uwtoi'rfes(Inula-like). 4. August. Scotland.
Ka'lmii (Kalm's). 14. August. Pensyl-
lecviga'tum (smooth). 2. August. 1804.
Lawso'ni (Lawson's). ^. June. Britain.
longifo'lium (long-leaved). 14. July. 1821.
macula' turn (spotted- Jeaued). 14- August.
mo' lie (soft-leaned). 1^. August. Scotland.
ova' turn (egg-leaved). 4- July. Switzer-
palle'scens (pale). 1. July, Hungary. 1818,
4 ] HIG
H. panicula'tum (panicled). 14, June. Canada.
pi'ctum (painted). 14. July. Switzerland.
piloce'phalum (hairy-headed). 1. July.
pilosellifo'rme (Mouse-ear-like). 4. June.
porrifo'thim (Leek-leaved). 1. July. Aus-
preemo'rsum (bitten-lcaved). 1. June.
prenanthoi'des (Prenanthus-like). 2. July.
prunellaifo'lium (Self-heal-leaved). 4. July.
pulmonarioi'des (Lungwort-like). 1. July.
pulmona'rium (Lungwort). 14- July- Scot-
pusi'llum (small). $. July- Labrador. 1800.
racemo'sum (racemed). 2. July. Hungary.
ramo'sum (branchy). 2. August. Hungary.
re'pens (creeping). 14. July. Switzerland.
ri'gidum (stiff). 2. June. Britain.
angustifo'lium (narrow-leaved) . 2.
pi'ctum (painted). 2. June. Britain.
rotunda,' turn (round-leaved). 3. July. Hur
rupe'stre (rock). 4.
wtra'tffc (rock). 1. July. Austria. 1801.
Schmi'dtil (Schmidt's). lA. June.
.Schrade'ri (Schrader's). 1. July. Switzer-
spcciosi'ssimum (showiest). 14- August.
South Europe. 1821,
specio'sum (showy) . 14- June. 1818.
slaticifo'lium (Thrift-leaved). l.J. June.
Stcrnbe'rgii (Sternberg's). 4. July. Switzer-
sioloni'ferum (runner-growing). 1. May.
sucrisccfn' limn (lopped-leaved). 1. June.
syli-a' tirum (wood). 14. August. Britain.
tricoi-e'plinhnn (hairy-headed). 1. July.
umbetta'tum (umbelled). 3. August. Britain.
undula'tum (waved). 14. July. Spain.
veno'sum (veiny). 4- July. North America.
verbascifo'lium (Mullein-leaved) . 1. May*
South Europe. 1732.
verrucula'tum ( warted) . 1 . July . 1 82 1 .
villo'sum (shaggy). 1. July. Scotland.
virga' turn (twiggy). 2. July. North Ame-
IIifitu'NsiA. (Named _after Don
O'Hiyyins, a Spanisli-Americaii officer.
Nat. orcl., Cinchonads [Cinchonacesp].
Linn., o-Pentandria 1-Monoyynia. Allied
A greeahouee evergreen shrub. Cuttings of
[ 480 ]
half-ripened shoots, in sand, under a bell-glass,
in spring ; peat and loam. Winter temp., 38
to 45 ; will thrive out of doors in summer.
H.Mexica'na (Mexican). Yellow. June. Mex-
HI'LLIA. (Named after Sir John
Hill, a botanical author. Nat. ord.,
Cinchonads [CinchonaceiB]. Linn., li-
Hcxandria l-Monogynia. Allied to
Stove evergreens with white flowers. Cuttings
in sand, under a glass, in bottom-heat ; sandy
loam and peat. Summer temp., 60 to 85;
winter, 48 to 55.
H . longiflo'ra (long - flowered) . l. March.
West Indies. 1/89.
tetra'ndra (four-stamened). l. June. Ja-
HI'KDSIA. (Named after R. B. Hinds,
a promoter of botany. Nat, ord., Cin-
chonads [Cinchonaceoe]. Linn., b-Pen-
tandria \-Monoyynia. Allied to Ron-
Greenhouse evergreen shrubs from Brazil.
Cuttings of young shoots, in sand, under a bell-
glass, in bottom-heat. Summer temp., 60 to
85 ; winter, 48 to 55.
