i hour, would be useful ; not for heat,
but for enabling us to give more air,
and causing a rapid circulation among
Wateriny. The rule is, water so as
I to reach every fibre of the plant's roots,
I and then wait until a similar repetition
| is necessary. A plant may want wa-
i tering twice a day in summer, and,
j perhaps, only twice a month in dull
weather in winter. From the end of
September to the middle of May, let
the temperature of the water used be
from f> to 10 higher than the mini-
mum temperature of the house. From
the periods mentioned, making of course
due allowance for peculiar weather,
watering should be performed in the
morning ; in cold weather not too early.
Thus the stimulus of sun-heat, dimi-
nished though it be, meets the plants
when they have received their re-
fresher ; the extra moisture is parted
with before the evening comes, and
there is not that rapid cooling of the
soil by evaporation during the night.
During summer we reverse the lime of
watering, and perform the operation in
the afternoon and evening. Anything
that tends to cool the soil and the plant
is then, refreshing. By watering in a
bright morning, the moisture is exhaled
rapidly from the soil, as well as through
the foliage of the plant, which does not,
in consequence, receive the full benefit
of the watering, and, therefore, soon
requires a, fivsh supply. In llie even
ing the evaporating tendencies are ap-
proaching the minimum; the plant has
full time to absorb and refresh itself,
and thus is more able to stand the brunt
of the following dny.
Manure Wateriny. Tbis should be
applied often, but weak and clear ; a
little quicklime added will effect the
clearing, at the expense of driving off a
portion of the ammonia. It is appli-
cable in almost any case where luxuri-
ance of plant is the chief object; where
size of bloom and compact, rather than
slender, growth, are the desideratum,
it should not be applied until the flow
Syringing. This is a most valuable
mode of applying water, as it promotes
cleanliness, and is as necessary for re-
moving dust and incrustations from the
foliage as soap and water are for clean-
ing our own skins. In winter it should
be done at mid-day, when the sun
shines ; in spring and autumn, in the
morning ; in summer, chiefly in the
evening, though at that season we fre-
quently give them a dash several times
Pruning. This is generally done
when the plant has finished flowering
when we wish it to start into fresh
growth. Of course there are excep-
tions; without these exceptions the
nature of a plant and the mode of its
growth must be the basis for a system
of pruning. For instance, we cut down
the flowering shoots of an Epacris and
a Pelargonium; but we act very dif-
ferently both before and after in the
two cases. The Epacris is hard-wooded,
and if tolerably ripened it requires no
preparation. The long branches of
most kinds are cut in at once, and the
plant is then transferred to a closer
and warmer atmosphere to encourage
the formation of new shoots ; a cold
pit, kept close, is the thing; some
people, with great success, keep them
a couple of months in a plant stove.
Of course they are duly hardened, and
the wood ripened by autumn. On the
other hand, the stems of the Geranium
are soft and spongy ; if a very valuable i
kind, this will have been increased by
shading, to preserve the colour of the
flower. The plant altogether is at a
minimum as respects its possession of
organisable material; while, for the
sake of the old plant to be kept, and
the cuttings for seed from its stems, it
is desirable it should be at the maxi-
mum. The plants are, therefore, ex-
posed fully to the sun ; not a drop
more water is given than just to keep
the leaves from flagging ; and the
stems, instead of being soft and green,
become hard and brown, by parting
with their watery evaporations, and as-
similating fresh solid material. Many
other close-headed plants, such as the
Azalea, merely require, in general, the
stopping of a few of the strongest shoots.
Time of Pottiny. This should gene-
rally be done after pruning, and when
fresh growth has taken place, because
it is advisable never to give more checks
to a plant at once than can be avoided.
