spring and autumn, are the best protec-
tion to place heaths in during their
youth, and a good airy, light, span-
roofed greenhouse for them through
winter and spring, when they are too
large for the frames. In summer they
should be set out of doors upon a thick
bed of coal-ashes, behind a low wall or
hedge. Whilst in this position they
must have an abundant and constant
supply of water. If the ball ever be-
comes thoroughly dry, the plants will
certainly die ; therefore, attend to this
point of watering most rigidly and per-
severingly. In winter they do not
require so much ; but even in that
season they must be kept mode-
rately, but constantly and thoroughly
Diseases. Heaths are subject to go
off at the point where the stem ends
and the roots begin. This is caused
often by an irregular supply of water,
and cannot be cured when it once takes
place. The plant may appear green
and flourishing, and the roots fresh,
and the ends are lively even when
the stem is dead. Another fell dis-
ease is the mildew. This may be
sometimes cured by first damping the
plants infected, and then dusting them
over with flowers of sulphur. This dis-
ease is often brought on by a long
continued damp atmosphere ; and if
that is not dried by a little heat, with
abundance of air, the disease will
spread rapidly, and soon destroy the
plants. If only one or two are infected,
they had better be sulphured, and
placed by themselves till the mildew
fungus is killed.
Insects. See Aphis, for cure, when
the Green Fly attacks them.
HEATH-MOULD. See Bog-earth.
HEATHER. Callu'na vidga'ris.
HEBENSTBEI'TIA. ( Named after Pro-
fessor Hebenstreit, of Leipsic. Nat. ord.,
Selayids [Selaginacese]. Linn., 14-
Didyfiamia %-Angiosvemiia. Allied to
Most of the Cape Selagids are well adapted
for planting out in summer, in mixed borders.
Greenhouse evergreen shrubs, except H. den-
tata, which is an annual ; all from the Cape of
Good Hope, and all white-flowered. Short
young shoots, in sandy peat, in spring, under a
bell-glass ; sandy fibry loam, and a little peat.
Hummer tenip., 50 to /5 ; winter, 38 to 45.
Dentata by seed in early spring.
//, albiflo'ra (white-flowered). 1. July. 1822.
cupita'tu (bended-flowered}. 1. June. 1823.
chanuedrifo'lia (Germander-leaved). 2. 1822.
cilia 1 ta (hair-fringed). 1. June. 1815.
corda'ta (heart- leaved"). 1. July. 1774.
dcnta'tu (toothed). 1. July. 1739.
erinoi'dcs (Erinus-like). 1. May. 1816.
frutico'sa (shrubby). l. August. 1816.
integrifo'lia (entire-leaved), l. May. 1/92.
sca'bra (rough). 1. June. 1824.
HEDE'OMA. (From hcdeoma, the
Greek name of mint. Nat. ord., La-
Jiiates or Llpworts [Lamiacese]. Linn.,
2'Diandria \-Monoyynia. Allied to Cu-
Hardy annuals. Seed in early spring ; light
rich garden soil.
//. jndegioi'dvs (Pennyroyal-like). ^. Blue.
July. North America.
thymoi'des (Thyme-like). 4. Red. July.
HK'JDEKA. The Ivy. (Hcdra is the
Celtic word for cord, alluding to the
Ivy's stems. Nat. ord., Ivy worts [Ara-
liutvy.'.]. Linn., 5-Pcniandria l-Mono-
The common Ivy (H. helix] may be propa-
gated by seeds, but in all its varieties is quickest
propagated by slips, inserted in a north border,
in sandy soil, kept moist in the autumn. This
is a far better plan than inserting it at once
where it is intended to remain. Deep rich soil
suits the common ivy ; the tender kinds should
have lighter soil. "For clothing dead trees,
covering open fences, giving an air of antiquity,
security, and warmth, and dryness to buildings,
and even producing architectural effects, and
covering the ground in shady places with a
green carpet, where scarcely anything else
would grow, the ivy is invaluable.
GREENHOUSE EVERGREEN SHRUBS.