H. longiflo'ra (long-flowered). 2. Blue. Au-
a'lba (white -flowered}. 2. White.
viola'cea (violet-coloured). 3. Violet. May.
HIPPEA'STRUM. Equestrian Star.
(From hippeus, a knight, and astron, a
star ; referring to one of the species, !
equestrts. Nat. ord., Amaryllids [Araa- I
ryllidaceffi]. Linn., Q-Hcxandria 1-Mo- \
noyynia. Allied to Habranthus.)
This genus of bulbs has no affinity with Ama-
ryllis, with which the species are often con-
founded. Offsets; sandy loam, peat, and
leaf-mould. Temp., 60 to 80 when growing ;
40 to 50 when at rest.
H. Banhsia'num (Banks's). Pink. October.
Forbe'sii (Forbes'). 2. Purple, white. July.
Cape of Good Hope. 1823.
purpu'reum (Forbes' purple). 2.
Purple. July. Cape of Good Hope.
formosi'ssimum (handsomest). 1. Dark
red. July. North America. 1658.
Jupo'nicum (Japan). Yellow. July. Japan.
linea'tum (lined). . April. South Ame-
*-pudi'cuin (modest). 1. Pink. June. Cape
of Good Hope. 1795.
Slateria'nn (Slater's). Red. March. Cape '
Of Good Hope. 1844.
H. ambi'guum (ambiguous). White and red.
longiflo'rum (long - flowered^.
Whitish and purple. June. Lima. 1836.
ano'malum (anomalous). Crimson, green.
au'Ucum (courtly). l. Green, crimson.
May. Brazil. 1810.
glaucophy'llum (milky - green-
leaved). Crimson, green.
platype'tahim (broad-petaled). 2,
Crimson, green. August. Brazil. 1824.
bar ba' turn (bearded-tfwAe). White, green.
breviflo'ncm (short-flowered). 3. White,
red. April. Buenos Ayres. 1836.
5wJ6/o'sw (many-bulbed). Orange. Brazil.
qcwnina'tum (pointed-pet aled] .
eroca'tum (saffron-coloured). 1.
April. Brazil. 1815.
- - fu'lgidum (shining). 1. Light
orange. April. Brazil. 1810.
- - igne'scens (fiery). Red, orange.
- ru'tilum (refulgent). 1. Orange,
scarlet. April. Brazil.
calyptru'tum (hooded). 1^. Green, red.
June. Brazil. 1816.
eque'stre (equestrian). 1. Orange, green.
August. West Indies. 1/10.
- - ma'jor (larger). 2. Orange, green.
August. West Indies. 1/10.
- - semiple'nurn (half - double). 2.
Orange, green. August. Cuba. ISOp.
hy'bridum (hybrid). Numerous cross breed
interme'dia (intermediate). 2. Striped.
August. Brazil. 1821.
kerrnesi'na (carmine). June. Brazil. 1833.
minia'tum (vermilion). 1. Vermilion.
June. Peru. 1825.
Organe'nse (Organ Mountain). Crimson,
white. Brazil. 1841.
- - compre'ssum (flattened). Red,
psittaci'num (parrot). 2. Green, scarlet.
July. Brazil. 1816.
regi'um (queen's. Mexican Lily], 2. Scar-
let. May. Mexico. 1725.
reticula'tum (netted-veined). 1. Scarlet,
April. Brazil. 1777.
- - striat if o Hum (white-striped.'
leaved). 1. Purple. August. Brazil.
retine'rvia (netted-nerved). 2. Scarlet. May.
West Indies. 1822.
solundriflo'rum (Solander- flowered). 1^.
White, green. May. Guiana. 183p.
- - - - ; - Htri
ntylo'sum (tow#-styled). I. Red. April.
varia'bilis (variable). 1. Red. White. June.
Cape of Good Hope. 1821.
vitta'tum (striped-flowered}. White, red.
- latifo'lium (broad-leaved). White,
HI'PPION. (From h'rppicc, the name
of a herb from Pliny, which, he said,
if put into a horse's mouth makes him
insensible to hunger or thirst. Nat.
ord., Gentiamrorts [Gentianaoete].
