Hamilton, an American botanist. Nat.
ord., Cinchonads [Cinchonacea^]. Linn.,
2'2-l)icccia 3-Triandria. Allied to Guet-
Stove evergreen shrubs, with sweet-scented
Cuttings of half-ripened shoots, in
sand, under glass, and in a moist bottom-heat.
Summer temp., when growing, 60 to 80 ;
in winter, when at rest, 48 to 55 ; when in
/f. mi'ira (scaly). Pale blue. January. Nepaul.
suttve'olens (sweet-scented). White. Octo-
ber. East Indies. 1818.
HAMMATO'PHORA BUCE'PHALA. Buff-
tip Moth. This moth is from two to
three inches across the opened fore-
wings, which are silvery grey, with ft
slender black line across, and preceded
by a red one near the base of the
wings, several dusky bars in the middle,
and with a large oval cream-coloured
patch enclosing some small buft' spots ;
edged with a curved red line, preceded
by a black one ; the edges of the wings
varied, black, grey, and tawny red.
J Hind-wings whitish ; body bull', dark
1 brown at the sides, and behind. The
j caterpillars are yellow, with black legs,
I and several rows of interrupted black
stripes. Sometimes the green and
black most prevail, so that the yellow
seems to constitute the bands. They
are found whilst young, thirty or forty
together, on the leaves of the filbert
during August and September, but also
on the leaves of the elm, oak, &c. The
chrysalis is found in the earth ; it has
two small points at its tail.
HAMMERS for gardening purposes are
made with a clawed head, for drawing
as well as driving in nails. They are
made of five different sizes, No. 5
being the largest. Those are best with
a stud in the centre of the head, as
this acts as a fulcrum in drawing nails,
and prevents bruising any branch be-
neath the hammer during the opera-
HANBUEY. See Ambnry.
HAND-BARROW is best made of this
The cage below is useful for carrying
leaves and other litter ; and when the
close moveable cover is on, it serves as
a conveyance for plants in large pots
or tubs, which, when in flower or bear-
ing fruit, might be too violently shaken
in a wheelbarrow.
HAND-GLASS is a portable glass-case
used for sheltering cauliflowers and
Other plants in winter, and during
early spring, or to retain a regular
supply of moisture to cuttings or until
they are rooted. The most durable and
convenient are made with cast iron
framing of this form :
They are sometimes made with move-
able tops as here represented, but the
only advantage it affords, is that
I several of the loAver portions may be
[ placed upon each other to protect any
j tall growing shrub in severe weather,
otherwise they are more troublesome
to move, and more liable to breakage
than if made entire.
HAND PLANT. Cheirostc'mon.
HAND-WEEDING might be banished
almost from the garden, if in the
kitchen department all crops were in-
serted in drills. This is most desirable ;
for the stirring of the surface con-
sequent to hoeing, is much more bene-
ficial to the crops, and cannot be re-
peated too frequently.
HANGING is when a plant is so badly
inserted by the dibble, that the lower
part of the roots are in an unfilled hole,
while the earth is pressed round their
collar, so as to keep them suspended
upright in their place.
HARDENBE'RGIA. (Named after the
Countess of Hardcnberg, in Germany,
sister to Baron Hugel. Nat. ord., Le-
guminous plants [Fabacesc], Linn., 17-
Diadclphia k-Decandria. Allied to Ken-
Greenhouse evergreen climbers from Aus-
tralia, with purple flowers, except where other-
wise mentioned. Cuttings of the young side
shoots, a little firm at their base, taken off in
April, in sand, under a bell-glass, and placed
in a close frame or pit without bottom-heat ;
peat two parts, loam one part, with sand, and a
little charcoal to keep the compost open. They
like a little shade in the middle of summer, and
a temperature of 40 to 48 in winter.
H, Comptonia'na (Compton's). 12. Purple,
lilac. March. 1803.
rnrda'ta (heart- leaved}. April. 1820.
digita'ta (finger-leaved). 10. April. 183p.
macrophy'lla (large-leaved). 15. Scarlet.
monophy'lla (one-leaved). 10. April. 1/90.