H. anilea'ta (prickly). White. Nepaul. 1816.
fra'grans (fragrant). White. Nepaul. 1816.
macropliy'lla. (large-leaved). White. New
STOVE EVERGREEN SHRUBS.
H. capita' ta (headed-flowered). Green. Au-
gust. West Indies. 1770.
digita'tu (finger-/eai'erf). White. March.
East ladies. 1818.
emargina'ta (end-notched). Green. 1848.
ferrvgi'nea (rusty). White. West Indies.
H.pen'dula (weeping). Green. Jamaica. 1824.
umbraculi'fera (umbrella-tea wd); White.
March. East Indies. 1818.
Xatape'ns('s(Xalapan). White. Mexico. 1824.
HARDY EVERGREEN CUMBERS.
H, he' lix (common], 40. Green. September.
arbor e'scetis (tree-like). 8. Green.
Canarie'nsis (Canary. Irish). 20.
Green. October. Canaries.
> chrysoca'rpa (yellow-berried). 30.
Green. October. India.
digita'ta (finger-leaved). 20. Green
October. Britain. Shrub.
fo'liis arge'nteis (silver - striped -
leaved). 20. Green. October. Bri*
fo'liis au'reis (go\d-striped-lca\ed) .
20. Green. October. Britain.
Tau'rica (Taurian). Green. October.
vulga'ris (common). Green. Britain i
HEDGE, properly includes every land
of fence, but the present details apply
for the most part to growing fences.
Abercrombie says, that all outward
hedges designed as fences should have
a ditch on the outside, three or four
feet wide at top, three deep, sloping to
one wide at bottom, raising a low bank
on the inside on which to plant the
hedge. Having lined out the width of
the ditch, then along the inner edge
lay a row of square spit turves, grass side
downwards, to form the beginning of
the bank, backing it up^ Avith spits of
earth from the formation of the ditch,
and top it with a little of the tine
mould or crumbs ; and then upon this
proceed to lay the first row of plants :
tirst let the sets be headed to about iive
or six inches, and the roots trimmed,
then lay them upon the bed of turf
with their tops outward, in an upward
direction, about ten or twelve inches
asunder, covering their roots with
mould also out of the ditch ; and then
lay another row of turf along upon the
necks of the plants, and more mould
from the ditch upon, and behind, the
turf; and when the bank is thus raised
a foot above the row of sets, plant an-
other row in the same manner, placing
each set against the spaces of those
of the first row, so covering them with
more earth from the ditch to the depth
of three feet, sloping each side to one
foot width at bottom, and trim up all
remaining earth, throwing a sufficiency
[ 409 ]
behind the top of the hanking to hank
up the whole even. But in planting
for an outward fence, some form the
ditch and hank first as above, and plant
the sets in two rows along the top ;
that is, after having formed the ditch
and bank, then levelling the top form-
ing a foot of border all along a yard
wide; plant the sets along its middle
upright, in two rows a foot asunder,
and six inches distant in each row,
observing the same when intended
to raise a hedge at once from seed
sowed where you design the hedge to
be, sowing them along the top in drills
a foot asunder. Sometimes, when
hedges are designed for middle fences
to divide fields, a two-sided bank is
raised a yard high, and as broad at top,
having a slight ditch on each side ;
and each side of the bank is formed
with square spit turves from the adjoin-
ing ground, and the middle filled up
with mould from the ditches on each
side ; so that when finished, it forms a
yard- wide border all the way along the
top, and along the middle of which
plant two rows of hedge-sets or seed,
in drills, as before observed. But in
places where 110 ditch nor raised bank
is required, as may be the case for
middle hedges in the interior parts of
grounds, especially in gardens, then I
the place for the hedge being marked j
out on the level ground two or three j
feet broad, dig it along one good spade j
deep at least, and then plant your sets
of any sort in two rows, ranging along ]
the middle ; or if you design to sow !
seeds, &c., of any sort at once, where |
you intend to have the hedge, sow them
in two drills a foot asunder the whole j
In respect to general culture of these :
sorts of hedges it must be remarked,
that all such as are exposed to cattle, ,
must, as soon as planted, be fenced, j
either with a stake and bush hedge, :
with hurdles, or with rails and open j
paling, for four or five years, till the \
hedge grows up, observing not to place j
the fence too close to the hedge to in- |
terrupt its growth. The hedge must, ;
also, be duly weeded while young, and :
this should be particularly attended to j
the first two rears.