5- Pentandria \-Monogyn ia. )
Stove biennials ; sown in a hotbed, in spring,
or the end of summer, and carefully kept in
stove^ and greenhouses during the winter, they
will bloom early the following season.
H. hyssopifo'lium (Hyssop-leaved). 1. Tawny.
July. East Indies. 1825.
verticilla'tum (whorled). 1$. White. July.
visco'sum (clammy). 2. Yellow. June.
HIPPOBRO'MA. (From hippos, a horse,
and bromoSj poison. Nat. ord., Soap-
worts [Sapindacese]. Linn., 5 Pentan-
Stove herbaceous perennials, with white
flowers. Cuttings, suckers, and division of the
roots ; sandy loam, peat, and decayed, but dry,
cow- dung. Summer temp., 60 to 80 ; winter,
48 to 55. If forced on in spring, they will
bloom in the greenhouse. The plants are
poisonous even to the touch, and should, there-
fore, be carefully handled.
H. brevifio'rum (short-flowered). July. South
longiflo'rum (long-flowered). May. West
HIPPOCRE'PIS. Horse-shoe Vetch.
(From hippos, a horse, and crepis, a
shoe ; referring to the form of the seed-
pod. Nat. ord., Leguminous Plants
[Fabacece], Linn., Y! -Diadelphia -i-De-
Hardy pea-blossomed yellow-flowered plants.
The annuals merely require sowing in the open
border, in March or April ; the herbaceous
trailers require dividing at a similar period :
bnlearica is the only shrub, it resembles and
requires similar treatment to the Coronilla,
needing a cold pit, or a greenhouse, in winter.
H. bnleu'rica (Balearic). 2. May. Minorca.
como'sa (tufted). $. April. England.
glau'ca (milky-green). $. May. Italy.
1819. Perennial trailer.
helvetica (Swiss-tufted). $. May. Swit-
zerland. 1819- Perennial trailer.
multisiliquo'sa (many-podded). 1. July.
South Europe. 1570. Annual.
HIPPO'PHAE. Sea Buckthorn. (From
hippos, a horse, and phao, to kill. Nat.
ord., Oleasters [Elaaagnaceee]. Linn.,
22-Ditecia -Tetrandria. Allied to Shep-
Hardy deciduous shrubs. Layers, suckers,
cuttings of the roots, and seeds ; common soil.
These are first-rate shrubs for the sea coast, for
fixing sands along with core* and other grasses.
H. rhamnoi'des (Rhamnus-like). 12. May.
2. May. South England.
salicifo'lia (Willow -leaved). 8.
HIILE'A. (Named after De la Hire,
a French botanist. Nat. ord., Mal-
pighiads [Malpighiaceffi]. Linn., 10-
Stove climbers. Cuttings of firm young
shoots, in sand, under a bell-glass, in bottom-
heat ; sandy fibry loam, and fibry peat, with a
little freestone or charcoal. Summer temp.,
60 to 90 ; winter, 50 to 60.
H. glance 1 scens (milky-green). Yellow.
l'ndica( Indian). 10. White. July.
nu'tans (nodding). 10. White.
East Indies. 1820.
odora'ta (sweet-scented). 8. Yellow. Guinea.
redina'ta (leaning). 10. Yellow. July.
HOE. This is the implement which
should be most frequently in the gar-
dener's hand, for the surface of the
soil scarcely can be too frequently stir-
red. The handles should never be
made of heavy wood, for this wearies
the hand, and is altogether a useless
weight thrown upon the workman. It
is merely the level*, and every ounce
needlessly given to this, diminishes,
without any necessity, the available
moving power. The best woods for
handles are birch or deal.
1 For earthing up plants, broad blades
to hoes are very admissible, and they
may, without objection, have a breadth
of nine inches ; but for loosening the
soil and destroying weeds, they should
never extend to beyond a breadth of
six inches, and the work will be done
best by one two inches narrower. The
iron plate of which they are formed
should be well steeled, and not more
than one-sixteenth of an inch thick.