10. April. 1828.
ova'ta (egg-leaved}. 6. April. 1820.
HAKDENING-OFF. By this term gar-
deners intend the gradual preparation
of plants to endure exposure to a colder
and more airy situation. Thus, before
bedding-out geraniums, or ridging-out
cucumbers, in open beds, the plants
that have been nursed under glass are,
by degrees, exposed to more air and
less warmth, by opening the lights
widor, and for a greater length of time,
not only by day, but by night, until they
become inured to so low a temperature,
[ 463 ]
as to suffer no check by being placed
in the open ground.
HARDWI'CKIA. (Named after General
Hardwicke, of the East Indian Com-
pany. Nat. ord., Leguminous plants
[Fabacese]. Linn., IQ-Decandria I
Monogynia, Allied to Cynouietra.)
Stove evergreen trees, with yellow flowers,
from the East Indies. Cuttings of ripe young
shoots, in sandy soil, and in a brisk heat ; rich
sandy loam. Summer temp., 60 to 85 ; win-
H. bina'ta (twin-leaved). 40. March. 1820.
pinna' ta (leafleted). 40. April. 1818.
HAEDY PLANTS are those which en-
dure uninjured our seasons without
HAREBELL. Campanula rotundifo'lia.
HARE sand BABBITS are deterred from
injuring trees and shrubs, by mixing
nightsoil and clay in water, and daubing
it over the stems, with a brush, in No-
vember ; and, if the winter proves very
wet, in February. The November dress-
ing is, however, generally sufficient.
This mixture has stopped their depre-
dations entirely, even when they had
HARE'S-FOOT. Ochro'ma lago'pus.
HARE'S-FEEN. Dava'llia canarie'nsis.
HARICOT. See Kidney Sean.
HARO'NGA. (From ronya, the name
in Madagascar. Nat. ord., Tutsans
[ Hypericaceas] . Linn., lX-Polyadelphia
2-Polyandria. Allied to Elodea.)
Evergreen stove shrub. Cuttings of young
shoots getting a little firm, in sandy peat,
under a bell-glass, in heat; sandy loam and
peat. Summer temp., 6(1 to /0; winter, 48
H.Madagascarie'nsis (Madagascar). 10. Yellow.
July. Madagascar. 1825.
HARPA'LIUM. (From Harpalyce,
daughter of Lycurgus. Nat. ord.,
Composites [ Asteracese] . Linn., 19-
Syngenesia 3-Fruslmnea. Allied to
Hardy herbaceous plant. Division of the
plant in spring ; common soil.
H. ri'gidum (stiff). Yellow. August. North
HARRISO'NIA. (Named in honour of
Mrs. Harrison, of Liverpool, its intro-
ducer. Nat. ord., Asdepiads [Ascle-
piadaceae]. Linn., 5-Pentandria 2-
This is really a Baxteria. Stove evergreen
shrub. Cuttings of the young shoots, a little
firm at their base, after fresh growth has com-
menced in spring, in sandy soil, under a glass,
in bottom-heat ; peat and sandy loam. Summer
temp., 60 to 85 ; winter, 48 to 55.
H. loniceroi'des (Lonicera-like). 6. Scarlet.
July. Brazil. 1825.
HARTO'GIA. (Named after J. Har-
loy, a Dutch naturalist. Nat. ord.,
Spindle Trees [Celastracese]. Linn.,
5-Pentandria \-Monogynia. Allied to
Evergreen shrub from the Cape of Good Hope.
Cuttings of the ripe shoots, under a bell-glass,
or under a hand-light, and protected ; sandy
loam and peat. Usually grown in the green-
house, but will stand out of doors in elevated,
and yet sheltered places .
H. Cape'nsis (Cape). 6. July. 1800.
HART'S TONGUE. Scolope'ndrium.
HARTWE'GIA. (Named after M.
Hartweg, court gardener to the Em-
peror of Austria, once a botanical col-
lector for the Horticultural Society.
