practi-
tioners pile soil over the grafted part,
when near enough the ground. In all
the modes of grafting it may here be
observed, that the chief ground of success
lies in nicely fitting together some corres-
ponding -portions of the inner bark of the
scion, and stock.
',!. CROWN, called also Clcj 2, or Wedge
Grafting. This is applied to various
plants as well as fruits, as, for instance,
the rose, cactuses, i'c. Vines, also,
are frequently grafted by this mode.
As in whip grafting, it accelerates the
union if the bottom of the scion has a
bud or two. In the case of the vine, it
is considered necessary to let the stock
grow a little before grafting; care must
be taken, however, to keep some grow-
ing portions on the stock, above the
graft, or severe bleeding would ensue.
As the name indicates, a
cleft, or division, is made in
the stock to receive the scion,
which is cut like a wedge ;
again taking care, in case of
inequality of size, to make
one side fit bark to bark.
When the scion and stock
are unequal in size, both
sides of the scion may be
brought to fit by cutting the
cleft nearer to one side of the crown
than the other. The wound is bound
over, as in the other processes, with
bast, and covered over with clay, or
grafting-wax. The camellia succeeds
well when grafted this way, even a
C 407 J
single bud will make a plant, provided
the stocks are kept in a damp and
shady atmosphere for a lew weeks after
grafting. The stock here, also, should
be slightly in advance, that is, should
be forwarder in growing than the graft
or scion. The best time is just as
the sap is rising.
3. CLEFT GRAFTING, as represented
in this sketch, is only a kind
of crown grafting, and is prac-
tised on stocks one or two
inches in diameter, and,
therefore, too large for whip
grafting. Cut or saw off the
head of the stock in a sloping
form ; with a knife or chisel
cleave the stock at the top,
making the cleft about two
inches deep ; keep it open by
leaving in the chisel ; cut
the lower end of the scion into the
form of a wedge, one inch and a half
long, and the side that is to be towards
the middle of the stock sloped off to a
fine edge; place the bark of the thickest
side of the wedge-end of the scion so
as to correspond exactly with the bark
of the stock ; take away the chisel, and
then the sides of the stock will pinch
and hold fast the scion. Two scions
may be inserted, one on each side of
the cleft ; but in this case the top of
the stock must not be cut off sloping.
Bast and clay must be put on as in the
other modes of grafting.
4. SADDLE GRAFTING. The top
of the stock is cut to a
wedge shape, and the scion or
graft cleft up the middle, and
placed astride on the wedge of
the stock ; hence the name.
The binding and claying is per-
formed as in the other modes,
care being taken to make at
least one of the sides meet barfe
A modification of this mode is
practised in some of our cider
counties, where they do not hesi-
tate to practise it in the middle
of summer, when the young wood
has become somewhat mature.
The scion is chosen smaller
than the stock, and is .cleft
about three inches at the lower
so that one side is rather
thicker than the other. The
rind of the stock is then opened
on one side, and the thick
side of the scion introduced
between the bark and wood ;
the thinner portion is carried
astride the stock, and down the
opposite side, a slight cutting
having been made to receive it,
on the principle of making cor-
responding parts meet. This,
though tedious, is a very safe
mode of grafting, inasmuch as it
presents a greater expanse of al-
burnum for effecting the j unction .
5. SIDE GRAFTING. -This, in
neral, is performed on
trees on which the top
is required to remain,
and is well adapted for
the insertion of new
kinds of pears, or other
fruits, on established
trees, in order to increase
the collection, or to has-
ten fruit-bearing. It is
also adapted to furnish
naked portions of old
shoots. It is, however, not so safe a
mode as some of the others. Little
description is needed; the cut will
sufficiently illustrate it,
0. CHIXK OR Shoulder Grafting.
This is not much in use in
this country, and, indeed, we
see little occasion for its
practice. "When the stock
and scion are equal in size,
however, it offers an opportu-
nity of gaining the advantage
of an extra amount of al-
burnous union. The cut will
7. ROOT GRAFTING.
An old practice,
but with regard to de-
ciduous fruit trees it
offers no particular
advantage over the or-
dinary whip grafting,
when performed near
to the ground. It is,
perhaps, better adapt-
ed for very large
scions, for in many
[ 438 ]
trees such may be used when two or |
three inches diameter. When strongly
bound they may be soiled over head,
merely leaving a hole for the bud of
the scion to come through, which in
this case will rise like a sucker.
8. PEG GRAFTING. This mode is
now never practised in
England, and we only
insert the annexed en-
graving, because it com-
pletes our catalogue of all
the known modes. Of
these eight modes there
are many modifications,
but they are all derived
from the eight enumerated.
Peg grafting never hav-
ing been practised by our-
selves, we shall only make
this extract relative to it : " The scion
must be of the exact size of the stock ;
bore a hole into the centre of the stock,
one and a half inch deep; cut the
bottom of the scion to fit; the edges
of the barks must be very smooth, and
GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. For ordi-
nary garden purposes, we think the
whip, the cleft, the saddle, and the
crown, the most eligible modes by far.
These may be said to be the rule, the
others are merely exceptional cases.
In all these proceedings a few axioms
or main principles must be kept steadily
in view ; of such are the following :
1st. The scions of deciduous trees
should be taken from the parent tree
some weeks before the grafting season,
and " heeled " (the lower ends put into
the soil) in some cool and shady place ;
this causes the stock to be a little in
advance of the graft, as to the rising of
the sap, a condition admitted on all
hands to be essential.
2nd. Let all the processes be per-
formed with a very clean and exceed-
ingly sharp knife, taking care that no-
thing, such as dirt or chips, gets be-
tween the scion and the stock.
3rd. Let the bandage be applied
equally and firmly ; not so tight, how-
ever, as to cut or bruise the bark. For
this reason, broad strands of bast are
4th. In selecting grafts be careful in
choosing the wood, avoiding, on the
one hand, exb.au.sted or bad-barked
scions, and, on the other, the imma-
ture, watery spray which frequently
springs from the old trunks of ex-
hausted or diseased trees.
GRAFTING CLAY, to make. Take
some strong and adhesive loam, ap-
proaching to a clayey character, arid
beat and knead it until of the consist-
ence, of soft-soap. Take also some
horse droppings, and rub them through
a riddle, of half inch mesh, until tho-
roughly divided. Get some cow manure,
the fresher the better, and mix about
equal parts of the three ; kneading and
mixing them until perfectly and uni-
formly mixed; some persons add a
little road scrapings to the mass. A
vessel with very finely riddled ashes
must be kept by the side of the grafter,
and after the clay is closed round the
scion the hands should be dipped in
the ashes ; this enables the person who
applies the clay to close the whole with
a perfect finish. It must be so closed
as that no air can possibly enter ; and
it is well to go over the whole in three
or four days afterwards, when, if any
have rifted or cracked, they may be
GRAFTING WAX. The following re-
cipe lias been recommended by a first-
rate authority. Take common sealing-
wax, any colour but green, one part ;
mutton fat, one part ; white wax, one
part ; and honey, one-eighth part. The
white wax and the fat are to be first
melted, and then the sealing wax is to
be added gradually, in small pieces, the
mixture being kept constantly stirred ;
and, lastly, the honey must be put in