When cut down, or pruned, the energies
in the stems and the un-mutilated, un-
touched roots, are at once put forth in
the production of fresh shoots. When
these are formed and forming, and the
plant is kept close for a time after
shifting, fresh roots will soon be formed
j through their agency, upon the same
I principle that roots are protruded from
a cutting of half-ripened wood under a
Time for Cuttings. Now we speak
merely in general terms. Other things
being equal, the older and harder the
wood of the cutting, the longer will it
be in striking. The younger the wood
is, provided it is just hard enough at
the base to possess a sufficiency of
organisable material, the sooner it will
strike ; if too soft and spongy it will
rot and damp off; hence the general
time for propagating is regulated by
the general time of pruning and fresh
growth taking place. Small side shoots,
from If to 3 inches in length, just
getting firm at the base, cut to a point
with a clean, sharp knife, or taken off
close to the older branch, and a few of
the lower leaves removed, will succeed
in the great majority of cases. It is
desirable to get them in in April or
May, in the case of slow growing
plants, to have them established before
winter. Wo shall merely add a few
requisites ; 1st, clean pots ; 2nd, secure
drainage by an inverted small pot in-
side a larger one, or by crocks so as to
fill it three-quarters full; '3rd, place
rough material or moss over the drain-
age to prevent the finer soil washing
through it ; 4th, cover it with an inch
or so of sandy soil, similar to what the
plants delight in, if a little charcoal is
added all the better, finishing with a
layer of pure sand, watering all Avell
and then allowing it to drain before in-
serting the cuttings ; oth, insert the
cuttings firmly, fill the small holes
made by the dibber with sand, dew all
over with the fine rose of a watering-
pot, allow the foliage to become dry,
[ 452 ]
place each pot under a bell-glass or a j
number under a hand-light, and shade
from the sun, either in a corner of the |
greenhouse, or better still in a close j
frame or pit without any artificial heat !
being applied, at least none before the |
cutting begins to swell at its base, j
Some things may have bottom-heat at i
once, especially those that have been a !
little forced previously. Though shade j
be indispensable, yet as much light as |
the cuttings will endure must be given, |
increasing the quantity gradually.
Sowing Seeds. This may be done at j
any time when the seeds are thoroughly
ripe. As it is of importance to have
the seedlings potted off and established
before winter, April and May are the
best periods in several circumstances.
Where there is no hotbed the latter
period will be the best, and even then,
for confining heat and moisture, the pot
should be covered with a bell-glass, or
a square of glass laid over it. Where
there is a hotbed, such as a cucumber
frame, the seeds may be sown a month
or six weeks earlier, and hardened off
as soon as they are fairly up and potted
off. In sowing, any light sandy soil
will do ; for all fine hairy-rooted plants
sandy peat is the best. The pots
should be nearly as well drained as for
cuttings, watered and allowed to drain
before sowing, as the less water they
have afterwards until they are up the
better. Hard seeds that have been
kept dry over the winter will vegetate
all the sooner for being steeped several
hours in warm water, say from L'3 to
14. In covering the seeds the thick-
ness should be regulated by the size of
the seeds. Hence, for very small dusty
seeds, the surface of the fine soil should
be made smooth, the seeds evenly scat-
tered over it and slightly pressed in,
and then just dusted witli a little fine
sand, but in unpractised hands it is
safer to be content with the slight
pressing in, with a] clean round board
having a nail in the centre to hold by,
and then place a square of glass over
the pot, with moss or paper above to
shade until vegetation lias taken place.
After Treatment of Cuttings mid Seed-
I'UUJK. This is almost identical. Neither '
cuttings nor seedlings, if at nil thick,
will thrive long in the cutting and seed-
ling pot. The sooner they are potted
off the better they will tbrive. Before
that, air must be given to prevent them
damping; first at night; next, night,
morning, and evening ; and lastly, when
roots are well formed, during the day
removing the glasses altogether from
the cuttings ; all this time, the little
moisture necessary must be carefully
given. The less it touches either the
stems or leaves, the better. When a
little advanced, dust them overhead
with a fine rose watering-pot, or a sy-
ringe, but be careful to have the foliage
dry before shutting up for the night. In
potting off tender plants that are very
small, three or four may be put round
the sides of a four-inch pot; a strong
growing one into such a pot at once.
In every such potting, and every time
that reshifting is necessary, a moist
close atmosphere is of importance for a
short time afterwards ; thus lessening,
by means of shading and syringing, the
evaporating processes until the roots
have begun to work in the new soil,
when air must be given, first gradually,
and ultimately plentifully.