Evergreen Hedge- shrubs are Holly;
Yew ; Laurel ; Laurustinus ; Phillyrea ;
Alaternus; Bay; Furze; and Evergreen
Oak: but the 'holly and yew form the
best hedges for general use.
Deciduous kinds. Hawthorn ; Black-
thorn ; Crab ; Elder; Hornbeam ; Beech ;
Elm; Lime-tree, and Alder are all pro-
per either for middling or tall hedges,
as they may be trained up from about
six or eight to fifteen or twenty feet
high, and the elm to double that height
if required. Privet is also sometimes
used for moderately high hedges ; and
for low hedges, the Eose ; Sweet-briar ;
Syringa ; and Berberry.
All full trained hedges, in order to
preserve them in proper form, must be
clipped, both on the sides and top,
once or twice a year, but never less
than once; and the best time of the
year for this work is summer, from
about the middle or latter end of June
to the end of August, for then the
hedges will have made their summer
shoots, which should always, if pos-
sible, be clipped the same season
Avhile in leaf, and before the shoots
become hard, whereby you will be able
to perform the work more expeditiously
and with greater exactness, for regular
hedges should be cut as even as a wall
on the sides, and the top as straight as
a line; observing, after the hedge is
formed to its proper height and width,
always to cut each year's clipping
nearly to that of the former year, par-
ticularly on the sides ; for by no means
suffer them to grow above a foot or
two wide, nor suffer them to advance
upon you too much at top, where it is
designed or necessary to keep them to
a moderate height. But to keep hedges
in perfectly good order, they should be
clipped twice every summer ; the first
clipping to be about Midsummer, or
soon after, when they will have made
their summer shoots ; and as they will
shoot again, what may be called the
autumn shoot, the second clipping is
necessary towards the middle or latter
end of August, and they will not shoot
again that year. However, when it
does not suit to clip them but once in
the summer, the clipping should not be
performed until the beginning of Au-
[ 470 ]
gust, for if cut sooner they will shoot
again, and appear almost as rough the
remainder of the summer and all winter
as if they had not been clipped. Very
high hedges are hoth troublesome and
expensive to cut. The clipping is
sometimes performed by the assistance
of a high machine, scaffolding, or stage,
twenty or thirty feet high or more,
having platforms at different heights
for the men to stand upon, the whole
made to move along upon wheels ; it is
composed of four long poles for up-
rights, well framed together, eight or
ten feet wide at bottom, narrowing
gradually to four or five at top, having
a platform or stage at every seven or
eight feet high, and one at the top of
all ; and upon these the man stands to
work, each platform having a rail waist
high to keep the man from falling;
and a sort of ladder formed on one
side for the man to ascend, and at
bottom four low wheels to move it
along ; upon this machine a man may
be employed on each stage or platform,
trimming the hedge with shears, and
sometimes with a garden hedgft bill
fixed on a handle five or six feet long,
which is more expeditious, though it
will not make so neat work as cutting
with the shears.
A hedge is not only an imperfect
screen, but in other respects is worse
than useless, since nothing can be
trained to it, and its roots exhaust the
soil in their neighbourhood very consi-
derably ; as the south fence of a garden
it may be employed, and hawthorn, in
some respects, is the worst shrub that
could be made use of. It is the nur-
sery of the same aphides, beetles, and
caterpillars, that feed upon the foliage
of the apple and pear, from whence
they often spread to the whole garden.
Evergreen are better than deciduous
hedges, and more especially those of
the holly, which is not so slow a grower
as is generally imagined.