The weight necessary should be thrown
by the workman's arm and body upon
the handle, and the thicker the blade,
the greater is the pressure required to
make it penetrate the soil. It should
be set on the handle at an angle of (in ,
as this brings its edge at a good cutting
angle with the surface of the soil, and
the workman soon learns at what point
[ 487 ]
most effectively to throw his weight,
and holds the handle further from, or
nearer to the blade, accordingly as he
is a tall or short man. Mr. Barnes, of
Bicton Gardens, employs nine sized
hoes, the smallest having a blade not
more than one-fourth of an inch broad,
and the largest ten inches. The smallest
are used for potted plants and seed-
beds, and those from two inches and a
half to four inches wide are used for
thinning and hoeing among crops ge-
nerally. These have all handles vary-
ing in length from eight inches and a
half to eighteen inches, all the neck
or upper part formed of iron, for the
smaller sizes not thicker than a large
pencil, and that part Avhich has to be
grasped by the workman is only six
inches long, and formed either of wil-
low or some other soft light wood,
which is best to the feel of the hand.
Each labourer works with one in each
hand, to cut right and left. The blade
is made thin, and with a little foresight
and activity it is astonishing how much
ground can be got over in a short time.
Mr. Barnes has all his hoes made
with a crane neck, as in the accompany-
ing sketch No. 1. The blades broader
than four inches Mr. Barnes has made
like a Dutch hoe, No. !i.
No. 1. No. 2.
The crane neck allows the blade to
pass freely under the foliage of any
crop where the earth requires loosen-
ing; and the blade works itself clean,
allowing the earth to pass through, as
there is no place for it to lodge and
clog up as in the old-fashioned hoe, to
clean which, when used of a dewy
morning, causes the loss of much time.
The thrust, or Dutch hoe, consists
of a plate of iron attached somewhat
obliquely to the end of a handle by a
bow, used only for killing weeds or
loosening ground which is to be after-
wards raked. As a man can draw more
than he can push, most heavy work will
be easiest done by the draw-hoe.
In the island of Guernsey a very
effective weeding -prong is used, some-
thing in the shape of a hammer, the
head flattened into a chisel an inch
wide, and the fork the same. The
whole length of this prong is nine
inches, and it is attached to a statf five
feet long. Such an implement is light
and easy to use, it requires no stoop-
ing, and will tear up the deepest-rooted
HOFFMANSE'GGIA (Named after J.
C.Hojfmansegg. Nat. or A., Leguminous
Plants [Fabaceee]. Linn., 10-Decandria
1 -Monogynia. )
Stove, yellow, pea-blossomed, evergreens.
Cuttings of young shoots, in sand, in bottom-
heat ; also division of the plant in spring ;
peat and loam. Summer temp., 60 to 80 ;
winter, 50 to 55.
H.falca'ria (sickle-leaved). 2. July. Chili.
prostru'ta (trailing). July. Lima.
HOHENBE'EGIA. (Named after M.
Hohcnbery, a German botanist. Nat.
orA.,Bromelworts [Bromeliaceffi]. Linn.,
G-Hexandria \-Monogynia. Allied to
Stove herbaceous perennial. Suckers, and
dividing the plant ; peat and loam. Summer
temp., 60 to 85, with plenty of moisture ;
winter, 50 to 55, and rather dry. When heat
and moisture are applied in the spring, the
flower-stems will shortly appear, if the plant
was well exposed to the sun in summer, and
water gradually withheld in autumn.
H. strobila'cece (coned). Yellow. May. South
HOI'TZIA. (From hoitzil, its Peruvian
name. Nat. ord., Phloxtvorts [Polemo-
niacese]. Linn., b-Pentandria \-Mono-
gynia. Allied to Ipomopsis.)
Greenhouse evergreen shrubs from Mexico.
Cuttings of half-ripened shoots, in sand, under
a glass ; fibry peat and sandy loam. Winter
temp., 40 to 45.
H. ceeru'lea (blue). 1. Blue. June. 1824.
cocci'nea (scarlet). 3. Scarlet. 1824.
glandulo'sa (glanded). 2. Pale red. June,
Mexica'na (Mexican). 3. Scarlet. 1824.
HOLARBHE'NA. (From holos, entii-e,
and arrhen, a male ; referring to the
anthers. Nat. ord., Dogbanes [Apocy-
naceee]. Linn., h-Pentandria 1-Mono-
gynia. Allied to Alstonia.)