GREEN MANURE is a mass of recently
growing plants dug whilst green and
fresh into the soil, for the purpose of
enriching it; and it is a rule without
any exception, that all fresh vegetable
matters so turned into the earth do
render it more fertile, and if plants are
grown upon the soil for this purpose,
the greater the amount of the surface
of leaves in proportion to that of roots
the better, because such plants obtain
a large proportion of their chief consti-
tuent, the chief constituent of all
plants, carbon, from the atmosphere :
they, therefore, return to the soil more
decomposing matter than they have
taken from it.
The putrefaction of the vegetables,
and the gases in that case emitted, says
Mr. Cuthbert Johnson, appear to be on
all occasions highly invigorating and
I nourishing to the succeeding crop.
During this operation, the presence of
water is essentially necessary, and is
most probably decomposed. The gases
produced vary in different plants; those
which contain gluten emit ammonia ;
[ 453 ]
onions and a few others evolve phos- |
phorus ; hydrogen, carbonic acid gas, j
and carburetted hydrogen gas, with '
various vegetable matters, are almost ;
always abundantly formed. All these |
gases wlien mixed with the soil are \
very nourishing to the plants growing j
upon it. The observations of the
farmer assure us that they are so. He
tells us that all green manures cannot
be employed in too fresh a state.
8ca Weed is a species of greeu ma-
nure, for it ought to he employed whilst j
quite fresh. There are many species,
and they differ very essentially in. their
components. The Lumiinaria, those
long, tawny-green, ribbon-like algaa, so
common 011 our coasts, contain besides
vegetable matter a large proportion of
the salts of potash in addition to those
of soda ; whereas the Fuel contain none
of the salts of potash. All, however,
are excellent manures, and we know a
garden, near Southampton, very pro-
ductive, that for some years had no
other manure. It is particularly
good as a manure for potatoes. The
^HCUS vexictilosits, so distinguishable by
the bladders full of air embedded in its
leaves, is a very excellent manure. It j
contains, when dry, about eighty-four j
parts vegetable matter, thirteen parts '
sulphate of lime and magnesia, with a
little phosphate of lirne, and three parts
sulphate and muriate of soda.
GREXVI'LLEA conspi'cua. This is Pc-
largo'ninm conspi'cuum. ,nn rnyorg \
GREENWEED. Geni'sta pilo'sa, and
GREVI'LLEA. (Named after C. F.
Greville, a patron of botany. Nat, ord.,
Proteads [Proteacere]. Linn., -Tetran-
dna 1-Monogynia. Allied to Hakea.)
Greenhouse evergreen shrubs from New Hol-
land. Seeds sown in a slight hotbed, in spring,
or in the greenhouse, as soon as ripe ; cuttings
of the young shoots when ripened, in sand,
under a bell-glass, and when callused at the
base to have a slight bottom ; peat and loam,
with silver sand, and bits of charcoal, to keep
the soil open. Winter temp., 35 to 45. Ros-
tnarinifolia and acuminuta have stood out in
sheltered places, with little or no protection.
G. aca'nthi folia (Acanthu8-leaved\ 4. Purple.
acumina'ta (pointed - leaved). 4. Red.
aqutfo'lia (Holly-leaved). 1820.
~ d'ftpera (rough). 3. Pink. June, 1624.
G. asplenifo'lia (Asplenium-leaved). 5, Pink.
Bnue'ri (Bauer's). 4. Red. June. 1824.
berberifu'lia (Berbery-leaved). 4. Red. June.
bipinnati'fida (doubly-leafleted). 1837-
brachya'ntha (short-flowered). Purple.
buxifo'lia (Box-leaved). 6. Pink. June.
Cale'yi (Caley's). 5. Red. June. 1830.
cane'scens (hosty-leaved). 5. Green, tawny.
ceratophy' Ha (horn-leaved). 1839.
cine'rea (ashey-coloured). 4. Red. June.
colli'na (hill). 4. Pink. June. 1812.
conci'nna(nent). 4. Purple. June. 1821.
eriosta'chya (woolly-spiked). Orange.
ferrugi'nea (rusty). 3. 1837-
Flinde'rsii (Flinder's). 3. Purple. June,
New South Wales. 1824.
gibba'sa (swollen-stemmed) . 1821.
heterophy'lla (variable-leaved). 4. White.
juniperi'na (Juniper-like). 4. Pink. June.