Nat. ord., Orchids [Orchidacese], Linn.,
20-Gynandria 1 -Monandriu . )
Stove orchids. Division of the plant in
spring ; very fibry peat, potsherds, and char-
coal. Summer temp., 60 to 85 ; winter 50
H. crassifo'lia (thick-leaved). Purple. April.
purpu'rea (purple). 1. Purple. August. Vera
angustifo'lia (narrow-leaved). 1 .
Purple. June. Mexico. 1842.
HASSAGAY TREE. Curti'sia.
HAUTBOY or HAUTBOIS. See Straw-
HAWK-FLY. See Scee'va.
HAWO'RTHIA. (Named in honour of
A. H. Haworth, Esq., a distinguished
For culture, &c., see Aloe, of which it is a
section. They are all natives of the Cape of
Good Hope, and all have grey flowers.
H. a'lbicans (white-edged). 1. July. 1795.
altili'nea (ridged-lined). . August. 1824.
angustifo'lia (narrow - leaved). . June.
arachnoi'des (cobweb-like). 1. August. 1727-
mi'nor (smaller). 1. August.
arista'ta (awned). 1. July. 1820.
asperiu'scula (roughish). |. June. 1818.
atrovi'rens (dark-green). 1. May. 1823.
attenua'ta (attenuated). 1. July. 1/90.
bre'vis (short). $. June. 1810.
chloraca'ntha (green-spiued). . August,
ere'cta (erect-pearl}. 4. August.
expa'nsa (expanded). 1. August.
H. claripe'rlu (clear-pearled). . June. 1824.
coarcta'ta (compressed), . August. 1821.
conci'nna (neat). . August. 1823.
cordifo'lia (heart-leaved). . June. 1817.
cu'rta (short-twisted). . July. 1816.
cuspida'ta (spine-pointed). \. August.
cymbifo'rmis (boat-formed). 3- June. 1795.
denticula'ta (small-toothed). . August.
pane). 1. ugust. 1795.
fascia 1 'tu (banded-pear/). $. August. 1818.
ma'^or (larger). . July. 1820.
y'brida (hybrid). $. June. 1821.
indura'tu (h&rd-branchy). . June. 1820.
lee'te-vi'rens (lively-green). $. August. 1819.
ICE' vis (smooth-white-edged). $. August.
li'tnpida (limpid). . August. 1819.
marguriti'fera (pearl-bearing). 1. July.
mi' nor (lesser-pearl). 1. June.
mira' bills (admirable. Cushion}, 2- July.
multifa'ria (many-sided). $. July. 1824.
mucrona'ta (sharp-pointed). $. July. 1820.
mu'tica (blunt-cushion). . July. 1820.
ni'gricans (granulated-black}. . August.
ni'tida (shining). 1. July. 1825.
obtu'sa (sjiiall-bliint). . June. 1824.
pa'llida (pale green} . $. June. 1820.
planifo'lia (flat-leaved). . April. 1824.
papilto'sa (nippled). 1. June. 1820.
semipupillo'sa (half-nippled). Ij.
pa'rva (small). . May. 1821.
lar}. 1. July. 1818.
pu'mila (dwarf-cobweb). 1. May. 1752.
ru'dula (file -surfaced -pearl). l. May.
- aspe'rior (rougher). 1. August. 1820.
- la'vior (smoother). 1. August. 1825.
pluriperla'ta (many - pearled). 1.
rami'fera (branch - bearing). . August.
recu'rva (curled-back- leaved). 1. August.
Reinwu'rti (Reimvart's pearl). $. June.
reticula'ta (netted). . June. 1794.
retu'sa (bent-back-etw/tion). 1. June. 1/20.
sca'bra (rough). &. June. 1818.
semimargariti'fera (half-pearl-bearing). 1.
ma'jor (larger). 1. April,
mi'nor (smaller). 1. I
scmiglabra'ta (half-smoothed). 3. June,
-seta'ta (bristle-leaved). I. June. 1820.