In a cloudy day in April or May, the
wind seems to be actually refrigerated
in passing through a thick hawthorn
hedge, and this may be accounted for
on the same principle that cool air is
obtained in the houses of India, by
sprinkling branches of trees with water
in their verandas. Holly, laurel, and
most evergreens, exhale but little
moisture from their leaves, except for
about a month in June, consequently
in April and May, when we most re-
quire warmth, and in September and
October, the leaves of these, when fully
exposed to the sun, become heated to
the touch to 85 or 90. Added to
this, hoar frost, or a deposition of
moisture of any kind, never attaches
so readily, or remains for so long a
time, upon the foliage of evergreens as
upon the sprays of deciduous shrubs,
consequently the refrigeratory power is
greatly diminished. When the garden
is of considerable extent, three or four
acres and upwards, it admits of cross-
walls or fences for an increase of train-
ing surface and additional shelter.
Hedges should always be clipped
into a conical form, as the diminution
of the branches towards the top in-
creases their development at the bottom.
Furze makes one of the best and
handsomest of hedges, if kept regularly
clipped. Upon the formation of such
a hedge, we have the following remarks
by Mr. McL, of Hillsborough ; The
most ancient, and perhaps the most
simple of all fences, are walls made of
turf. These walls, however, are much
injured by the atmosphere, and the
rubbing and butting of the cattle. To
guard against this they should be
planted or sown with the Ulex Eu-
ropceus or Furze. The roots of this
plant will soon penetrate the turf, and
tend to bind the wall. The plants not
only afford shelter as well as food for
the cattle, but add to the height of the
wall and give it a formidable appear-
ance. When walls are made for this,
the foundation should be three feet
wide, and tapering to fifteen inches at
top. As the plants advance in growth,
they should be regularly trimmed with
the shears ; by proper attention to this
they will be prevented from growing
too tall and thin at the bottom. If this
is annually repeated, the plants will be
longer preserved in a healthy and vi-
gorous state ; clipping has also a good
effect in checking the furze from
spreading over the field. A good and
substantial fence may thus be quickly
formed on a soil that will not produce
a biding fence of any other kind.
Sweet Briar (RosaRubiginosa) makes
a good hedge. Its heps may be sown
in the autumn, as soon as ripe, or,
which is better, in the month of March,
having kept them in the meantime
mixed with sand. But it is far more
convenient to buy young plants, and to
plant them a foot apart early in the
month of November. Let them grow
as they like for the first year, and cut
them down to the ground the second,
they will then spring up and require
no more care than occasionally trim-
ming with the pruning knife or shears
to keep the hedge in shape. When it
gets naked to the bottom, it must be
again cut down. Gard. Chron.
HEDGE-HOG THISTLE. Cafctus (Echi-
HEDGE HYSSOP. Grati'ola.
HEDGE MUSTAED. Ery'simum.
HEDGE NETTLE Sta'chys.
HEDWI'GIA, of Swartz. (Named after
John JETedgwig, a botantist. Nat. ord.,
Amyrids [Amyridacese]. Linn., 8-0c-
The Amarids are closely allied to the orange
tribe. Beaume a sucrier, a substitute for
Copaiva, is obtained from this Hedwigia.
Stove evergreen tree. Cuttings of ripe shoots,
in sandy soil, and in a good heat ; sandy loam
and a little peat. Summer temp, 60 to 85 ;
winter, 50 to 55.
H, balsami'fera (balsam-yielding). 40. White.
August. West Indies. 1820.
HEDY'CHIUM. (From hedys, sweet,
and c/iion, snow, in reference to the
sweet-scented, snow-white flowers of
H. maximum and coronarium, the two
best garden plants of the genus. Nat.
ord., Ginyerworts [Zinziberacese] . Linn.,
Stove herbaceous plants. Division of the
plants before fresh potting them ; loam and
peat, with a portion of sand and dried cow-
dung. They must have plenty of water and
light when growing. It should be tried to
give them their rest period by keeping them
cooler and drier in winter, and, if well grown
before, the advancing heat in spring and sum-
mer will bring up the beautiful flowers. Sum-
mer temp., 60 tO 85, with moist atmosphere
when growing, cooler and drier when flowering ;
winter, 50 to 55.
H. acwnina'tum (long-pointed). 4. White.
July. East Indies. 1820.
angustifo'lium (narrow-leaved). 5. Scarlet.