Lawrenceu'nu (Mrs. Lawrence's). White.
linea'ris (narrow -leaved). 6. White. June.
a' Iba (white-flowered). 4. White.
incarnu'ta. (flesh-coloured). 4.
Flesh. June. 1/90.
longifo'lia (long.leaved). Reddish yellow.
Mangle' sii (Mangles's).
monta'na (mountain). 4, violet. June.
mueronifo'lia (pointed-leaved). 3. Violet.
mucronula'ta (small -pointed -leaved}. 4.
Pink. June. 1809.
~-planifo'lia (flat-leaved). 2. Orange. June.
puni'cea (scarlet). Purple. June. 1822.
robu'sta (robust, or silk-oak). 5. Orange.
rosmarinifo'lia (Rosemary-leaved). 4. Red.
seri'cea (silky). 6. Pink. June. 1790.
stri'cta (erect). 4. Pink. June. 1820.
stylo'sti(long-styleA). 9. Red. June. 1809-
sulphu'rea (sulphur-coloured). 4. Pale yel-
low. June. 1824.
Thielemania'na (Thielemann's). Crimson.
trifurca'ta (three-forked). 3. Red. June.
GEI'AS. Anchovy Pear. (From grao,
to eat; the fruit being eatable. Nat.
ord., Barrlnytoniads [Barringtoniacese] .
Linn., 13-Polyandria \-Monoijyniu. Al-
lied to Gustavia.)
Stove evergreen tree. Cuttings of ripe shoots,
in sand, under a bell-glass, in peat ; rich sandy
loam. Summer temp., 60 to 80; winter, 50
G. cauliflo'ra (stem-flowering). 50. White;
[ 454 ]
GRIE'LUM. (From griehtm, old look-
ing ; referring to the gray hoary aspect
of the plants. Nat. ord., Roseworts
[Rosacese], Linn., 13-Polyandria 4-
Tetragynia. Allied to Neurada.)
Greenhouse herbaceous perennial from the
Cape of Good Hope, all having yellow flowers.
Division of the roots in spring; rough sandy
soil well drained. Winter temp., 40 to 45.
G. humifu'sum (trailing). 1. May. 1825.
lacinia'tum (jagged). . August. 1825.
tenuifo'lium (slender-leaved) . 2. May. 1780.
GRLFFI'NIA. (Named after W. Grif-
fin, Esq., a patron of botany. Nat. ord.,
Amaryllids [Amaryllidaceee], Linn., 0-
Hexandria \-Monogynia. Allied to
Eucrosia in leaf, and to Lycorus in the
Stove bulbs from South America. Seeds in a
hot-bed, either when ripe or early in spring,
and young offset bulbs ; peat and loam, with
plenty of sand, and a little dried leaf-mould.
Temp., when growing, 60 to 80, with plenty
of moisture ; when at rest, 40 to 50, and dry.
G. hyaci'nthina (violet-colored) . 1 . Blue. July.
interme'dia (intermediate) . %. Blue. April.
parviflo'ra (small-flowered). 2. Pale pur-
ple. August. 1815.
GRINDE'LIA. (Named after H. Grin-
del, a German botanist. Nat. ord.,
Composites [Asteracese] . Linn., IQ-Syn-
Half-hardy plants, all with yellow flowers,
and from Mexico, except when otherwise men-
tioned. Ciliata is a hardy biennial, by seeds
sown in autumn, or early in spring, under pro-
tection; herbaceous species by division and cut-
tings ; evergreens, cuttings in April of half-
ripened shoots, in sand, under a bell-glass ;
peat and loam. Winter temp,, 40 to 48.
G. angustifo'lia (narrow-leaved). I. August.
cilia' ta (hair-fringed). l. August. North
America. 1821. Biennial.
sguarro'sa (spreading). 2. August. Mis-
G. Coronopifo'lia (Coronopus-leaved). l. Au-
Duva'lii (Duval's). l. August. 1820.
glutino'sa (clammy). 2. 1803.
Inuloi'des (Inula-like). l. August. 1815.