- ma'jor (larger). 1. July. 1820.
- me 1 din (mediate). 1. July. 1820.
- - ni'gricans (blackish). 1. July. 1820.
so'rdida (sordid). 4. July. 1820.
H. tessclla'ta (dark-checkered). $. June. 1823.
torqua'ta (collared). 1. August. 1823.
torte'lla (slightly- twisted). . July. 1817-
tortuo'sa (twisted). 1. July. 1/94.
translu'cens (transparent). $ June. 1/95.
tu'rgida (swollen-cushion). $. August. 1819.
veno'sa (veiny). ^. June. 1820.
vire'scens (greenish). 1. August. 1819-
mi'nor (smaller). . August. 181Q.
visco'sa (clammy). 1^. June. 1727.
HAWTHORN-BUTTERFLY. Pie' r is.
HAYLO'CKIA. (Named after Mr.
Haylock, gardener to Dr. Herbert. Nat.
ord., Amaryllids [Amaryllidacete]. Al-
lied to Cooperia.)
A small bulb, with very narrow leaves and
one flowered scape. Offsets ; sandy loam, with
a little peat and leaf-mould; requires the pro-
tection of a frame, or to be deep planted in a
dry place in winter.
H.pusi'lla (dwarf). . Straw. September.
Buenos Ayres. 1829.
HAZEL. Co'ryliis aveUa'na.
HEADING, or, as it is also termed,
Cabbaging or Loaviny, is an inaptitude
to unfold the central leaves, character-
izing the various members of the Cab-
bage tribe. They have their centre or
bud composed of a larger number of
leaves than usual, and these, in some
instances, are so complexly combined
that the plant has not sufficient power
to force them open to permit the pro-
trusion of the seed-stem. The close-
ness of the heading is regulated by the
exposure to the light. In a shady
situation all the leaves are required to
elaborate the sap, on account of the
deficient light rendering each less
active ; therefore they open as they are-
formed. In a free exposure a few
leaves are able to effect the requisite,
decomposition ; and hence the reason
why cabbages always have " harder
hearts " in summer than in spring or
autumn, when the light is less intense.
HEADING-DOWN is cutting off entirely,
or to a considerable extent, the branches
of a tree or shrub a process not rashly
to l)e resorted to, and adopted only to
reduce them when the plant seems
declining in vigour, or has attained an
undesirable size. .
HKABT'S-KASE. See Panxi/.
HKAT is the prime agent employed
by the Almighty Creator to call vege-
table life into existence, to develope
vegetable form, to effect all vegetable ; curred often, dry up as if burned. The
changes, and to ripen all vegetable I justly lamented Mr. Daniell has \velt
produce. All these effects are per- illustrated this by showing, that if the
formed most efficiently, in the case of j temperature of a hothouse be raised
every plant, at some different tempera- j only five degrees, viz. from 75 to 80,
ture or degree of heat ; and he who
ascertains most correctly those heats, j
has taken a gigantic step towards ex- I
cellence as a gardener. An uncongenial
heat is as pernicious to vegetables as
to animals. Every plant has a parti-
cular temperature without which its
functions cease ; but the majority of i
them luxuriate most in a climate of |
which the extreme temperatures do not ;
much exceed 32 and i)0. No seed |
will vegetate no sap will circulate at ;
a temperature at or below the freezing j
point of water. No cultivation will i
render plants, natives of the torrid |
zone, capable of bearing the rigours of
our winters, although their offspring,
raised from seed, may be rendered
much more hardy than their parents.