Stove evergreen. Cuttings of young shoots, as
fresh growth has commenced, in sand, under a
bell-glass, and in bottom-heat; peat and loam.
Summer temp., 60 to 80 ; winter, 48 to 55.
H. villo'sa (shaggy), East Indies, 1820.
HOLBO'LLIA. (Named after JF. L.
Holboll, of the Royal Botanic Gardens,
Copenhagen. Nat. ord., Lardizabalads
[Lardizabalacere]. Linn., %I-Moncecia
6-Hexandria. Allied to Akebia.)
Greenhouse climbers from Nepaul, valued
for the fragrance of their dull flowers. Their
fruit is eaten in India. Cuttings of half-
ripened young shoots, in sandy soil, under a
glass ; open sandy loam, with a little peat ; will
stand in a cool greenhouse in winter, and pro-
bably would twine up the wires of a conser-
vative wall in summer.
H. aeumina'ta (pointed-leqfleted). Purplish.
ungustifo'lia (narrow - leaved). Purple.
latifo'lia (broad-leaved). 10. Green. March.
HOLLY. (I'lex aqnifo'llum.) Of this
hardy evergreen shrub there are eight
varieties : 1, silver-edged ; 2, golden-
edged ; 3, thick-leaved ; 4, prickly ;
5, yellow-leaved ; C, variegated ; 7, spot-
ted ; 8, recurved.
The holly will not thrive in any poor,
light, sandy soil, or in a swampy situa-
tion, but likes a strong, deep, dry, loamy
soil. If grown as single ornamental
shrubs, they should not be over-sha-
dowed by other trees ; and if the land
is manured, so much the better. As to
pruning it, with a view to make it grow
fast, the less you do of that the better.
All that is necessary is to encourage
the leader, if necessary, by stopping any
laterals that try to interfere with it.
The most expeditious way of making
holly. hedges is to procure large plants
from some nursery ; but, with the
smallest expense and more time, the
following may be recommended:
Gather a sufficient quantity of berries
when ripe; then dig a hole three or
four feet deep, and throw the berries
in, crushing and mixing them with
some fine soil at the same time ; close
the hole with the soil taken out, and
throw some litter, or other covering,
over the whole, to prevent the wet or
frost penetrating. Take them up and
sow them in March. They will make
nice little plants the first season ; and,
by transplanting the stronger ones, you
will have fine plants in about three
Large hollies are best moved about
the thiixl week in August. With a small
cord tie up the lower branches, then
mark a circle two feet from the bole of
the tree, and another circle two feet
beyond the first; the space between
the two circles must have all the soil
dug deeply out of it ; whilst this is
going on, let another labourer be dig-
ging a hole larger than the ball of
the tree will require, making it rather
deeper ; fill in some of the best soil,
chopped line, and mix it with water
till it forms a puddle of the consistence
of thick paint. Gradually undermine
the ball below the roots till it stands
quite loose ; then wrap some garden
mats round, and tie the ball firmly to-
gether with a strong rope ; then wrap
the stem round as near the soil as pos-
sible with some old carpet or sacking ;
tie to the stem at that part a stout pole
eight or nine feet long ; then lower the
tree gently down, and let as many men
as are necessary to carry it take hold
of the pole and remove the tree to its
place, letting it down gently into the
hole amongst the puddle, taking care
that it is not below, but rather above
the general level ; fill in good soil round
the ball after the tree is set upright,
and the mats, ties, etc., removed. Mix
this soil with water till it is a puddle
like the bottom ; secure the tree with
I props to prevent the winds from shak-
The best time for cutting hollies
is early in the spring, about the end
of February, before they have begun
to shoot. Never clip them with shears,
but cut them in with a sharp knife.
HOLLYHOCK. (Allha'a ro'sea.) J3y
Cuttings. These are made from the
', young shoots that rise from the base of
the strong flower stems. They may be
formed of the tops only, or, if the
young shoots are long, they may be cut
into lengths of two joints each, remov-
ing the lower leaf, and shortening in
! the upper one. To cause them to
i send forth roots, a gentle hotbed should
i be made, either of well-fermented dung,
tanner's old bark, or fresh fallen leaves.