Lambe'rtii (Lambert's). 2. August. 1816.
spatula'ta (spatulate). l. August. 181Q.
GRI'SLEA. (Named after G. Grisley,
a Portuguese botanist. Nat. ord.,
Loosestrifes [Lythracea?]. Linn., 8-
Octandria l-Monoyynia. Allied to Cu-
Stove evergreen shrubs. Cuttings in April of
firm young shoots, in sandy soil, under a bell-
glass, in heat ; peat and loam, fibry and sandy.
Summer temp., 60 to 75 ; winter, 50 to 55.
G, secu'nda (side-flowering}. 4. Pale pink.
tomento'sa (downy). 3. Red. June. East
GRO'BYA. (Named after Lord Grey
of Groby. Nat. ord., Orchids [Orchi-
daceee]. Linn., '20-Gynandria l-Mo-
nandria Allied to Huntleya.)
Stove orchids. Division of the plant ; shal-
low basket, in sphagnum, fibry peat, and pot-
sherds. Summer temp., 60 to 90 when grow-
ing ; winter, when comparatively at rest, 55 to
60, and dryish.
G. Amhe'rstice (Lady Amherst's). . Ochre
spotted. September. Brazil'. 1829-
galea'ta (helmeted). Green, purple. July.
GROTTO, is a resting place, formed
rudely of rockwork, roots of trees, and
shells, and is most appropriately placed
beneath the deep shade of woods, and
on the margin of water. Its intention
is to be a cool retreat during summer.
GROUND CHERRY. Ce'rasus Cha~
GROUND CISTUS. Rhodode' ndron Cha-
GROUND IVY. Ne'peta glecho'ma.
GROUND SENNA. Ca'ssiaCliamcecri'sta.
GROVE, is a moderately extensive
association of trees without underwood.
The most fitting character of a grove
is beauty ; for line trees are lovely ob-
jects, and a grove is an assemblage of
them, in which every individual retains
much of its own peculiar elegance, and
whatever it loses is transferred to the
superior beauty of the whole. To a
grove, therefore, which admits of end-
less variety in the disposition of the
trees, differences in their shapes and
their greens are seldom very important,
and sometimes they are detrimental.
Strong contrasts scatter trees which are
thinly planted, and which have not the
connexion of underwood; they no longer
form one plantation ; they are a number
of single trees. A thick grove is not
indeed exposed to this mischief, and
certain situations may recommend dif-
ferent shapes and different greens for
their effects upon the surface. The eye,
attracted into the depth of the grove,
passes by little circumstances at the
[ 455 ]
entrance ; even varieties in the form of
the line do not always engage the at-
tention, they are not so apparent as in
a continued thicket, and are scarcely
seen if they are not considerable.
GRYLLOTA'LPA. See Mole CrikL'i.
GUAJA'CUM. (The aboriginal name
in South America. Nat. ord., Bean-
capers [Zygophyllacese]. Linn., 10-
Decandria \-Monoqynia. )
The Guaiacum bark of G. officinale is well
known for its medicinal properties. Stove
evergreen trees. Cuttings of ripe shoots, in
April or May, in sand, under a bell-glass, in
brisk bottom heat ; rich sandy fibry loam.
Summer temp., 60 to 85 ; winter, 50 to 60.
G. arbo'reum (tree). 30. Blue. Trinidad. 1816.
qfficina'le (shop). 40. Blue. August.
West Indies. 1694.
vertica'le (vertical). 8. Blue. West In-
GUAXO. See Dungs.
GUA'REA. (The native name. Nat.
ord., Meliads [Meliacese]. Linn., 8-
Octandria \-Monogynia. Allied to Ca-
Stove evergreen trees. Same culture as for
G. grandiflo'ra (large-flowered). 20. White.
June. South America. 1752.
There are two other species, G.
ramiflo'ra and Swa'rtzii.
GUATTE'RIA. (Named after Guatteri,
an Italian botanist. Nat. ord., Anonads,
[Anonacese], Linn., l'3-Polyandria 6-
Polygynia. Allied to Anona.)