August, East Indies, 1815,
H. auranti'acum (orange-coloured). 5. Orange.
July. East Indies. 1812.
ca'rneum (flesh-coloured). 4. Pink. August.
East Indies. 1823.
cocci'neum (scarlet). 6. Scarlet. July. East
coronn'rium (garland). 5. White. East
ela'tum (tall). 5. Pale red. East Indies. 1818.
elli'pticum (oval). 5. White. August. East
ftave'scens (yellowish). 6. Yellow. June.
fla'vum (yellow). 3. Yellow. July. Nepaul.
Gardneria'num (Gardner's). 7- Yellow. July.
East Indies. 1819-
glau'cum (milky-green). 4$. White. July.
East Indies. 1822.
gra'cile (slender). 3. White. June. Bengal.
heteroma'llum (variable-haired). 3. Yellow.
July. Indies. 1822.
longifo'lium (long-leaved). 6. Eed. June.
East Indies. 1819-
ma'ximum (largest). 8. White. August. East
specio'sum (showy). 8. Pale yellow. August.
East Indies. 1823.
spica'tum (spiked). 3. Yellow. June. India.
stmope'talum (narrow-petaled). 7- White.
April. India. 1830.
thyrsifo'rme (thyrse-formed). 4. White.
July. Nepaul. 1818.
woj9%'Mm (tailed-leaved). 4. Yellow. Au-
gust. India. 1828.
villo'sum (shaggy). 3. Cream. July. East
HEDYSA'RUM. (Aplant'sname adopted
from Theophrastus. Nat. ord., Legu-
minous plants [Fabacese]. Linn., 17-
Annuals and biennials in the open border in
spring ; perennials by division of the plant in
spring ; common soil. The dwarfer ones are
pretty for mantling knolls and rockworks.
H. carno'sum (fleshy). . Purple. July. Bar-
H. corona'rium (garland). 4. Scarlet. June.
pa'llidum (pale). 3. Pale red. June. North
HARDY HERBACEOUS PERENNIALS.
H. Alpi'num (Alpine). 2. Purple. June. Siberia.
Purple. June. Siberia.
Alta'icum (Altain). $. Purple. July. Siberia.
argophy'tlum (white-leaved). Purple. June.
arge'nteum (silvery). Purple. June. Siberia.
brachyse'mum (short-standarded). l. Pur-
pie. July. Siberia. 1817.
[ 472 ]
//. ca'ndidum (white). A. Purple, Mar. Tauria.
hu'mile (humble). . Purple.
June. Tauria. 1817.
Cauca'sicum (Caucasian). 1. Purple. July.
consungui'neum (closely allied). 1. Purple.
July. Siberia. 1820.
creta'ceum (chalky). 1. Purple. July. Si-
elonga'tum (lengthened). Purple. June.
frutico'sum (shrubby). 4. Purple. June.
grandiflo' rum (large-flowered). 1^. Purple.
June. Tauria. 1821.
Ibe'ricum (Iberian), i. Purple. July. Iberia.
lasioca'rpum (hairy-podded). 1. Purple. Si-
obscu'rum (obscure). . Purple. July. Alps.
polymo'rphum (many-formed). Hose. June.
ro'seum (roseate). . Pink. August. Cau-
rutidoca 1 rpum ( wrinkled-podded). . Purple.
August. Siberia. 1826.
sple'ndens (shining). . Cream. July. Si-
Tau'ricum (Taurian). . Pale purple. July.
va'rium (variable). 1. White. July. South
venu'stwn (lovely \ Purple. June. Attaia.
HEEL. When a cutting is taken off
with a small portion of the older wood
from which it sprang, that older portion
is called the heel.
HEI'MIA. (Named after Dr. Helm,
a German. Nat. orcl., Loosestrifes
[Lythracea^]. Linn., \\-Dodecandr\a
l-Monoyynia. Allied to Ly thrum.)
Heimia is the only Loosestrife with yellow
flowers. Half-hardy evergreen shrubs with
yellow flowers. Cuttings of short shoots, in
sandy soil, under a hand-light, in May ; sandy
loam and a little peat. They require the pro-
tection of a cold pit in winter, but would do
against a conservative wall, where they could
be protected from severe frost.