1 As soon as the heat, is moderated, place
[ 480 ]
the frame upon it, and a covering of
dry saw dust upon the bed within the
the frame to the depth of five inches.
Then prepare the cuttings, put them
round the edge of pots filled with moist
sandy loam, press the earth close to
the bottom of each cutting, and fill up
the holes with a little more soil. Then
plunge them nearly up to the rim in the
saw dust, but give no water because
they are very full of sap, and would
damp oif immediately. Shade closely,
and give no air excepting a little at the
back to let out the steam for an hour
in the morning. In six weeks they
will begin to show signs of growth, and
should tli en have a little water given
them without wetting the leaves. When
roots are formed, pot them off into
small pots, place them in a cold frame
kept close, and shaded for a week or
two. Then gradually inure them to
hear the full sun and give plenty of
air, and moderate but constant supplies
of water. They are then ready for
planting out. The best time to per-
form this is in early spring, but it may
be done also in August, so as to have
them rooted before the winter sets in.
By Division. Large, strong plants,
with numerous shoots, may be taken
up as soon as they have done flowering,
and be divided with a strong knife. Care
must be taken that each division has a
good share of roots, and at least one
shoot to it. Plant these divisions in a
bed in a shady part of the garden, but
not under the drip of trees. They
may remain here till March, and then
are ready to plant out in the place
where they are to flower.
By Seed. Save seed from the most
double and best coloured flowers.
Clean it from the husks, and keep it
in a dry drawer, or in a bag hung up
in a dry room. Sow early in March in
shallow wide pans, in a gentle heat.
When the seedlings are so large as to
be readily handled, transplant them
either into boxes three inches apart,
or prepare a bed of rich earth in a
frame without heat, and plant them
out in it at the same distance from
each other. As soon as the weather
will permit, make a sufficiently large
piece of ground very rich with well de-
composed hotbed dung, in a dry, open
part of the garden. Take the plants
up carefully with a garden trowel, keep-
ing as much earth as possible, to each.
Carry them, a few at a time, in a basket
to the prepared ground, and plant them
out in rows two feet apart, and one foot
between each plant. There they may
remain till they flower. Then mark
such as are well shaped and bright
coloured; cut them down and plant
them in the place where they are to
flower next season, giving a name to
Write in a book kept for the purpose
a description of each, both of shape
and colour. Single and badly shaped
flowers throw away at once.
Soil. They must have a dry, deep
soil, enriched with plenty of manure. If
the situation is damp, they will die off
in the winter, unless well drained, and
the bed elevated above the natural level.
Summer Culture. When the plants
begin to grow in the spring, give them
a mulching about two inches thick,
with some light littery manure. This
will protect the roots from the drying
winds, and strengthen the flower shoots.
Place tall, strong stakes to them in
good time, and as they advance in
growth, tie the shoots separately to the
stakes regularly, but not too tightly,
and leave room for the stems to swell.
During dry weather, give, once a week,
a thorough good watering. If the flowers
are intended for exhibition in spikes,
cut off their extreme ends. This will
cause the flowers to form a fine pyramid
of bloom, and make them open more
equally and much larger.
Winter Culture. Cut down the flower
stem as early as possible after the
bloom is over, and the seed is ripened.
Dig the ground between the plants,
leaving it moderately rough to mellow
with the weather, adding a dressing of
well-decomposed manure. Before the
severe frosts are likely to set in, give a
mulching of light half-decayed dung ;
closing it round the plants. This will
keep the roots warm through the frosty
weather, and will enrich the ground as
Insects. The yreen fly will, in dry
seasons, attack the leaves and young
shoots. See Aphis. Slugs will also
attack the young shoots. They must
be diligently sought for and destroyed,
or, if very numerous, give the ground a
watering with clear lime water occa-
sionally. In new ground, a brown grub
is sometimes very destructive hy eating
off the young shoots just level with the
ground. Nothing will kill these except
hand-picking, the soil must be stirred
with the hand, and the insects found
Diseases. Sometimes they die off
suddenly, the consequence of a too
rich or too damp soil. Whenever a
plant is struck with this disease it
should he instantly removed. If it has
any young healthy shoots they may be