The flowers of G. virgata are exceedingly |
sweet. Stove evergreen trees and shrubs. Cut- i
tings of half ripened shoots in April, as for |
G. cerasoi'des (Cherry- like). 16. Green. East '
laurifo'lin (Laurel - leaved). 8. White.
ru'fa (reddish). 3. Brown. July. China.
subero'sa (cork-barked). 8. White. East
virga'ta (twiggy. Lancewood). 30. White.
GUAVA (Psi'dium Cattleya'mim). This
evergreen shrub is not generally cul-
tivated for the sake of its fruit, but it
is deserving of some encouragement
where hothouse room is plentiful. Its
fruit, in size and appearance, somewhat
resembles a small Orleans plum, and
of a dull purple colour; it is juicy, and
in flavour somewhat resembles a straw-
Propagation is effected by cuttings,
layers, and seeds.
Soil. Two parts of loam and one
Culture. It requires the ordinary
culture given to evergreen shrubs in
our stoves. As soon as the plants
attain a little age they bear abundantly
and in a long succession, often pro-
ducing fruit through the Avinter. They
will succeed very well in a comfortable
conservatory, but a climate of an in-
termediate character will suit them
best, as they enjoy a moderate amount
of heat. They occasionally require
the pruner's assistance in thinning-out
crowded or cross shoots, when such
occur, and in pinching the tops from
those which become over luxuriant.
Fruit. It is used for the dessert, and
GUAZU'MA. Bastard Cedar. (The
aboriginal name in Mexico. Nat. ord.,
Byttneriads [Byttneracese]. Linn., 18-
Polyadelphia l-Decandria. Allied to
The fruit of G. ulmifolia is full of a sweet
agreeable pulp. Stove evergreen trees. Cut-
tings of ripened shoots, and general treatment
as for Guajacum.
G.polybo'trya (many-racemed). 12. Yellow.
tomento'sa (woolly). 20. Cumana. 1820.
ulmifo'lia (Elm-leaved). 40. Yellow. Ja-
GUELDER ROSE. T r irbu'rn / un o'pulus.
GUERNSEY LILY. Neri'ne sarnie'nsis.
GUETTA'RDIA. (Named after E.
Gueltard, a French botanist. Nat. ord.,
Cinchonads [Cinchonaceee]. Linn., 21
Stove evergreen trees. General treatment as
G. hirsu'ta (hairy). 20. Peru. 1820.
lu'cida (shining). 20. Jamaica. 1818,
odora'ta (sweet-scented). 10. Red. Jamaica.
rugo'sa (wrinkly-tefli-erf). 20. West Indies.
tomento'sa (woolly). 20. Jamaica. 1820.
sca'bra (scaly). 20. White. West Indies.
specio'sa (showy-flowered). 20. Scarlet. East
GUILANDI'XA. Nicker Tree. (Named
after M. Guilandina, a Prussian bota-
nist. Nat. ord., Leguminous Plants
[Fabaceae]. Linn., 10-Decandria 1-
Monoyynia. Allied to Poinciana.)
[ 456 ]
Stove evergreen shrubs. Seeds in a hotbed !
in spring; cuttings, &c., as for Guajacum.
G. Bo'ndue(Bonduc). 10. Yellow. India. 1640. j
Bonduce'lln (small Bonduc). 8. Yellow. East j
tnicrophy'llu (small-leaved). East Indies.
GUINEA PEACH. Sarcoce'phahis.
GUINEA PLUM. Parina'riumtwe'lsinn. \
GUM AMMONIAC. Durc'ma ammoni'a- \
GUM ARABIC TREK. Aca'cia Ara'blca.
GUM CISTUS. Ci'stus ladanl'j'erus.
GUM ELEMI THEE. A'myrls Plu-
GUM LAC TREE. BH' tea f rondo' sa.
GUM SENEGAL TREE. Aca'cia Senega' I.
GUM TREE. 'Eucaly'ptus robu'sta.
GUMMING. See Extravasatcd Sap.
GUSTA'YIA. (Named after Gusta-
vns III. of Sweden. Nat ore!., Bar-
rinytoniads [Barringtoniacefe]. Linn.,
There are several species of these fine stove
evergreens not yet in cultivation. Cuttings of
ripe shoots, sandy soil, under a bell-glass, and