H. Unariafo'lia (Linaria-leaved). 5. South
myrtifo'lia (Myrtle-leaved). 5. South Ame-
salicifo'lia (Willow-leaved). 5. August.
_ grandiflo'ra (large-flowered). 5.
HEI'NSIA. (Named after M. Hein-
siits. Nat. ord., Cinchonads [Cincho-
naceee]. Linn., b-Pentandria l-Monan-
dria. Allied to Gardenia.)
Stove evergreen shrub. Cuttings of young
shoots, in sand, under a bell-glass, and in a
brisk bottom-heat ; fibry peat and sandy loam,
with a little dried leaf- mould. Summer temp;,
; 60 to 80 ; winter, 48 to 53. It would pro?
bably succeed grafted on Gardenia florida.
H.jnsminiflo'ra (Jasmine-flowered). 4. White,
March. Sierra Leone. 1824.
HEISTE'EIA. Bois Perdrix. (Named
after L. Heister, a Swedish hotanist.
Nat. ord., Olacads [Olacaceffi]. Linn.,
10-Decandria \-Monoyynia, Allied to
This is the source of the Partridge pea of
Martinique, but not of the Partridge wood, as
has been erroneously asserted. Stove evergreen
tree. Cuttings of firm young shoots, in a brisk
heat ; sandy loam and a dash of ncnt. Summer
temp., 60 to 85 ; winter, 50 to*55.
H, cocci'nea (scarlet). 20. Scarlet. West
HE'LCIA. (From helcium, a horse-
collar, in reference to the curious form-
ation of the flowers. Nat. ord.,
Orchids [Orchidacese]. Linn., %Q-Gy-
nandria \-Monoyynin. Allied to Tri-
Stove orchid. Division of the plant ; shallow
basket, in fibry peat, sphagnum, charcoal, and
decayed wood. Summer temp, b'0 to 90 ;
winter, 50 to 60.
H. sanguinole'nta (bloody). Green, brown,
white. Guayaquil. 1843.
HELE'NIUM. (Named after the heau-
tiful Helena, cause of the Trojan Avar.
Nat. ord., Composites [Asteraceee].
Linn., IQ-Synyenesia 2 Supcijiua.}
Hardy herbaceous perennials with yellow
flowers. By division of the plant in spring ;
common garden soil. There are some annuaU
and biennials, but not deserving cultivation.
H. autumna'le (autumnal). 3. September.
North America. 1/29.
canaliculn'tum (channelled). 3 : August.
North America. 1800.
Mexica'num (Mexican), 3, August. Mexico.
pule'scens (downy). 3. August. North
pu'milum (dwarf). 1. August. 1818.
undula'tum (vt&ved-leaveil), 3. September.
HELIA'NTHEMUM. Sun Hose. (From
helios, the sun, anthemon, a flower. Nat.
ord., Mock-roses [Cistacere]. Linn., 1-1-
If gardeners would turn their attention to
these rock roses, and cross them judiciously,
i they might expect in time to produce a race
' which would rival the verbenas. Annuals by
I seeds in the open border in April. A few of
the best shrubby ones are rather tender, and
young plants might be saved in a cold-pit.
Shrubby evergreens, by inserting little pieces
of ripened and half-ripened shoots with the
leaves attached, in June, in sandy soil, in a
shady place, under a hand-light. Few things
can surpass the beauty of these plants when
trailing over stones, and banks, and rock- works,
in spring and summer. In such positions, the
tenderest merely require at times an evergreen
branch placed over them in winter ; sandy loam,
with a little peat, suits them well.
H. Mgypti'acum (Egyptian). jj. White. June.
T- eriocau'lon (woolly-stemmed). 2- Yellow.
gutta'tum (spotted-flowered). $. Yellow.
ledifo'lium (Ledum-leaved). . Yellow.
Nilo'ticum (Nile). 4. Yellow. June. South
ma' jits (larger), 1. Yellow.
plantagl'neum (Plantain-like). $. Yellow.
June. South Europe. 1823.