Others are capable of resisting the
greatest known cold to which they can
be exposed; yet all have degrees of
temperature most congenial to them,
and if subjected to lower temperatures,
are less or more injured proportionately
to the intensity of that reduction. If
the reduction of temperature be only
slightly below that which is congenial,
it only causes the growth of the plant
to diminish and its colour to become
more pale; this effect being now pro-
duced by the plant's torpidity, or want
of excitement to perform the requisite
elaboration of the sap, as it is by over-
excitement when made to vegetate in
a temperature which is too elevated.
whilst the air within it retains the same
degree of moisture, a plant that in the
lower temperature exhaled fifty-seven
grains of moisture, Avould, in the higher
temperature, exhale one hundred and
twenty grains in the same space of
Plants, however, like animals, can
bear a higher temperature in dry air
than they can in air charged with va-
pour. Animals are scalded in the latter
if the temperature is very elevated, and
plants die, under similar circumstances,
as if boiled. MM. Edwards and Colin
found kidney -beans sustained no injury,
when the air was dry, at a temperature
of 170 j but they died in a few minutes
if the air was moist. Other plants,
under similar circumstances, would
perish probably at a much lower tempe-
rature; and the fact affords a warning
to the gardener to have the atmosphere
in his stoves very dry whenever he
wishes to elevate their temperature
for the destruction of insects or other
Certain plants flourish in hot-water
springs, of which the temperature varies
between the scalding heats of from
l.")0 to 180 of Fahrenheit's thermo-
meter ; and others have been found
growing freely on the edges of volca-
noes, in an atmosphere heated above
the boiling point of water. Indeed, it
is quite certain that most plants will
better bear, for a short time, an elevated
If blossoms are produced at all, they ' temperature, which, if long continued,
are unfertile, and the entire aspect of ; would destroy them, than they can a
the plant betrays that its secretions are ; low temperature. Thus a temperature
not healthy, and its functions are dead- !
ened. Mr. Knight says, "that melon
and cucumber plants, if grown in a
temperature too low, produce an excess
of female blossoms ; but if the tempe-
rature be too high, blossoms of the
opposite sex are by far too profuse."
The drier the air the greater is the
amount of moisture transpired ; and
much above the freezing point of water,
to orchidaceous and other tropical
plants, is generally fatal if endured by
them for only a few minutes; whereas a
considerable elevation above a salutary
tomporature is rarely injurious to plants.
But this is not universally the case ; for
the elegant Primula maryinata is so
impatient of heat, that, although just
this becomes so excessive, if it be also | about to bloom, it never opens a bud if
promoted by a high temperature, that } brought into u room in which there is
plants in hothouses, where it has oc- \ a fire.
[ 460 ]
The temperature should always be
regulated, in our hothouses, with a due
regard to the light. At night it should
be so low as to put the circulation of
the sap into a comparative state of
rest ; and in dull days the temperature
should be full 10 lower than in those
of bright sunshine.
HEATHS. See Eri'ca.
Propagation : By Cuttings. In order
to be successful in striking the hard-
wooded heaths, it is necessary to put a
plant of each kind in gentle heat, to
cause them to push forth young shoots.
Whilst they are growing, the materials
for the operation of propagation should
be prepared ; these are the requisite
number of clear hell-glasses. It will
be advantageous to have them of dif-
ferent sizes ; the smallest 3^ inches,
and the largest 6 inches diameter, with
two sizes between. Also prepare the
drainage, by breaking a quantity of pot-
sherds ; these should be in three sizes,
the largest about an inch across, the
next inch, and the smallest the size
of marrow-fat peas, with the dust sifted
out from amongst them. Next, have
the soil ready. The best is to be
had from some dry moorland where
the heather grows wild. Break the
turves into a fine state, and pass it
through a fine sieve, reserving the
rougher pieces to cover the drainage
with. The next thing to look after
are the pots. If new, they must be
placed in a tub of water for a few hours :
if old, they must be well scoured and
made perfectly clean. Lastly, procure
a sufficient quantity of pure silver sand,
a pair of propagating scissors, and a
small ivory-handled knife of the very
best material. All these being in readi-
ness, see that the cuttings are in fit
state to take off the plants. If they
have made fresh shoots an inch long,
they are ready for use. Then take a
small clean pot, invert it, and place it
over the hole at the bottom of the pot
for the cuttings, then fill in round a
few of the largest potsherds, and cover
them with some of the second size,
and then, lastly, with a considerable
quantity of the smallest size, cover
these with a layer of the rough siftings.
The whole of these should fill the pot
to within two and a half inches of the
rim of the pot. Upon that place an
inch and a half of the heath mould,
with a large admixture of the silver
sand, level this last layer with a circular
piece of wood with a nail driven into
the centre to form a handle. Finish
with a layer of the pure white sand
quite level with the rim of the pot.
Give a good watering with a fine rose
pot, to settle the same. Then take
off the cuttings with the scissors, and
dress them with the knife ; cut the
bottom of the cutting clean off with a
level cut, just at the part between the
new and the old wood ; then cut off
the leaves close to the stem, without
wounding its bark, about two-thirds of
its length from the bottom. As each
cutting is made, place it under the
bell-glass upon the sand, till a suffi-
cient number are made to fill the pot.
Make a mark in the sand to show the
size of the glass, and then proceed to
put in the cuttings in regular rows
across the pot, keeping the leaves just
clear out of the sand. When they are
all planted, give another gentle water-
ing to settle the sand firm ; allow
them to dry partially before the glass
is put on. Then place them in a
house where they can be shaded from
the sun, and keep up a gentle heat of
55, as near as possible. Wipe the
glasses dry every morning, and as soon
as the cuttings are rooted, remove them
into a cooler house, and give a little air
by placing three short pieces of wood,
a quarter of an inch thick and two
inches long, so as to form a triangle,
and let the bell-glass rest upon them.
In this house it will still be necessary
to shade them from the blazing sun.
This is easily done by spreading some
sheets of paper over them, but remove
this shade instantly when the sun is
overclouded. When they have been in
this situation for a month, remove the
glasses entirely, and a month afterwards
commence potting them off in 3-inch
pots, four in a pot ; stopping them at
the same time to make them bushy.
Place them in a cold frame, upon a
layer of river-sand on coal-ashes; shade
again for a time, and give air mode-
rately. When they have made fresh
roots expose them occasionally to gentle
showers, but hy no means to heavy rain.
Give them due supplies of water in dry
weather, and keep them clear of weeds.
In these pots they must remain till the
spring following. During the winter
place them on a shelf, near the glass,
in a light airy greenhouse. About
March, pot them singly into the same-
sized pots, shading them again till fresh
roots are formed. They are then ready
for the usual routine of culture. Heaths,
with soft wood and free growth, are more
easy to propagate, and do not require
so much preparation, but in other re-
spects the management is the same.
. By Seed. Several kinds of heaths
produce plenty of good seed ; even some
that are extremely difficult to propagate
any other way, such, for instance, as E.
elegans, E. odora rosea, E. halicacaba,
E. triumphans, and some others of
similar habit. Fill the pots in the same
way as for cuttings, only mix the top
layer of sand with as much heath-
mould ; make the surface smooth, and
sow the seed in spring on the surface,
covering it as slightly as possible ; water
with the finest syringe, so that it may
fall upon the seed like the finest dew ;
place the pots near the glass, shade
from bright sun, and keep the surface
just moist. The seedlings will soon
come up, and require great care, or they
will fog off. To prevent this give air
daily. As soon as they can be handled
transplant them into 5-incb pots rather
thickly, but standing clear of each other.
In this state they may remain for six or
eight months, and then pot them off
into 3-inch pots, four in a pot, and
manage them afterwards in the same
way as the cuttings.
Soil. This has been already de-
scribed above, in writing of the soil
proper for the cuttings to root into, but
for larger plants it must not be sifted
so fine. For very large plants do not
sift it at all ; for such, if a few pieces
of sand-stone are mixed amongst the
mould, they will be useful to allow the
water to penetrate to the centre of the
Potting. Heaths thrive best if the
mould is left below the rim of the pot
from half-an-inch for small plants in
tf ] HEB
6-inch pots, to two inches in large ones.
This space holds a supply of water
which gradually sinks through and
effectually moistens the ball to the
centre. Drain thoroughly with broken
potsherds, half an inch for small plants,
to three inches for very large ones.
Culture. Cold pits or frames, in